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published in three volumes, 

1768— 1771. 



» ten 


1777— 1784. 



,, eighteen 


1788— 1797. 



„ twenty 


l80I l8lO. 



,, twenty 





„ twenty 


l823 1824. 



„ twenty-one 


183O 1842. 



„ twenty-two 


l8S3 — l860. 



„ twenty-five 


I875— 1889. 



ninth edition and eleven 
supplementary volumes, 

I902 I9O3. 



published in twenty-nine volumes, 



in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 



, of the 

All rights reserved 











New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 


The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 




A. E. G.* Rev. Alfred Ernest Garvie, M.A., D.D. f 

Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and J Heresv (in 6ar£\ 
the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life | pan), 

of Jesus, &c. L 

Henry Austin Dobson, LL.D. I Hogarth. 

See the biographical article, Dobson, H. A. L 

Alfred Edward Thomas Watson. f w n rc« Bo»imr c * ,\ 

Editor of the Badminton Library and Badminton Magazine. Formerly Editor J « or5 «;-Kacing \m part); 
of the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News. Author of The Racing World and Hunting. 
its Inhabitants: &c. 

Algernon Charles Swinburne. J Hugo Victor. 

See the biographical article, Swinburne, A. C. I ' 

Arthur Ernest Cowley, M.A., Litt.D. / Hebrew Language; 

Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College. \ Hebrew Literature. 

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. ("Heath, Nicholas; 

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls Henry VIII. of England* 
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- -\ rr nnn -, t}! C \,„„. ' 

iqoi. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford), 1892, Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of England cooper, msaof, 
under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII. ; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. I Humphrey, Lawrence. 

A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. J Hofmann, Melchior; 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. I Hotman. 

A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce; D.D. , Litt.D., LL.D. /Humboldt Karl W. Von. 

See the biographical article, Sayce, A. H. \ ' 

A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, CLE. f „___,,_ , . . 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. \ Hormuz (m part). 

A. J. H. Alfred J. Hipkins, F.S.A. (1826-1003). r 

Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College of Music, 
London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; of -j Harp {in part). 
the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of Musical I 
Instruments; &c. 




E. T. 






A. P. P. 

A. L. 

Andrew Lang. J Hauntings. 

See the biographical article, Lang, Andrew. I 

A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke. 

See the biographieal article, Clerke, A. M. 

A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred. 

A. SI. Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D.', LL.D., F.R.CP. 

Herschel, Sir F. W. (in part); 
Herschel, Sir J. F. W. 

(in part). 
Hevelius; Hipparehus; 
Horrocks; Huggins; 

Harpy; Harrier; Hawfinch; 
Hawk; Heron; Hoactzin; 
Honeyeater; Honey Guide; 
Hoopoe; Hornbill; 

IUR SHADWELL, 1VI. A., 1V1.JJ., L,L,.D., r.K.U.r. r 

Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of Industrial Efficiency ; J Housing. 
The London Water Supply; Drink, Temperance and Legislation. | 

A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland. f Henry IV.: Roman Emperor; 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. < Hide; Hohenzollern; 

[Honorius II.; Anti-Pope. 

A. W. W. Adolphus William Ward, Litt.D., LL.D. r 

See the biographical article, Ward, A. W. \ Hrosvitha. 

C. A. M. F. Charles Augustus Maude Fennell, M.A., Litt.D. f 

Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Editor of Pindar's Odes and Frag- -j Hercules. 
ments; and of the Stanford Dictionary of Anglicised Words and Phrases. [ 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final- volume. 


C. B.* 
C. El. 

C. F. A. 
C. H. Ha. 
C. J. L. 

C. L. K. 

C. Mo. 
C. P. 


Charles Bemont, Litt.D. (Oxon.). JHavet; 

See the biographical article, Bemont, C. \ Hozier. 

Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. r 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, HlSSar (in part); 
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East -j Hungary: Language; 
Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; and Consul-General Huns. 
for German East Africa, 1900-1904. I 

Charles Francis Atkinson, 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st 
(Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City, 
of the American Historical Association. ' 

City of London 1 Hohenlohe (in part). 

Member ] Honorius II., III., IV. 


Hindostani Literature. 

J Henry IV., V., VI.: 

[ of England. 

1 Hunt, W. Holman. 

Herschel, Sir P. W. 

(in part) ; 
Herschel, Sir J. F, 

(in part). 











Author i Hunald. 

Hayton; Henry 
the Navigator. 

Hayes, Rutherford B. 

D. B. M. 
D. F. T. 

D. Gi. 

D. G. H. 

D. H. 
D. Mn. 

D. S.* 

E. C. B. 
E. D. B. 

Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., CLE., LL.D. (Edin.). 

Secretary Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King's College 
London. Secretary to Government of India, Home Department, 1889-1894. " 
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of Translations 
of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c. 

Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. 
Editor of Chronicles of London, and Stow's Survey of London. 

William Cosmo Monkhouse. 

See the biographical article, Monkhouse, W. C. 

Rev. Charles Pritchard, M.A. 

See the biographical article, Pritchard, Charles. 

Christian Pfister, D.-es-L. 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, 
of Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt. 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. 

Carl Schurz, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Schurz, Carl. ' 

Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S, (1836-1907). 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary- 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General" 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of 
Lord Clive ; &c. 

David Binning Monro, M.A., Ltrr.D. 

See the biographical article, Monro, David Binning. 

Donald Francis Tovey. f 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The< Harmony. 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. |_ 

Sis David Gill, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., D.Sc. 

H.M. Astronomer at Cape of Good Hope, 1879-1907. Served in Geodetic Survey 
of Egypt, and on the expedition to Ascension Island to determine the Solar 
Parallax by observations of Mars. Directed Geodetic Survey of Natal, 1 Cape Colony 
and Rhodesia. Author of Geodetic Survey of South Africa ; Catalogues of Stars for 
the Equinoxes (1850, i860, 1885, 1890, 1900); &c. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 
1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History' of the Royal 
Navy ; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c. 


Hierapolis (in part). 




Heraclea (in part); 
Hierapolis (in part); 

Heyn; Hood, Viscount; 
Howe, Earl; Humour. 

Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A. 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. 
Congregational Ideals ; &c. 

. ^, , „ . , . f Henderson, Alexander 
Author of Constructive < , . ' 

(in part). 

David Sharp, M.A., M.B., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Editor of the Zoological Record. Formerly Curator of Museum of Zoology, Univer- J Hexapoda (in part). 
sity of Cambridge. President of Entomological Society of London. Author of | 
" Insecta " (Cambridge Natural History) ; &c. ' I 

Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt. 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius ' 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi. 

Edwin Dampier Brickwood. 
Author of Boat-Racing; &c. 

Hierony mites; 
Hilarion, Saint. 

f Horse: History; 

\ Horse-Racing (in part). 



E. D. Bu. 

E. E. S. 

E. F. S. 




. M. 


M. W 



E. Pr. 



















F. G. S. 


H. B. 


LI. G. 


0. B. 



G. A. Gr. 

G. C. R. 
G. C. W. 

Hungary: Literature 
(in part). 

Edward Dundas Butler. 

Formerly Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. Foreign 
Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Author of Hungarian Poems and 
Fables for English Readers ; &c. *- 

Ernest Edward Sikes, M.A. f „„.„.,„. 

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer, St John's College, Cambridge. Newton Student at J nepnaesius, 
Athens, 1890. Editor of the Prometheus Vinctus of Aeschylus, and of The Homeric ] Hera; Hermes. 
Hymns. L 

Edward Fairbrother Strange. f 

Assistant- Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of J Hiroshige; 

Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor | Hokusai. 
of Bell's " Cathedral " Series. I 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Gosse, Edmund, W. 

f Heroic Romances; 
i Heroic Verse; 
[Herrick; Holberg. 

Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D. f" 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte < Hormizd. 
des Alterthums ; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens ; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstdmme. { 

Herodotus (in part). 

Heart: Surgery; 

■I Hungary: Literature (in part), 

Rev. Edward Mewburn Walker, M.A. J 

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's College, Oxford. I 

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and io the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner " 
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of 
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

Edgar Prestage. ~ r 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature at the University of Manchester. Com- J Herculano de CarvalnO 6 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon | Araiyo. 
Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society. I 

Emil Reich, Doc.Juris., F.R. Hist. S. 

Author of Hungarian Literature ; History of Civilization ; &c. 

Edwyn Robert Bevan, M.A. f 

New College, Oxford. Author of Tlie House of Seleucus ; Jerusalem under the High -j Hellenism. 
Priests. I 

Felice Barnabei, Litt.D. f „ 

Formerly Director of Museum of Antiquities at Rome. Author of archaeological "j HeTCUlaneum. 
papers in Italian reviews and in the Athenaeum. I 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen). f 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow pf University College, Oxford. -{ Holy Water. 
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. I 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. 

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. 
Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

F. G. Stephens. 

Formerly art critic of the Athenaeum. Author of Artists at Home; George Cruik- 
shank; Memorials of W. Mulready; French and Flemish Pictures; Sir E. Landseer; 
T. C. Hook, R.A.; &c. 

■i Heruli. 

-j Heart: Anatomy. 

Holl, Frank. 

f Honey; Hunter, John; 
\ Hunter, William. 

Francis Henry Butler, M.A. 

Worcester College, Oxford. Associate of the Royal School of Mines. 

Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A. , Ph.D., f.S. A. f Heliopolis- 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey J w „ pm£ . c Tricmoaicfiic 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 1 " ermes msmeglSlUS, 
German Archaeological Institute. l_ Horus. 

Frederick Orpen Bower, D.Sc, F.R.S. r 

Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. Author of Practical } Hofmeister. 
Botany for Beginners. [ 

Frank Puaux. r 

President of the Societe de l'Histoire du Protestantisme frangais. Author of J __ . 

Les Precurseurs francais de la tolerance ; Hisloire de I'ctablissement des protestants 1 Huguenots. 
franQais en Suede ; L'Eglise reformee de France ; &c. [ 

George Abraham Grierson, CLE. Ph.D., D.Litt. 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey 

of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of ^ HindostariT. 

the Royal Asiatic Society Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of 

The Languages of India ; &c. 

George Croom Robertson, M.A. 

See the biographical article, Robertson, G. 

George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. 

Hobbes, Thomas (in part). 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard J I r-„. a _j' H -„ k .i,.. n^i,;.. 
Cos-way, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition ] " ima ™> Hicnoias, H0SK1DS. 
of Bryan's Dictionary of Printers and Engravers. 

f Hilliard, Lawrence; 
A Hilliard, Nicholas 
[Humphry, Ozias. 


6. G. S. 

G. E. 

G. H. C. 

G. J. T. 

G. K. 

G. R. 
G. W. T. 


H. Bt 

H. Cta. 

H. De. 

H. L. 
H. L. C. 

H. M. V. 
H. W. C. D. 
H. W. R.* 

H. W. S. 












I. Bt 

George Gregory Smith, M.A. 

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University of Belfast. Author of The- 
Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c. 

Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. . 
Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- 
tion of Literature. 


Holland: History. 
Holland: County and 
Province of. 

George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc. f n.miMoM • 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. President of the) nemipiera. 
Association of Economic Biologists. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. Author ] Hexapoda {-in part). 
of Insects: their Structure and Life ; &c. 

George James Turner. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas for the Forests for the 
Selden Society. 

Gustav Kruger. 

Professor of Church History in 
Papsttum; &c. 

Rev. George Rawlinson, M.A. 

See the biographical article, Rawlinson, George. 

the University of Giessen. Author 


of r(M |HIppolytUB. 

Rev. Grifeithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 

Lord Houghton. 

See the biographical article, Houghton, ist Baron. 

Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D. J „ .. . 

Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. 1 "euano. 
Author of The Story of the Goths ; The Making of English ; &c. *• 

Sir Henry Burdett, K.C.B., K.C.V.O. _ f 

Founder and Editor of The Hospital. Formerly Superintendent of the Queen's - 
Hospital, Birmingham, and the Seamen's Hospital, Greenwich. Author of 
Hospitals and Asylums of the World; &c. 

Hugh Chisholm, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition" 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition. 

Herodotus (in part). 

Hassan ibn Thabit; 
Hisham ibn al-Kalbi. 

i Hood, Thomas. 


Howe, Samuel Gridley. 


Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana ' 
and Acta sanctorum. 

Henri Labrosse. 

Assistant Librarian at the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. Officer of the Academy 

Hugh Longbourne Callendar, F.R.S., LL.D. 

Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of 
Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London. 

Herbert M. Vaughan, F.S.A. 

Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici Popes; 
The Last Stuart Queen. 

Helena, St; Hubert, St. 

J Hugh of 


St Cher. 

Henry, Stuart (Cardinal 

Henry I., II., Ill,: 

Of England. 
Henry of Huntingdon. 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 

Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, M.A. f 

Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, j Hosea (in part). 
Oxford, 1901. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology \ 
(in Mansfield College Essays) ; &c. <■ 

H. Wickham Steed. [ 

Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. Correspondent of The Times at Rome, i Humbert, King. 
1 897-1902. L 

Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B. 

See the biographical article, Yule, Sir H. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudicrand Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. J Herzl; 

Hormuz (in part); 
Hsttan Tsang (in part). 
Hasdai ibn Shaprut; 

Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 

Sir Joseph Archer Crowe, K.C.M.G. 

See the biographical article, Crowe, Sir J. A. 

Very Rev. Joseph Armitage' Robinson, D.D. ___ 

Dean of Westminster. Fellow of the British Academy.^ Hon. Fellow of Christ's 
College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, and Norris- 
ian Professor of Divinity in the University. Author of Some Thoughts on the 
Incarnation; &c. 

James Bartlett. f 

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c, at King's J Heating. 
College, London. Member of Societv Of Architects., Member of Institute of j 
Junior Engineers. I 

Hirsch, Samson R. 
Hobbema; Holbein. 

Hippolytus, The Canons of. 



J. B. T. 
J. Da. 

J. E. 
J. F. F. 
J. F. H. B. 

J. G.* 

J. Ga. 
J. G. M. 

J. G. R. 

J. Hn. 

J. H. A. H. 
J. H. F. 
J. H. Mu. 

J. H. R. 

J. J. F. 
J. K. L. 

J. M. M. 

J. P.-B. 
J. P. Pe. 

J. S. Co. 
J. S. F. 
h T. Be. 

Sir John Batty Tuke, M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.), D.Sc, LL.D. f 

President of the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom. Medical Director J HiDDOcrates 
of New Saughton Hall Asylum, Edinburgh. M. P. for the Universities of Edinburgh | vv 
and St Andrews, 1900-1910. I 

Rev. James Davies, M.A. (1820-1883). f 

Formerly Head Master of Ludlow Grammar School and Prebendary of Hereford . 
Cathedral. Translated classical authors for Bohn's " Classical Library." Author 
of volumes in Collins's Ancient Classics for English Readers. 

Hesiod {in part). 

H. Julius Eggeling, Ph.D. 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, University of 
Formerly Secretary and Librarian to Royal Asiatic Society. 

Edinburgh, i Hinduism. 

John Faithfull Fleet, CLE. 

Commissioner of Central and Southern Divisions of Bombay, 1891-1897. Author'! Hindu Chronology. 
of Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings; &c. 

Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, Bart., M.A., M.D. r 

Physician to Out-Patients, St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Hampstead I Tr oar *. rr , n- 
General Hospital. Assistant Physician to the London Fever Hospital. Author 1 Hearl - Heart Disease. 
of Heart Disease and Aneurysm ; &c. |_ 

Rev. James Gow, M.A., Litt.D. r 

Head Master of Westminster School. Fellow of King's College, London. Formerly] „ , . . 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of Horace's Odes and Satires. Author] uoraee \™ part). 
of A Companion to the School Classics; &c. I. 

Henry VII.: of England. 

James Gairdner, C.B. 

See the biographical article, Gairdner, J. 

John Gray McKendrick, M.D. , LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.P. (Edin.) fHearine- 

Emeritus Professor of Physiology at" the University of Glasgow. Author of Life •{ „ , . ,. 
in Motion ; Life of Helmholtz ; &c. [ HelmnoltZ. 

John George Robertson, M. A., Ph.D. f Heine (in part); 

Professor of German at the University of London. Formerly Lecturer on the English -| Hiidebrand, Lay of" 
Language, Strassburg University. Author of History of German Literature ; &c. Hoffmann E T W 

Justus Hashagen, Ph.D. 

Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of- 
Das Rheinland unter der franzosischen Herrschdft. 

John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A. 

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Freese, M.A. 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Muirhead, M.A. , LL.D. r „ . „ ,. . 

Professor of Philosophy in the University of Birmingham. Author of Elements J Me & el - Hegelianism m 
of Ethics; Philosophy and Life; &c. Editor of Library of Philosophy. } England. 

John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). r 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and J Hereward. 
Pedigree. 1 

Hecker, F. F. K.; 
Hertzberg, Count Von; 
I Hormayr. 

-j Herod; Herodians. 

4 Herald; Hesiod {in part). 

Hecker, I. T. 

Hood of Avalon. 


Hume, David {in part). 

Rev. James J. Fox. 

St Thomas's College, Brookland, D.C., U.S.A. 

Sir John Knox Laughton, M.A., Litt.D. 

Professor of Modern History, King's College, London, Secretary of the Navy 
Records Society. Served in the Baltic, 1854-1855; in China, 1856-1859. Honorary 
Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Fellow, King's College, London. 
Author of Physical Geography in its Relation to the Prevailing Winds and Currents; 
Studies in Naval History; Sea Fights and Adventures; &c. 

John Malcolm Mitchell. 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. 
Editor of the Guardian (London). 

Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D. 

Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in 
the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to 
Babylonia, 1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the 

James Sutherland Cotton, M.A. , 

Editor of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Hon. Secretary of the Egyptian Explora- J „ ,. „. 

tion Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen's College, Oxford. Author | Hastings, Warren. 

of India in the " Citizen " Series; &c. [ 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. r 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. L 

John T. Bealby. r 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical \ Hissar (in part). 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. L 

-j Hepplewhite. 

Hillah; Hit. 




T. C. 


T. Mo. 


T. S.* 




V. B. 






W. F. 


W. Fo 


K. S. 

L H. B. 
L J. S. 

L. W 

M. G. 

M. Ha. 
M. H. C. 

M. N. T. 
M. 0. B. C. 
M. T. M. 

N. D. M. 
0. Ba. 


Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A. ,F.Z.S. 

Lecturer on Zoology at the South- Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow . 
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the 
University of Edinburgh and Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 

John Torrey Morse, Jr. 

Author of The Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. 

Jules Viard. . % 

Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public Instruction. Author 1 WUnared Years War. 

of La France sous Philippe VI. de Valois ; &c. 

James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews). 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic 
Age; &c. 

John Weathers, F.R.H.S. 

Lecturer on Horticulture to the Middlesex County Council. 
Guide to Garden Plants; French Market Gardening; &c. 

James Ward, D.Sc, LL.D. f 

Professor of Mental Philosophy and Logic in the University of Cambridge. Fellow J „ . , 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of the | """a"- 
New York Academy of Sciences. I 

J. Walter Ferrier. f 

Translated George Eliot and Judaism from the German of Kaufmann. Author of A Heine (in Part) 
Mottisclijfe. I r '' 

The Hon. John Watson Foster, A-M., LL.D. f 

Professor of American Diplomatics, George Washington University, Washington, i Harrison, Benjamin. 
U.S.A. Formerly U.S. Secretary of State. Author of Diplomatic Memoirs; &c. I 

Author of Practical 

i Holmes, Oliver WendelL 
-| History. 

Hebrews, Epistle to the; 
Hermas, Shepherd of. 

Hippeastrum; Honeysuckle; 
Horticulture (in part). 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Editor of The Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. 

Author of The Instruments of the 

Harp (in part); 
Harp-Lute; Harpsichord; 
L Horn; Hurdy-Gurdy. 

. J Horticulture: 

Chairman of Roosevelt "i 


Liberty Hyde Bailey, LL.D. 

Director of the College of Agriculture, Cornell University 
Commission on Country Life. 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralo- 
gical Magazine. 

Lucien Wolf. 

Vice-President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Formerly President 
of the Society; Joint-editor of the Bibliotheca Anglo- judaica. 

Moses Gaster, Ph.D. (Leipzig). 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England! Vice-President, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine - 
Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folk lore Society of England. Vice-President 
Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; &c. 

Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. C 

Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of " Protozoa " in Cam- < Heliozoa, 
bridge Natural History; and papers for various scientific journals.: (_ 

Montague Hughes Crackanthorpe, K.C., D.C.L. 

President of the Eugenics Education Society. Honorary Fellow, St John's College, 
Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Formerly Member of the General Council of - 
the Bar and of the Council of Legal Education, and Standing Counsel to the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. 

Marcus Niehbur Tod, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. - 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. L 

Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari. f 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham ■{ Heraelius, 
University, 1905-1908. I 

Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S. (1833-1907). f 

Formerly Editor of Gardeners' Chronicle ; and Lecturer on Botany, St George's Hos- 
pital, London. Author of Plant Life; Botany for Beginners; and numerous mono- 
graphs in botanical works. 

U» part). 

Harmotome; Kemimorphite; 
Heulandite; Hornblende; 

Hirsch, Baron. 


Herschell, 1st Baron. 


Horticulture (in part). 

Newton Dennison Mereness, A.M., 
Author of Maryland as a Proprietary 



f Henry, Patrick; 
\ Homestead and Exemption 
[ Laws. 

Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 
Editor of The Ancestor, 

1 902- 1 905. 

Honourable Society of the Baronetage 
Oscar Briliant. 

f Heraldry; 
Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the J Herbert: family; 

[Howard: family. 

f Hungary: Geography 
\ and Statistics. 



0. c. w. 

P. A. 
P. C. M. 



















S. M 


















. D. 

R. L.* 

R. N. B. 

R. Po. 

R. P. S. 

R. S. C. 

R. S. T. 


Rev. Owen Charles Whitehouse, M.A., D.D. 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Professor of Hebrew, Biblical Exegesis and Theology, 
and Theological Tutor, Cheshunt College. Cambridge. 

Paul Daniel Alphandery. 

Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole pratique des hautes etudes, Sorbonne, 
Paris. Author of Les Idees morales chez les heterodoxes Latines au debut du XIII' 

Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc, LLD. 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1 888-1 891. 
Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. Author of Outlines of 
Biology; &c. 

Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of Letters of Princess Elizabeth of England. 

Peter Henderson (1823-1890). 

Formerly Horticulturist, Jersey City and New York 
Profit; Garden and Farm Topics. 

Philip Henry Pye-Smith, M.D., F.R.S. I 

Consulting Physician to Guy's Hospital, London. Formerly Vice-Chancellor of the -j 
University of London. Joint-author of A Text Book of Medicine ; &c. ' 

Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. I 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly J 
of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian ] 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology. 

Robert Anchel. 

Archivist to the Department de l'Eure. 

Robert Adamson, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Adamson, R. 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- ■ 
tion Fund. 

Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.G., CLE. 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly H.M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Delimi- 
tation, and Superintendent, Survey of India. Served with Tirah* Expeditionary 
Force, 1 897-1 898; Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, Pamirs, 1895; &c. 

Richard Henry Stoddard. 

See the biographical article, Stoddard, Richard Henry. 

Hebrew Religion. 

Henry of Lausanne; 
Hugh of St Victor; 


Holies, Baron. 

,', ,.,.,! Horticulture: American 
Author of Gardening for y CaUndar {in p art) _ 

Harvey, William. 

Himalaya: Geology. 

Herault de Seehelles. 

Hume, David {in part). 

Hebron; Hor, Mt. 

Hasa, El; Hejaz. 

I Hawthorne, Nathaniel. 
J" Harvester; Hibernation. 

Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. C 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's -i Hely-Hutchinson. 
Gazette, London. I , 

Hon. Robert John Strutt, M.A. , F.R.S. f 

Professor of Physics in the Imperial College of Science and Technology, South J Helium. 
Kensington. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. [_ 

Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas. f 

Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum, _ 
and Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Author of The Language and* 
Literature of China ; &c. 

Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of 
Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer 
of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. iqoq). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1$ 13-1900; The First Romanovs - 
1613-172$ ; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 
to 1796 ; Slc. 

Rene Poupardin, D.-es-L. 

Hsttan Tsang {in part). 



Horse {in part); Howler. 

H'opken; Horn, A. B., Count; 
Hungary: History {in part); 
Hunyadi, Janos; 
Hu'nyadi, Laszl6. 

Secretary of the Ecole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliotheque J jij nema « 
Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens ; Recueil\ n,n cmar. 
des chartes de Saint-Germain; &c. I 

R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A. , F.R.I.B. A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, -j HoUSe. 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson' s 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 

Robert Seymour Conway, M.A. , D.Litt. (Cantab.). r _ _ 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J Hernici; 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville 1 Hirpini. 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. { 

Ralph Stockman Tarr. J Hudson River 

Professor of Physical Geography, Cornell University. , I ■■ ■ 


S. P. B. 
S. A* C. 

T. A. I. 
T. As. 

T. Ba. 

iMTMLSi aito amftornGS of articles 




F. H. 




H. H.* 


L. H. 



T. Wo, 
T. W. A. 
W. A. B. C. 

W. A. P. 

















Robert Wallace, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.L.S. 

':'■' : Pr«>fdstSofcof Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh University, and Garton 
Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C.,. 
Cirencester, 1882-1885. Author of Farm Live Stock of Great Britain; The Agricul- 
ture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand; Farming Industries of Cape 
Colony; &c. 

Spencer Fuller-ton Baird, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Baird, S. F. 

Horse (m part). 


Henry, Joseph. 


Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. 

Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscrip- 
tions ; The Laws of Moses and ihe Code of Hammurabi ; Critical Notes en Old Testament 
History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 

Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.). 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. 

Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P. (" 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council] tij-j, q oa « 
of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems | nlsn OBa!> 
of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. I 

J Holiday. 

Heraclea (in part)- 



Thomas Brown. 

Incorporated Weaving, Dyeing and Printing College, Glasgow. 

T. F. Henderson. 

Author of The Casket Letters and Mary Queen of Scots; Life of Robert Burns; &c. 

Thomas Gilray, M.A. 

Formerly Professor of Modern History and English Literature, University College, < 
Dundee. • |_ 

Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., Hon. D.Sc. 
Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., 
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's 
Award; India; Tibet; &c. 

Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., D.Sc. 

Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- " 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, 
University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor' 
of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; 
joint-author of Bookman History of English Literature; &c. 

Thomas Woodhouse. 

Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee. "^ 

Thomas William Allen, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Queen's College, Oxford. Joint-editor of The Homeric Hymns. \ ' 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A. , F.R.G.S., Ph.D. THautes Alpes* 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's I xi_„f c», „• .' 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature') H auie-aavoie, 
and in History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1 880-1 889. [ Herzog, Hans. 

4 Hooker, Richard. 

[Henderson, Alexander 

(in part). 

Helmund; Herat; 
Hindu Kush. 

Hero of Alexandria. 

Hayward> Abraham; 
Hughes, Thomas. 

-I Hose-Pipe. 

Si -j Homer Q n part). 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

rHohenlohe (in part). 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Mer'ton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, J Holy A1,iance > Tne : 
Oxford. Author oi Modern Europe; &c. Hononus I.; 

[Hungary: History (in part). 

William Bacher, D.Ph. 

Professor of Biblical Studies at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest. 


William Fream, LL.D. (d. 1907). r„ . 

Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of Edinburgh, and J ™°P' 
Agricultural Correspondent of The Times. 1 Horse (in part). 

William Feilden Craies, M.A. r 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law at King's College, J Homicide. 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd ed.). [ 

Walter George Headlam (1866- 1908). r 

Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Editor of Herodas. Translator of the plays J Herodas. 
of Aeschylus. 1 

Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S. f _ 

t See the biographical article, Flower, Sir W. H. ^ *"TSe \m part). 

William Henry Hadow, M.A., Mus.Doc. r 

Principal, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Formerly Fellow and Tutor) tj„ v j_ 
of Worcester College, Oxford. Member of Council, Royal College of Music. Editor 1 Ma J an * 
of Oxford History of Music. Author of Studies in Modern Music; &c. | 



















Howe, Joseph. 


j Harris, Thomas Lake. 
j Hosea 

W. L. G. William Lawson Grant, M.A. 

Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in . 
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council, Colonial 
Series ; Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration). L 

William Michael Rossetti JHaydon, Benjamin Robert. 

See the biographical article, Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. L 

William Price James. 

University College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. High Bailiff of County Courts, -j Henley, W. E. 
Cardiff. Author of Romantic Professions ; &c. 

Sir William Robertson Nicoll, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Nicoll, Sir W. R. 

William Robertson Smith, LL.D. H .. 

See the biographical article, Smith, William Robertson. "^nosea [m part). 

William Ralston Shedden-Ralston, M.A. J" 

Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. Author of Russian ~i Hertzen. 
Folk Tales ; &c. I 

W. R. W. William Robert Worthington Williams, F.L.S. f 

Superintendent of London County Council Botany Centre. Assistant Lecturer J tinrtipnHnro t m *■ -A 
in Botany, Birkbeck College (University of London). Member of the Geologists' | norucuuure U» part). 
Association. I 

W. T. H. William Tod Helmtjth, M.D., LL.D. (d. iooi). 

Formerly Professor of Surgery and Dean of the Homoeopathic and Medical College 
and Hospital New York. President of the Collins State Homoeopathic Hospital. 
Sometime President of the American Institute of Homoeopathy and the New York 
State Homoeopathic Medical Society. Author of Treatise on Diphtheria; System 
of Surgery ; &c. 

W. W. William Wallace, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, WALLACE, WlLLIAM (1844-1897). 

W. Wr. Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D. 

Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congrega- 
tional Churches in the United States ; The Reformation ; John Calvin ; &c. 

W. Y. S. William Young Sellar, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Sellar, W. Y. 


4 Hegel 

{in part). 


Hopkins, Samuel. 

Horace (in pari). 





Harvard University. 

Harz Mountains. 







Hebrides, The. 

Heidelberg Catechism. 













High Place. 









Household, Royal. 

Hudson's Bay Company. 





HARMONY (Gr. apuovia, a concord of musical sounds, 
apfiofav to join; apjMVLK-q (sc. rexvif) meant the science or 
art of music, novaiK-q being of wider significance), a combination 
of parts so that the effect should be aesthetically pleasing. In 
its earliest sense in English it is applied, in music, to a pleasing 
combination of musical sounds, but technically it is confined 
to the science of the combination of sounds of different pitch. 

I. Concord and Discord. — By means of harmony modern 
music has attained the dignity of an independent art. In ancient 
times, as at the present day among nations that have not come 
under the influence of European music, the harmonic sense was, 
if not altogether absent, at all events so obscure and undeveloped 
as to have no organizing power in the art. The formation by 
the Greeks of a scale substantially the same as that which has 
received our harmonic system shows a latent harmonic sense, 
but shows it in a form which positively excludes harmony as an 
artistic principle. The Greek perception of certain successions 
of sounds as concordant rests on a principle identifiable with the 
scientific basis of concord in simultaneous sounds. But the 
Greeks did not conceive of musical simultaneity as consisting of 
anything but identical sounds; and when they developed the 
practice of magadizing — i.e. singing in octaves — they did so 
because, while the difference between high and low voices was 
a source of pleasure, a note and its octave were then, as now, 
perceived to be in a certain sense identical. We will now start 
from this fundamental identity of the octave, and with it trace 
the genesis of ether concords and discords; bearing in mind 
that the history of harmony is the history of artistic instincts 
and not a series of progressive scientific theories. 

The unisonous quality of octaves is easily explained when we 
examine the " harmonic series " of upper partials (see Sound). 
Every musical sound, if of a timbre at all rich (and hence 
pre-eminently the human voice), contains some of these upper 
partials. Hence, if one voice produce a note which is an upper 

Ex. i. — The notes 
marked * are out of 




i 2 3 4 s 6 7 8 9 10 ii 12 

partial of another note sung at the same time by another voice, 
the higher voice adds nothing new to the lower but only rein- 
forces what is already there. Moreover, the upper partials of the 

higher voice will also coincide with some of the lower. Thus, 
if a note and its octave be sung together, the upper octave is 
itself No. 2 in the harmonic series of the lower, No. 2 of its own 
series is No. 4 of the lower, and its No. 3 is No. 6, and so on. The 
impression of identity thus produced is so strong that we often 
find among people unacquainted with music a firm conviction 
that a man is singing in unison with a boy or an instrument when 
he is really singing in the octave below. And even musical 
people find a difficulty in realizing more than a certain brightness 
and richness of single tone when a violinist plays octaves per- 
fectly in tune and with a strong emphasis on the lower notes. 
Doubling in octaves therefore never was and never will be a 
process of harmonization. 

Now if we take the case of one sound doubling another in the 
1 2th, it will be seen that here, too, no real addition is made by 
the higher sound to the lower. The 1 2th is No. 3 of the harmonic 
series, No. 2 of the higher note will be No. 6 of the lower, No. 3 
will be No. 9, and so on. But there is an important difference 
between the 12th and the octave. However much we alter the 
octave by transposition into other octaves, we never get anything 
but unison or octaves. Two notes two octaves apart are just 
as devoid of harmonic difference as a plain octave or unison. 
But, when we apply our principle of the identity of the octave 
to the 1 2th, we find that the removal of one of the notes by an 
octave may produce a combination in which there is a distinct 
harmonic element. If, for example, the lower note is raised by 
an octave so that the higher note is a fifth from it, No. 3 of the 
harmonic series of the higher note will not belong to the lower 
note at all. The 5th is thus a combination of which the two notes 
are obviously different; and, moreover, the principle oLthe 
identity of octaves can now operate in a contrary direction aUd 
transfer this positive harmonic value of the. 5th to the 12th, 
so that we regard the 12th as a 5th plus an octave, instead of 
regarding the 5th as a compressed 12th. 1 At the same time, the 
relation between the two is quite close enough to give the 5th 
much of the feeling of harmonic poverty and reduplication that 
characterizes the octave; and hence when medieval musicians 

1 Musical intervals are reckoned numerically upwards along the 
degrees of the diatonic scales (described below). Intervals greater 
than an octave are called compound, and are referred to their simple 
forms, e.g. the 12th is a compound 5th. 


doubled a melody in sths and octaves they believed themselves 
to be doing no more than extending and diversifying the means 
by which a melody might be sung in unison by different voices. 
How they came to prefer for this purpose the 4th to the 5th 
seems puzzling when we consider that the 4th does not appear 
as a fundamental interval in the harmonic series until that series 
has passed beyond that part of it that maintains any relation 
to our musical ideas. But it was of course certain that they 
obtained the 4th as the inversion of the 5th; and it is at least 
possible that the singers of lower voices found a peculiar pleasure 
in singing below higher voices in a position which they felt 
harmonically as that of a top part. That is to say, a bass, in 
singing a fourth below a tenor, would take pleasure in doubling 
in the octave an alto singing normally a 5th above the tenor. 1 
This should also, perhaps, be taken in connexion with the fact 
that the interval of the downward 4th is in melody the earliest 
that became settled. And it is worth noticing that, in any 
singing-class where polyphonic music is sung, there is a marked 
tendency among the more timid members to find their way into 
their part by a gentle humming which is generally a 4th below 
the nearest steady singers. 

The limited compass of voices soon caused modifications in 
the medieval parallelisms of 4ths and 5ths, and the introduction 
of independent ornaments into one or more of the voices increased 
to an extent which drew attention to other intervals. It was 
long, however, before the true criterion of concord and discord 
was attained; and at first the notion of concord was purely 
acoustic, that is to say, the ear was sensitive only to the difference 
in roughness and smoothness between combinations in them- 
selves. And even the modern researches of Helmholtz fail to 
represent classical and modern harmony, in so far as the pheno- 
mena of beats are quite independent of the contrapuntal nature 
of concord and discord which depends upon the melodic intelligi- 
bility of the motion of the parts. Beats give rise to a, strong 
physical sense of discord akin to the painfulness of a flickering 
light (see Sound). Accordingly, in the earliest experiments in 
harmony, the ear, in the absence of other criteria, attached 
much more importance to the purely acoustic roughness of 
beats than our ears under the experience of modern music. 
This, and the circumstance that the imperfect concords 2 (the 
3rds and 6ths) long remained out of tune owing to the incom- 
pleteness of the Pythagorean system of harmonic ratios, 
sufficiently explain the medieval treatment of these combinations 
as discords differing only in degree from the harshness of 2nds 
and 7ths. In the earliest attempts at really contrapuntal 
writing (the astonishing 13th and 14th- century motets, in which 
voices are made to sing different melodies at once, with what 
seems to modern ears a total disregard of sound and sense) we 
find that the method consists in a kind of rough-hewing by which 
the concords of the octave, 5th and 4th are provided at most 
of the strong accents, while the rest of the. harmony is left to 
take care of itself. As the art advanced the imperfect concords 
began to be felt as different from the discords; but as their 
true nature appeared it brought with it such an increased sense 
of the harmonic poverty of octaves, 5ths and 4ths, as ended in 
a complete inversion of the earliest rules of harmony. 

The harmonic system of the later 15th century, which cul- 
minated in the "golden age" of the 16th-century polyphony, may 
be described as follows: Imagine a flux of simultaneous inde- 
pendent melodies, so ordered as to form an artistic texture based 
not only on the variety of the melodies themselves, but also upon 
gradations between points of repose and points in which the 
roughness of sound is rendered interesting and beautiful by 
means of the clearness with which the melodic sense in each part 
indicates the convergence of all towards the next point of repose. 
The typical point of repose owes its effect not only to the acoustic 
smoothness of the combination, but to the fact that it actually 
1 It is at least probable that this is one of the several rather 
obscure reasons for the peculiar instability of the 4th in modern 
harmony, which is not yet satisfactorily explained. 

■ The 'jerfect concords are the octave, unison, 5th and 4th. Other 
diatonic combinations, whether concords or discords, are called 

consists of the essential elements present in the first five notes 
of the harmonic series. The major 3rd has thus in this scheme 
asserted itself as a concord, and the fundamental principle of 
the identity of octaves produces the result that any combination 
of a bass note with a major 3rd and a perfect 5th above it, at 
any distance, and with any amount of doubling, -g- 

may constitute a concord available even as the Ex QE^pzE 

final point of repose in the whole composition. z^E— 

And by degrees the major triad, with its major ~ & 

3rd, became so familiar that a chord consisting of a bare 5th, 
with or without an octave, was regarded rather as a skeleton 
triad without the 3rd than as a concord free from elements 
of imperfection. Again, the identity of the octave secured for 
the combination of a note with its minor 3rd and minor 6th a 
place among concords; because, whether so recognized by early 
theorists or not, it was certainly felt as an inversion of the major 
triad. The fact that its bass note is not the fundamental note 
(and therefore has a series of upper partials not compatible with 
the higher notes) deprives it of the finality and perfection of the 
major triad, to which, however, its relationhsip is too near for it 
to be felt otherwise than as a concord. This sufficiently explains 

why the minor 6th ranks as a concord -y ■ — - — . 

in music, though it is acoustically nearly Ex. 3. SESEbEgE3 
as rough as the discord of the minor 7th, » 

and considerably rougher than that of the 7th note of the 
harmonic series, which has not become accepted in our musical 
system at all. 

But the major triad and its inversion are not the only concords 
that will be produced by our flux of melodies. From time to 
time this flux will arrest attention by producing a combination 
which, while it does not appeal to the ear as being a part of the 
harmonic chord of nature, yet contains in itself no elements not 
already present in the major triad. Theorists have in vain tried 
to find in " nature " a combination of a note with its minor 3rd 
and perfect 5th; and so long as harmony was treated unhistori- 
cally and unscientifically as an a priori theory in which every 
chord must needs have a " root," the minor triad, together with 
nearly every other harmonic principle of any complexity, 
remained a mystery. But the minor triad, as an artistic and 
not purely acoustic phenomenon, is an inevitable thing. It 
has the character of a concord because of our intellectual percep- 
tion that it contains the same elements as the major triad; but 
its absence of connexion with the natural harmonic series deprives 
it of complete finality in the simple system of 16th-century 
harmony, and at the same time gives it a permanent contrast 
with the major triad; a contrast which is acoustically intensified 
by the fact that, though its intervals are in themselves as con- 
cordant as those of the major triad, their relative position 
produces decidedly rough combinations of "resultant tones." 

By the time cur flux of melodies had come to include the 
major and minor triads as concords, the notion of the independence 
of parts had become of such paramount importance as totally 
to revolutionize the medieval conception of the perfect concords/ 
Fifths and octaves no longer formed an oasis in a desert of 
cacophony, but they assumed the character of concord so nearly 
approaching to unison that a pair of consecutive sths or octaves 
began to be increasingly felt as violating the independence of 
the parts. And thus it came about that in pure 16th-century 
counterpoint (as indeed at the present day whenever harmony 
and counterpoint are employed in their purest significance) 
consecutive 5ths and octaves are strictly forbidden. When we 
compare our laws of counterpoint with those of medieval discant 
(in which consecutive 5ths and octaves are the rule, while con- 
secutive 3rds and 6ths are strictly forbidden) we are sometimes 
tempted to think that the very nature of the human ear has 
changed. But it is now generally recognized that the process 
was throughout natural and inevitable, and the above account 
aims at showing that consecutive 5ths are forbidden by our 
harmonic system for the very reason which inculcated them in 
the system of the 12th century. 

II. Tonality. — As soon as the major and minor triad and their 
first inversions were well-defined entities, it became evident that 


the successions of these concords and their alternations with 
discord involved principles at once larger and more subtle than 
those of mere difference in smoothness and artificiality. Not 
only was a major chord (or at least its skeleton) necessary for 
the final point of repose in a composition, but it could not itself 
sound final unless the concords as well as the discords before it 
showed a well-defined tendency towards it. This tendency was 
best realized when the penultimate concord had its fundamental 
note at the distance of a 5th or a 4th above or below that of the 
final chord. When the fundamental note of the penultimate 
chord is a 5th above or (what is the same thing) a 4th below 
that of the final chord, we have an " authentic " or " perfect " 
cadence, and the relation between the two chords is very clear. 
While the contrast between them is well marked, they have one 
note in common — for the root of the penultimate chord is the 
5th of the final chord; and the statement of this common note, 
first as an octave or unison and then as a 5th, expresses the 
first facts of harmony with a force which the major 3rds of the 
chords can only strengthen, while it also involves in the bass 
that melodic interval of the 4th or the 5th which is now known 

3 to be the germ of all melodic scales. The 

EEjjEgEd relation of the final note of a scale with its 
■3- upper 5th or lower 4th thus becomes a 

fundamental fact of complex harmonic significance — that is to 
say, of harmony modified by melody in so far as it concerns the 
succession of sounds as well as their simultaneous combination. 
In our modern key-system the final note of the scale is called the 
tonic, and the 5th above or 4th below it is the dominant. (In 
the 1 6th century the term " dominant " has this meaning only 
in the " authentic " modes other than the Phrygian, but as 
an aesthetic fact it is present in all music, though the theory 
here given would not have been intelligible to any composers 
before the 18th century). Another penultimate chord asserts 
itself as the converse of the dominant — namely, the chord of 
which the root is a 5th below or a 4th above the final. This 
chord has not that relationship to the final which the dominant 
chord shows, for its fundamental note is not in the harmonic 
series of the final. But the fundamental note of the final chord 
is in its harmonic series, and in fact stands to it as the dominant 
stands to the final. Thus the progression from subdominant, 
as it is called, to tonic, or final, forms a full close known as the 
" plagal cadence," second only in importance to the " perfect " 

_o or " authentic cadence." In our modern 

i--^--jp=^z : \ key-system these three chords, the tonic, 
* the dominant and the subdominant, form 

Ex. 5. 

a firm harmonic centre in reference to which all other chords are 
grouped. The tonic is the final in which everything ultimately 
resolves: the dominant stands on one side of it as a chord based 
on the note harmonically most closely related to the tonic, 
and the subdominant stands on the other side as the converse 
and opposite of the dominant, weaker than the dominant because 
not directly derived from the tonic. The other triads obtainable 
from the notes of the scale are all minor, and of less importance; 
and their relationship to each other and to the tonic is most 
definite when they are so grouped that their basses rise and fall 
in 4th and 5ths, because they then tend to imitate the relation- 
ship between tonic, dominant and subdominant. 

Ex. 6. 

Tonic. Supertonic. Mediant. Sub- Dominant. Sub- 
dominant. mediant. 1 


Here are the six common chords of the diatonic scale. The triad 
on the 7th degree or " leading-note " (B) is a discord, and is therefore 
not given here. 

Now, in the 16th century it was neither necessary nor desirable 
that chords should be grouped exclusively in this way. The 
relation between tonic, dominant and subdominant must 
necessarily appear at the final close, and in a lesser degree at 

1 The submediant is so-called because if the subdominant is taken 
a 5th below the tonic, the submediant will come midway between 
it and the tonic, as the mediant comes midway between tonic and 

subordinate points of repose; but, where no harmonies were 
dwelt on as stable and independent entities except the major 
and minor triads and their first inversions, a scheme in which 
these were confined to the illustration of their most elementary 
relationship would be intolerably monotonous. It is therefore 
neither surprising nor a sign of archaism that the tonality of 
modal music is from the modern point of view often very in- 
definite. On the contrary, the distinction between masterpieces 
and inferior works in the 16th century is nowhere more evident 
than in the expressive power of modal tonality, alike where it 
resembles and where it differs from modern. Nor is it too much 
to say that that expressive power is based on the modern sense of 
key, and that a description of modal tonality in terms of modern 
key will accurately represent the harmonic art of Palestrina 
and the other supreme masters, though it will have almost as 
little in common with 16th-century theory and inferior 16th- 
century practice as it has with modern custom. We must 
conceive modal harmony and tonality as a scheme in which 
voices move independently and melodiously in a scale capable 
of bearing the three chords of the tonic, dominant and sub- 
dominant, besides three other minor triads, but not under such 
restrictions of symmetrical rhythm and melodic design as will 
necessitate a confinement to schemes in which these three cardinal 
chords occupy a central position. The only stipulation is that 
the relationship of at least two cardinal chords shall appear at 
every full close. At other points the character and drift of the 
harmony is determined by quite a different principle — namely, 
that, the scale being conceived as indefinitely extended, the 
voices are agreed in selecting a particular section of it, the position 
of which determines not only the melodic character of each part 
but also the harmonic character of the whole, according to its 
greater or less remoteness from the scale in which major cardinal 
chords occupy a central position. Historically these modes 
were derived, with various errors and changes, from the purely 
melodic modes of the Greeks. Aesthetically they are systems 
of modern tonality adapted to conditions in which the range of 
harmony was the smallest possible, and the necessity for what 
we may conveniently call a clear and solid key-perspective 
incomparably slighter than that for variety within so narrow a 
range. We may thus regard modal harmony as an essentially 
modern scheme, presented to us in cross-sections of various 
degrees of obliquity, and modified at every close so as either to 
take us to a point of view in which we see the harmony sym- 
metrically (as in those modes 2 of which the final chord is normally 
major, namely the Ionian, which is practically our major scale, 
the Mixolydian and the Lydian, which last is almost invariably 
turned into Ionian by the systematic flattening of its 4th degree) 
or else to transform the mode itself so that its own notes are 
flattened and sharpened into suitable final chords (as is necessary 
in those modes of which the triad on the final is normally minor, 
namely, the Dorian, Phrygian and Aeolian). In this way we 
may describe Mixolydian tonality as a harmonic scheme in which 
the keys of G major and C major are so combined that sometimes 
we feel that we are listening to harmony in C major that is 
disposed to overbalance towards the dominant, and sometimes 
that we are in G major with a pronounced leaning towards the 
subdominant. In the Dorian mode our sensations of tonality 
are more confused. We seem to be wandering through all the 
key-relationships of a minor tonic without defining anything, 
until at the final close the harmonies gather strength and bring 
us, perhaps with poetic surprise, to a close in D with a major 
chord. In the Phrygian mode the difficulty in forming the final 
close is such that classical Phrygian compositions actually end 
in what we feel to be a half-close, an impression which is by the 
great masters rendered perfectly artistic by the strong feeling 
that all such parts of the composition as do not owe their ex- 
pression to the variety and inconstancy of their harmonic drift 
are on the dominant of A minor. 

It cannot be too strongly insisted that the expression of modal 
music is a permanent artistic fact. Its refinements may be 
crowded out by the later tonality, in which the much greater 
2 See Plain. Song. 


Ex. 7. 

No. 8. 
Passing Notes. 



variety of fixed chords needs a much more rigid harmonic 
scheme to control it, but they can never be falsified. And when 
Beethoven in his last " Bagatelle " raises the 6th of a minor 
scale for the pleasure he takes in an unexpectedly bright major 
chord; or when, in the Incarnatus of his Mass in D, he makes a 
free use of the Dorian scale, he is actuated by precisely the same 
harmonic and aesthetic motives as those of the wonderful 
opening of Palestrina's eight-part Stabat Mater; just as in the 
Lydian figured chorale in his A minor Quartet he carries out the 
principle of harmonic variety, as produceable by an oblique 
melodic scale, with a thoroughness from which Palestrina himself 
would have shrunk. (We have noted that in 16th-century music 
the Lydian mode is almost invariably Ionicized.) 

III. Modern Harmony and Tonality. — In the harmonic system 
of Palestrina only two kinds of discord are possible, namely, 
suspensions and passing-notes. The principle of the suspension 

is that while parts are moving 
from one concord to another 
_ one of the parts remains 

I * » behind, so as to create a 

-^— *-«-«z«! zzfrr^ — i discord at the moment when 
V ~ji : SS5=fei£^=J the other parts proceed. The 
^ — ' suspended part then goes on 

to its concordant note, which must lie on an adjacent (and 
in most cases a lower) degree of the scale. Passing-notes 
are produced transiently by the motion of a part up or down the 
scale while other parts remain stationary. The possibilities of 
these two devices can be worked out logically so as to produce 
combinations of extreme harshness. And, when combined with 
the rules which laid on the performers the responsibility for 
modifying the strict scale of the mode in order to form satis- 
factory closes and avoid melodic harshness, they some- 
times gave rise to combinations which the clearest artistic 
intellects of the 16th century perceived as incompatible with 
the modal style. For example, in a passage written thus 

the singer of the lower 

part would be obliged 

Ex »• <T to flatten his B in 

order to avoid the 
ugly "tritone" be- 
tween F and B, while the other singer would be hardly 
less likely on the spur of the moment to sharpen his G 
under the impression that he was making a close; and thus one 
of the most complex and characteristically modern discords, that 
of the augmented 6th, did frequently occur in 16th-century 
performances, and was not always regarded as a blunder. But 
if the technical principles of 16th-century discord left much to 
the good taste of composers and singers, they nevertheless in 
conjunction with that good taste severely restricted the resources 
of harmony; for, whatever the variety and artificiality of the 
discords admitted by them, they all had this in common, that 
every discord was transient and could only arise as a phenomenon 
of delay in the movement of one or more parts smoothly along 
the scale (" in conjunct motion ") or of a more rapid motion up 
and down the scale in which none but the rigorously concordant 
first and last notes received any emphasis. No doubt there were 
many licenses (such as the " changing-note ") which introduced 
discords by skip, or on the strong beat without preparation, but 
these were all as natural as they were illogical. They were 
artistic as intelligible accidents, precisely like those which make 
language idiomatic, such as " attraction of the relative " in Greek. 
But when Monteverde and his fellow monodists tried experi- 
ments with unprepared discords, they opened up possibilities 
far too vast to be organized by them or by the next three genera- 
tions. We have elsewhere compared the difference between 
early and modern harmony with that between classical Greek, 
which is absolutely literal and concrete in expression, and modern 
English, which is saturated with metaphors and abstractions. 
We may go further and say that a 16th-century discord, with its 
preparation and resolution, is, on a very small scale, like a 
simile, in which both the figure and its interpretation are given, 
whereas modern discord is like the metaphor, in which the figure 



F%-7B — « 



is a substitute for and not an addition to the plain statement. 
It is not surprising that the sudden opening up of the whole 
possibilities of modern harmony at the end of the 16th century 
at first produced a chaos of style. 

Another feature of the harmonic revolution arose from the 
new habit of supporting a single voice on chords played by an 
instrument. 'This, together with the use of discords in a new 
sense, drew attention to the chords as things in themselves and 
not as moments of greater or less repose in a flux of independent 
melodies. This was as valuable an addition to musical thought 
and expression as the free use of abstract terms is in literature, 
but it had precisely the same dangers, and has until recent 
times vitiated harmonic theory and divorced it from the 
modest observation of the practice of great masters. When, 
early in the 18th century, Rameau devoted much of his best 
energy to the elaboration of a theory of harmony, his field of 
observation was a series of experiments begun in chaos and 
resolved, not as yet in a great art, but in a system of conventions, 
for the contemporary art of Bach and Handel was beyond the 
scope of contemporary theory. He showed great analytical 
genius and sense of tonality in his development of the notion 
of the " fundamental bass," and it is rather to his credit than 
otherwise that he did not emphasize the distinction between 
discords on the dominant and those on other degrees of the scale. 
But his system, with all subsequent improvements, refutations 
and repairs only led to that bane of 19th-century theory and 
source of what may be called the journalese of harmonic style, 
according to which every chord (no matter how obviously 
artificial and transient) must be regarded, so to speak, as a 
literal fact for which a root and a scientific connexion with the 
natural harmonic series must at all cost be found. Some modern 
theorists have, however, gone too far in denying the existence of 
harmonic roots altogether, and certainly it is neither scientific 
nor artistic to regard the coincidence of the major triad with the 
first five notes of the harmonic series as merely accidental. It 
is not likely that the dominant 7 th owes all its naturalness to a 
resemblance to the flat 7th of the harmonic series, which is too 
far out of tune even to pass for an augmented 6th. But the 
dominant major 9th certainly gains in sonorousness from its 
coincidence with the 9th harmonic, and many cases in music 
could be found where the dominant 7th itself would gain from 
being so far flattened as to add coincidence with a natural 
harmonic to its musical significance as an unprepared discord 
(see, for example the " native wood-notes wild " of the distant 
huntsmen in the second act of Tristan und Isolde, where also the 
9th and 1 ith are involved, and, moreover, on horns, of which the 
natural scale is the harmonic series itself). If the distinction 
between " essential " and " unessential " discords is, in the light 
of history and common sense, a difference only in degree, it is 
thus none the less of great aesthetic importance. Arithmetic 
and acoustics show that in proportion as musical harmony 
emphasizes combinations belonging to the lower region of the 
harmonic series the effect will be sonorous and natural; but 
common sense, history and aesthetics also show that the inter- 
action of melody, harmony and rhythm must produce a host 
of combinations which acoustics alone cannot possibly explain. 
These facts are amply competent to explain themselves. To 
describe them in detail is beyond the scope of the present article, 
but a few examples from different periods are given at the end in 
musical type. 

IV. The Minor Mode. — When the predecessors of Bach and 
Handel had succeeded in establishing a key-system able to bear 
the weight of free discord, that key-system took two forms, in 
both of which the three chords of tonic, dominant and sub- 
dominant occupied cardinal points. In the one form the tonic 
chord was natural, that is to say, major. In the other form 
the tonic chord was artificial, that is to say, minor. In the minor 
mode so firm is the position of the tonic and dominant (the 
dominant chord always being major) that it is no longer necessary, 
as in the 16th century, to conclude with a major chord, although 
it long remained a frequent practice, rather because of the 
inherent beauty and surprise of the effect than because of any 


mere survival of ancient customs, at least where great masters 
are concerned. (This final major chord is known as the Tierce 
de Picardie.) The effect of the minor mode is thus normally 
plaintive because it centres round the artificial concord instead 
of the natural; and; though the keynote bears this minor 
artificial triad, the ear nevertheless has an expectation (which 
may be intensified into a powerful emotional effect) that the 
final conclusion of the harmonic scheme may brighten out into 
the more sonorous harmonic system of major chords. Let us 
once more recall those ecclesiastical modes of which the 3rd 
degree is normally minor. We have seen how they may be 
regarded as the more oblique of the various cross-sections of the 
16th-century harmonic scheme. Now, the modern minor mode 
is too firmly rooted in its minor tonic chord for the 16th-century 
feeling of an oblique harmonic scheme to be of more than 
secondary importance, though that feeling survives, as the 
discussion of key-relationships will show us. But it is constantly 
thrust into the background by the new possibility that the minor 
tonic chord with its attendant minor harmonies may give place 
to the major system round the same tonic, and by the certainty 
that if any change is made at the conclusion of the work it will 
be upon the same tonic and not have reference to some other 
harmonic centre. In other words, a major and minor key on 
the same tonic are felt as identical in everything but expression 
(a point in which the Tonic Sol Fa system, as hitherto practised, 
with its identification of the minor key with its " relative " 
instead of its tonic major, shows a most unfortunate confusion 
of thought). The characteristics of the major and minor modes 
may of course be modified by many artistic considerations, and 
it would be as absurd to develop this account into a scheme of 
pigeon-holed passions as to do the same for the equally obvious 
and closely parallel fact that in drama a constant source of 
pathos is the placing of our sympathies in an oblique relation 
to the natural sequence of events or to the more universal issues 
of the subject. 

V. Key- Relationships. — On the modern sense of the identity 
of the tonic in major and minor rests the whole distinctive 
character of modern harmony, and the whole key-system of the 
classical composers. The masters of the 16th century naturally 
found it necessary to make full closes much more frequently 
than would be desirable if the only possible close was that on the 
final of the mode. They therefore formed closes on other notes, 
but they formed them on these exactly as on a final. Thus, a 
close on the second degree of the Ionian mode was identical with 
a Dorian final close. The notes, other than the final, on which 
closes could be made were called modulations. And what 
between the three " regular modulations " (known as the 
dominant, mediant, and participant) and the " conceded modula- 
tions," of which two were generally admitted in each mode 
simply in the interests of variety, a composer was at liberty to 
form a full close on any note which did not involve too many 
extraneous sharps or flats for its correct accomplishment. But 
there was a great difference between modal and modern con- 
ceptions of modulation. We have said that the close on the 
second degree of the Ionian mode was Dorian, but such a modula- 
tion was not regarded as a visit paid to the Dorian mode, but 
merely as the formation of a momentary point of repose on the 
second degree of the Ionian mode. When therefore it is said 
that the modulations of 16th-century music are " purposeless 
and shifting," the criticism implies a purpose in change of key 
which is wholly irrelevant. The modal composers' purpose lay 
in purely local relationships of harmony, in various degrees of 
refinement which are often crowded out of the larger and more 
coarse-grained scheme of modern harmony, but which modern 
harmony is perfectly capable of employing in precisely the same 
sense whenever it has leisure. 

Modulation, in the modern sense of the term, is a different 
thing. The modern sense of tonality is so firm, and modern 
designs so large, that it is desirable that different portions of a 
composition should be arranged round different harmonic 
centres or keys, and moreover that the relation between these 
keys and the primary key should be telt, and the whole design 

should at last return to the primary key, to remain there with 
such emphasis and proportion as shall leave upon the mind the 
impression that the whole is in the primary key and that the 
foreign keys have been as artistically grouped around it as its 
own local harmonies. The true principles on which keys are 
related proved so elastic in the hands of Beethoven that their 
results utterly outstripped the earlier theory which adhered 
desperately to the limitations of the 16th century; and so 
vast is the range of key which Beethoven is able to organize 
in a convincing scheme of relationship, that even modern 
theory, dazzled by the true harmonic possibilities, is apt to 
come to the conclusion, more lame and impotent than any 
ancient pedantry, that all keys are equally related. A vague 
conception, dubbed " the unity of the chromatic scale," is thus 
made to explain away the whole beauty and power of Wagner's 
no less than Beethoven's harmonic system. We have not space 
to dispute the matter here, and it must suffice to state dog- 
matically and statistically the classical facts of key-relationship, 
including those which Beethoven established as normal possi- 
bilities on the suggestion of Haydn, in whose works they appear 
as special effects. 

a. Direct Relationships.- — The first principle on which two keys 
are considered to be related is a strengthening of that which 
determined the so-called modulations of the 16th-century modes. 
Two keys .are directly related when the tonic chord of the one 
is among the common chords of the other. Thus, D minor is 
related to C major because the tonic chord of D minor is the 
common chord on the supertonic of C (see Ex. 6). In the same 
way the four other related keys to C major are E minor the 
mediant, F major the subdominant, G major the dominant 
and A minor the submediant. 

This last key-relationship is sometimes called the " relative " 
minor, partly because it is usually expressed by the same key- 
signature as the tonic, but probably more justifiably because it 
is the point of view from which to reckon the key-relationships 
of the minor tonic. If we take the minor scale in its " harmonic " 
form {i.e. the form deducible from its chords of minor tonic, 
minor subdominant and major dominant, without regard to 
the exigencies of melody in concession to which the " melodic " 
minor scale raises the 6th in ascent and flattens the 7th in 
descent), we shall find it impossible to build a common chord 
upon its mediant (Ex. 10). But we have ^ 

seen that A minor is related to C major; Ex. 10. £g£|g=3 
therefore it is absurd to suppose that C «T -s- 

major is not related to A minor. Clearly then we must deduce 
some of the relationships of a minor tonic as the converse of 
those of a major tonic. Thus we may read Ex. 6 backwards and 
reason as follows: A minor is the submediant of C major; 
therefore C major is the mediant or relative major of A minor. 
D minor is the supertonic of C major; therefore C major is 
related to D minor and may be called its flat 7 th. Taking A 
minor as our standard key, G major is then the flat 7th to A minor. 
The remaining major keys (C major to E minor = F major to 
A minor) may be traced directly as well as conversely; and 
the subdominant, being minor, does not involve an appeal to 
the major scale at all. But with the dominant we find the curious 
fact that while the dominant chord of a minor key is major it 
is impossible to regard the major dominant key as directly 
related to the minor tonic, since it does not contain the minor 
tonic chord at all; e.g. the only chord of A in E major is A major. 
But the dominant minor key contains the tonic chord of the- 
primary minor key clearly enough as subdominant, and therefore 
when we modulate from a minor tonic to a minor dominant 
we feel that we have a direct key- relationship and have not lost 
touch with our tonic. Thus in the minor mode modulation to 
the dominant key is, though frequent and necessary, a much 
more uphill process than in the major mode, because the naturally 
major dominant chord has first to be contradicted. On the other 
hand, a contrast between minor tonic and major dominant key 
is very difficult to work on a large scale (as, for example, in the 
complementary key for second subjects of sonata movements) 
because, while the major dominant key behaves as if not directly 


related to the minor tonic, it also gives a curious sensation of 
being merely on the dominant instead of in it; and thus we find 
that in the few classical examples of a dominant major second 
subject in a minor sonata-movement the second subject either 
relapses into the dominant minor, as in Beethoven's Kreulzer 
Sonata and the finale of Brahms's Third Symphony, or begins in 
it, as in the first movement of Brahms's Fourth Symphony. 

The effect of a modulation to a related key obviously depends 
upon the change of meaning in the chords common to both keys, 
and also in the new chords introduced. Thus, in modulating 
to the dominant we invest the brightest chord of our first key 
with the finality and importance of a tonic; our original tonic 
chord becomes comparatively soft in its new position as sub- 
dominant; and a new dominant chord arises, surpassing in 
brilliance the old dominant (now tonic) as that surpassed the 
primary tonic. Again, in modulating to the subdominant the 
softest chord of the primary key becomes tonic, the old tonic 
is comparatively bright, and a new and softer subdominant 
chord appears. We have seen the peculiarities of modulation 
to the dominant from a minor tonic, and it follows from them 
that modulation from a minor tonic to the subdominant involves 
the beautiful effect of a momentary conversion of the primary 
tonic chord to major, the poetic and often dramatically ironical 
power of which is manifested at the conclusion of more than half 
the finest classical slow movements in minor keys, from Bach's 
Eb minor Prelude in the first book of the Forty-eight to the slow 
movement of Brahms's G major Siring Quintet, Op. m. 

The effect of the remaining key-relationships involves contrasts 
between major and minor mode; but it is otherwise far less 
defined, since the primary tonic chord does not occupy a cardinal 
position in the second key. These key-relationships are most 
important from a minor tonic, as the change from minor to 
major is more vivid than the reverse change. The smoothest 
changes are those to " relative " minor, " relative " major 
(C to A minor; C minor to Eb); and mediant minor and sub- 
mediant major (C to E minor; C minor to Ab). The change 
from major tonic to supertonic minor is extremely natural on a 
small scale, i.e. within the compass of a single melody, as may be 
seen in countless openings of classical sonatas. But on a large 
scale the identity of primary dominant with secondary sub- 
dominant confuses the harmonic perspective, and accordingly 
in classical music the supertonic minor appears neither in the 
second subjects of first movements nor as the key for middle 
movements. 1 But since the key-relationships of a minor tonic 
are at once more obscure harmonically and more vivid in con- 
trast, we find that the converse key-relationship of the flat 7th, 
though somewhat bold and archaic in effect on a small scale, 
has once or twice been given organic function on a large scale 
in classical movements of exceptionally fantastic character, 
of which the three great examples are the ghostly slow movement 
of Beethoven's D major Trio, Op. 70, No. 1, the scherzo of his 
Ninth Symphony, and the finale of Brahms's D minor Violin 
Sonata (where, however, the C major theme soon passes per- 
manently into the more orthodox dominant minor). 

Thus far we have the set of key-relationships universally 
recognized since the major and minor modes were established, 
a relationship based entirely on the place of the primary tonic 
chord in the second key. It only remains for us to protest 
against the orthodox description of the five related keys as being 
the " relative " minor or major and the dominant and sub- 
dominant with their " relative " minors or majors; a conception 
which expresses the fallacious assumption that keys which are 
related to the same key are related to one another, and which 
thereby implies that all keys are equally related and that classical 
composers were fools. It cannot be too strongly insisted that 
there is no foundation for key-relationship except through a 
tonic, and that it is through the tonic that the most distant keys 

1 Until Beethoven developed the resources for a wider scheme of 
key-contrasts, the only keys for second subjects of sonata-movements 
were the dominant (when the tonic was major) and the " relative " 
major or dominant minor (when the tonic was minor). A wider 
range was possible only in the irresponsible style of D. Scarlatti. 

have always been connected by every composer with a wide 
range of modulation, from Haydn to Brahms and (with due 
allowance for the conditions of his musical drama) Wagner. 

b. Indirect Relationships. — So strong is the indentity of the 
tonic in major and minor mode that Haydn and Mozart had no 
scruple in annexing, with certain reservations, the key-relation- 
ships of either as an addition to those of the other. The smooth- 
ness of Mozart's style makes him prefer to annex the key-relation- 
ships of the tonic minor (e.g. C major to Ab, the submediant of 
C minor), because the primary tonic note is in the second key, 
although its chord is transformed. His range of thought does 
not allow him to use these keys otherwise than episodically; 
but he certainly does not treat them as chaotically remote by 
confining them to rapid modulations in the development- 
portions of his movements. They occur characteristically as 
beautiful purple patches before or during his second subjects. 
Haydn, with his mastery of rational paradox, takes every 
opportunity, in his later works, of using all possible indirect 
key-relationships in the choice of key for slow movements and 
for the trios of minuets. By using them thus sectionally (i.e. 
so as not to involve the organic connecting links necessary for the 
complementary keys of second subjects) he gives himself a free 
hand; and he rather prefers those keys which are obtained by 
transforming the minor relationships of a major primary key 
(e.g. C to A major instead of A minor). These relationships are 
of great brilliance and also of some remoteness of effect, since 
the primary tonic note, as well as its chord, disappears entirely. 
Haydn also obtains extreme contrasts by changing both modes 
(e.g. C minor to A major, as in the G minor Quartet, Op. 72, 
No 6, where the slow movement is in E major), and indeed 
there is not one key-contrast known to Beethoven and Brahms 
which Haydn does not use with complete sense of its meaning, 
though his art admits it only as a surprise. 

Beethoven rationalized every step in the whole possible range 
of key-relationship by such harmonic means as are described in 
the article Beethoven. Haydn's favourite key-relationships 
he used for the complementary key in first movements; and 
he at once discovered that the use of the major mediant as 
complementary key to a major tonic implied, at all events just 
as much suggestion of the submediant major in the recapitula- 
tion as would not keep the latter half of the movement for too 
long out of the tonic. The converse is not the case, and where 
Beethoven uses the submediant major as complementary key 
in a major first movement he does not subsequently introduce 
the still more remote and brilliant mediant in the recapitulation. 
The function of the complementary key is that of contrast and 
vividness, so that if the key is to be remote it is as well that it 
should be brilliant rather than sombre; and accordingly the 
easier key-relationships obtainable through transforming the 
tonic into minor do not appear as complementary keys until 
Beethoven's latest and most subtle works, as the Quartet in 
B\>, Op. 130 (where we again note that the flat submediant of 
the exposition is temporarily answered by the flat mediant of 
the recapitulation). 

c. Artificial Key-relationships. — Early in the history of the 
minor mode it was discovered that the lower tetrachord could 
be very effectively and naturally altered so as to resemble the 
upper (thus producing the scale C Db Et( F, G Ab Btf C). This 
produces a flat supertonic (the chord of which is generally pre- 
sented in its first inversion, and is known as the Neapolitan 6th, 
from its characteristic use in the works of the Neapolitan school 
which did so much to establish modern tonality) and its origi*, 
as just described, often impels it to resolve on a major tonic 
chord. Consequently it exists in the minor mode as a pheno- 
menon not much more artificial than the mode itself; and 
although the keys it thus connects are extremely remote, and 
the effect of their connexion very surprising, the connexion is 
none the less real, whether from a major or a minor tonic, and 
is a crucial test of a composer's sense of key-perspective. Thus 
Philipp Emanuel Bach in a spirit of mere caprice puts the 
charming little slow movement of his D major Symphony into 
Eb and obliterates all real relationship by chaotic operatic 



connecting links. Haydn's greatest pianoforte sonata (which, 
being probably his last, is of course No. i in mo«:t editions) 
is in Eb, and its slow movement is in F^ major ( = Fb). That 
key had already appeared, with surprising effect, in the wander- 
ings of the development of the first movement. No attempt is 
made to indicate its connexion with Eb; and the finale begins 
in Eb, but its first bar is unharmonized and starts on the one 
note which most contradicts El| and least prepares the mind for 
Eb. The immediate repetition of the opening phrase a step 
higher on the normal supertonic strikes the note which the open- 
ing had contradicted, and thus shows its function in the main 
key without in the least degree explaining away the paradoxical 
effect of the key of the slow movement. Brahms's Violoncello 
Sonata Op. 99, is in F; a prominent episode in the development 
of the first movement is in E# minor ( = Gb), thus preparing the 
mind for the slow movement, which is in F# major ( = Gb), with 
a central episode in F minor. The scherzo is in F minor, and 
begins on the dominant. Thus if we play its first chord immedi- 
ately after the last chord of the slow movement we have exactly 
that extreme position of flat supertonic followed by dominant 
which is a favourite form of cadence in Wagner, who can even 
convey its meaning by its mere bass without any harmonies 
(Walkiire, Act 3, Scene 2:"Was jetzt du bist,das sage dir selbst"). 

Converse harmonic relationships are, as we have seen, always 
weaker than their direct forms. And thus the relation of C major 
to B major or minor {as shown in the central episode of the slow 
movement just mentioned) is rare. Still more rare is the obtain- 
ing of indirect artificial relationships, of which the episode in 
the first movement just mentioned is an illustration in so far 
as it enhances the effect of the slow movement, but is incon- 
clusive in so far as it is episodic. For with remote key-relation- 
ships everything depends upon whether they are used with what 
may be called cardinal function (like complementary keys) or not. 
Even a near key may occur in the course of wandering modula- 
tions without producing any effect of relationship at all, and this 
should always be borne in mind whenever we accumulate 
statistics from classical music. 

d. Contrary and Unconnected Keys. — There remain only two 
pairs of keys that classical music has not brought into connexion, 
a circumstance which has co-operated with the utter vagueness 
of orthodox theories on the subject to confirm the conventionally 
progressive critic in his conviction that all modulations are 
alike. We have seen how the effect of modulation from major 
tonic to minor supertonic is, on a large scale, obscured by the 
identity of the primary dominant with the secondary sub- 
dominant, though the one chord is major and the other minor. 
Now when the supertonic becomes major this difference no 
longer obviates the confusion, and modulation from C major 
to D major, though extremely easy, is of so bewildering effect 
that it is used by classical composers only in moments of intensely 
dramatic surprise, as, for example, in the recapitulation of the 
first subject of Beethoven's Eroica Symphony, and the last 
variation (or coda) of the slow movement of his Trio in B\>, 
Op. 97. And in both cases the balance is restored by the 
converse (and equally if not more contradictory) modulation 
between major tonic and major flat 7th, though in the slow 
movement of the B\> Trio the latter is represented only by its 
dominant chord which is " enharmonically " resolved into quite 
another key. The frequent attempts made by easy-going 
innovators to treat these key-contrasts on another footing than 
that of paradox, dramatic surprise or hesitation, only show a 
deficient sense of tonality, which must also mean an inability 
to see the intensely powerful effect of the true use of such 
modulations in classical music, an effect which is entirely inde- 
pendent of any ability to formulate a theory to explain it. 1 

1 Many theorists mistake the usual extreme emphasis on the 
dominant chord of the dominant key, in preparation for second 
subjects, for a modulation to the major supertonic, but this can 
deceive no one with any sense of tonality. A good practical test 
is to see what becomes of such passages when translated into the 
minor mode. Illusory modulation to the flat 7th frequently occurs 
as a bold method of throwing strong emphasis on to the subdominant 
at the outset of a movement, as in Beethoven's Sonata, Op. 31, No. 1. 

There now remains only one pair of keys that have never been 
related, namely, those that (whether major or minor) are at the 
distance of a tntone 4th. In the first place they are unrelated 
because there is no means of putting any form of a tonic chord 
of F# into any form of the key of C, or vice versa; and in the 
second place because it is impossible to tell which of two precisely 
opposite keys the second key may be (e.g. we have no means of 
knowingthat a direct modulation from C to F# is not from C to Gb, 
which is exactly the same distance in the opposite direction) . And 
this brings us to the only remaining subjects of importance in 
the science and art of harmony, namely, those of the tempered 
scale, enharmonic ambiguity and just intonation. Before 
proceeding we subjoin a table of all the key-relationships from 
major and minor tonics, representing the degrees by capital 
Roman figures when the second key is major and small figures 



From Major Tonic 
Direct Relationships li 

iii IV V vi 

Indirect through both \ 
i and the second key i 


Indirect, through i 
III* yu 


Indirect through the i 
second key ' 


' 1 
1 1 
Doubly indirect through the 
former indirect keys 
iii^ vi* 

s , 
\ 1 

V » 

s l 
\ 1 

Artificial, direct 


VII & vfi 

Artificial, indirect* 

^ 1 

* \ ! 

\ 1 


1 > 

IV* & iv» =V k & »k 




VIIf & viit> 



From Minor Tonic 3 
Direct Relationships III 

iy v VI V,II 






Indirect through both J 
I and the second key , 

■ ■■< 
1 1 1 1 
1 • » ' 

iV v 1 ; 

Indirect, through I 
iii# vi# 

Indirect through the ' 
1 second key ill 


1 i 
Doubly indirect 
III* V»* 





Artificial, direct 


\ I* 




Artificial, Indirect 4 

1 ilk vn«''a 


1 r 



V IV# & iv# = 1 V* & v|> 

Contradictory 5 

li II vii> 

2 Very rare, but the slow movement of Schubert's C major String 
Quintet demonstrates it magnificently. 

3 All the indirect relationships from a minor tonic are distinctly 
strained and, except in the violently contrasted doubly indirect 
keys, obscure as being themselves minor. But the direct artificial 
modulation is quite smooth, and rich rather than remote. See 
Beethoven's C# minor Quartet. 

4 No classical example, though the clearer converse from a major 
tonic occurs effectively. 

5 Not (with the exception of II) so violent as when from major 
tonic. Bach, whose range seldom exceeds direct key-relationships, 
is not afraid to drift from D minor to C minor, though nothing would 
induce him to go from D major to C major or minor. 



when minor. Thus I represents tonic major, iv represents 
subdominant minor, and so on. A flat or a sharp after the figure 
indicates that the normal degree of the standard scale has been 
lowered or raised a semitone, even when in any particular pair 
of keys it would not be expressed by a flat or a sharp. Thus 
vit> would, from the tonic of Bb major, express the position of the 
slow movement of Beethoven's Sonata, Op. 106, which is written 
in F# minor since Gb minor is beyond the practical limits of 

VI. Temperament and Enharmonic Changes. — As the facts 
of artistic harmony increased in complexity and range, the 
purely acoustic principles which (as Helmholtz has shown) 
go so far to explain 16th-century aesthetics became more and 
more inadequate; and grave practical obstacles to euphonious 
tuning began to assert themselves. The scientific (or natural) 
ratios of the diatonic scale were not interfered with by art so 
long as no discords were " fundamental "; but when discords 
began to assume independence, one and the same note often 
became assignable on scientific grounds to two slightly different 
positions in pitch, or at all events to a position incompatible 
with even tolerable effect in performance. Thus, the chord of 
the diminished 7th is said to be intolerably harsh in " just 
intonation," that is to say, intonation based upon the exact 
ratios of a normal minor scale. In practical performance the 
diminished 7th contains three minor 3rds and two imperfect 
5ths (such as that which is present in the dominant 7th), while 
the peculiarly dissonant interval from which the chord takes its 
name is very nearly the same as a major 6th. Now it can only 
be said that an intonation which makes nonsense of chords of 
which every classical composer from the time of Corelli has made 
excellent sense, is a very unjust intonation indeed; and to 
anybody who realizes the universal relation between art and 
nature it is obvious that the chord of the diminished 7th must 
owe its naturalness to its close approximation to the natural 
ratios of the minor scale, while it owes its artistic possibility 
to the extremely minute instinctive modification by which its 
dissonance becomes tolerable. As a matter of fact, although 
we have shown here and in the article Music how artificial 
is the origin and nature of all but the very scantiest materials 
of the musical language, there is no art in which the element of 
practical compromise is so minute and so hard for any but trained 
scientific observation to perceive. If a painter could have a 
scale of light and shade as nearly approaching nature as the 
practical intonation of music approaches the acoustic facts 
it really involves, a visit to a picture gallery would be a severe 
strain on the strongest eyes, as Ruskin constantly points out. 
Yet music is in this respect exactly on the same footing as other 
arts. It constitutes no exception to the universal law that 
artistic ideas must be realized-, not in spite of, but by means of 
practical necessities. However independent the treatment of 
discords, they assert themselves in the long run as transient. 
They resolve into permanent points of repose of which the 
basis is natural; but the transient phenomena float through 
the harmonic world adapting themselves, as best they can, to 
their environment, showing as much dependence upon the 
stable scheme of " just intonation " as a crowd of metaphors 
and abstractions in language shows a dependence upon the 
rules of the syllogism. As much and no more, but that is no 
doubt a great deal. Vet the attempt to determine the point 
in modern harmony where just intonation should end and the 
Tempered scale begin, is as vexatious as the attempt to define 
in etymology the point at which the literal meaning of a word 
gives places to a metaphorical meaning. And it is as unsound 
scientifically as the conviction of the typical circle-squarer 
that he is unravelling a mystery and measuring a quantity hitherto 
unknown. Just intonation is a reality in so far as it emphasizes 
the contrast between concord and discord; but when it forbids 
artistic interaction between harmony and melody it is a chimera. 
It is sometimes said that Bach, by the example of his forty-eight 
preludes and fugues in all the major and minor keys, first fixed 
the modern scale. This is true practically, but not aesthetically. 
By writing a scries of movements in every key of which the 

keynote was present in the normal organ and harpsichord 
manuals of his and later times, he enforced the system by which 
all facts of modern musical harmony are represented on keyed 
instruments by dividing the octave into twelve equal semitones, 
instead of tuning a few much-used keys as accurately as possible ■ 
and sacrificing the euphony of all the rest. This system of 
equal temperament, with twelve equal semitones in the octave, 
obviously annihilates important distinctions, and in the most 
used keys it sours the concords and blunts the discords more than 
unequal temperament; but it is never harsh; and where it does 
not express harmonic subtleties the ear instinctively supplies 
the interpretation; as the observing faculty, indeed, always 
does wherever the resources of art indicate more than they 

Now it frequently happens that discords or artificial chords 
are not merely obscure in their intonation, whether ideally or 
practically, but as produced in practice they are capable of two 
sharply distinct interpretations. And it is possible for music to 
take advantage of this and to approach a chord in one signifi- 
cance and quit it with another. Where this happens in just 
intonation (in so far as that represents a real musical conception) 
such chords will, so to speak, quiver from one meaning into the 
other. And even in the tempered scale the ear will interpret the 
change of meaning as involving a minute difference of intonation. 
The chord of the diminished 7th has in this way four different 
meanings — 

Ex. 11 

and the chord of the augmented 6th, when accompanied by the 
fifth, may become a dominant 7th or vice versa, as in the passage 
already cited in the coda of the slow movement of Beethoven's 
B\> Trio, Op. 97. Such modulations are called enharmonic. 
We have seen that all the more complex musical phenomena 
involve distinctions enharmonic in the sense of intervals smaller 
than a semitone, as, for instance, whenever the progression 
D E in the scale of C, which is a minor tone, is identified with the 
progression of D E in the scale of D, which is a major tone 
(differing from the former as f from ^). But the special musical 
meaning of the word " enharmonic " is restricted to the difference 
between such pairs of sharps with fiats or naturals as can be 
represented on a keyboard by the same note, this difference 
being the most impressive to the ear in " just intonation " and 
to the imagination in the tempered scale. 

Not every progression of chords which is, so to speak, spelt 
enharmonically is an enharmonic modulation in itself. Thus a 
modulation from D flat to E major looks violently enharmonic 
on paper, as in the first movement of Beethoven's Sonata, 
Op. no. But E major with four sharps is merely the most 
convenient way of expressing F flat, a key which would need 
six flats and a double flat. The reality of an enharmonic modula- 
tion can be easily tested by transporting the passage a semi- 
tone. Thus, the passage just cited, put a semitone lower, 
becomes a perfectly diatonic modulation from C to E flat. But 
no transposition of the sixteen bars before the return of the main 
theme in the scherzo of Beethoven's Sonata in Eb, Op. 31, 
No. 3, will get rid of the fact that the diminished 7th (G Bb Db Efl), 
on the dominant of F minor, must have changed intoGBb Db Fb 
(although Beethoven does not take the trouble to alter the 
spelling) before it could resolve, as it does, upon the dominant 
of Ab. But though there is thus a distinction between real arid 
apparent enharmonic modulations, it frequently happens that 
a series of modulations perfectly diatonic in themselves 
returns to the original key by a process which can only be 
called an enharmonic circle. Thus the whole series of keys now 
in practical use can be arranged in what is called the circle of 
fifths (C G D A E B F# [ = Gb] Db Ab Bb F C, from which 
series we now see the meaning of what was said in the discussion 
of key-relationships as to the ambiguity of the relationships 
between keys a tritone fourth apart). Now no human memory 
is capable of distinguishing the difference of pitch between the 


keys of C and B# after a wide series of modulations. The 
difference would be perceptible enough in immediate juxta- 
position, but after some interval of time the memory will certainly 
accept two keys so near in pitch as identical, whether in "just 
intonation " or not. And hence the enharmonic circle of fifths 
is a conception of musical harmony by which infinity is at once 
rationalized and avoided, just as some modern mathematicians 
are trying to rationalize the infinity of space by a non-Euclidian 
space so curved in the fourth dimension as to return upon itself. 
A similar enharmonic circle progressing in major 3rds is of 
frequent occurrence and of very rich effect. For example, 
the keys of the movements of Brahms's C Minor Symphony 
are C minor, E major, Ab major ( = G#), and C ( = B#). And the 
same circle occurs in the opposite direction in the first movement 
of his Third Symphony, where the first subject is in F, the transi- 
tion passes directly to Db and thence by exactly the same step 
to A (= Bbb). The exposition is repeated, which of course 
means that in " just intonation " the first subject would begin 
in Gbb and then pass through a transition in Ebbb to the second 
subject in Cbbb. As the development contains another spurious 
enharmonic modulation, and the recapitulation repeats in 
another position the first spurious enharmonic modulation 
of the exposition, it would follow that Brahms's movement 
began in F and ended in C sextuple-flat! So much, then, for 
the application of bad metaphysics and circle-squaring 
mathematics to the art of music. Neither in mathematics nor in 
art is an approximation to be confused with an imperfection. 
Brahms's movement begins and ends in F much more exactly 
than any wooden diagonal fits a wooden square. 

The following series of musical illustrations show the genesis of 
typical harmonic resources of classical and modern music. 

Ex. 12. — Three concords (tonic, first inversion of sub- 
dominant, and dominant of A minor, a possible 16th- 
century cadence in the Phrygian mode). 

Ex. T3- — The 
pension I*). 

same chords v 

Ex. 14 —Ditto, with the further addition 
of a double suspension {*) and two passing 
notes (tt>. 

Ex. 15. — Di'-to, with a chromatic alteration 
of the second chord (*) and an "essential" 
discord (dominant 7th) at (t). 




16. — Ditto, with chromatic 
notes (**) and appoggiaturas 

Ex. 17. — The last two 
choids of Ex. 16 attacked 
unexpectedly, the first ap- 
poggiatura (*) prolonged till 
It seems to make a strange 
foreign chord before it resolves 
on the short note at i, while 
the second appoggiatura (t) is 

Ex. 18. — The same en- 
harmonically transformed so 
as to become a variation of 
the "dominant ninth" of C 
minor. 1 he Gi at * is 
redly A?, and t is no longer 
a note of resolution, but a 
chromatic passing-note. 


(Intended to comprise the general conceptions set forth in the 
above article.) 

1. Musical sounds, or notes, are sensations produced by regular 
periodical vibrations in the air, sufficiently rapid to coalesce in a 
single continuous sensation, and not too rapid for the mechanism 
of the human ear to respond. 

2. The pitch of a note is the sensation corresponding to the degree 
of rapidity of its vibrations; being low or grave where these are 
slow, and high or acute where they are rapid. 

3. An interval is the difference in pitch between two notes. 

4. Rhythm is the organization, in a musical scheme, of sounds in 
respect of time. 

5. Melody is the organization, in a musical scheme, of rhythmic 
notes in respect of pitch. 

6. Harmony is the organization, in a musical scheme, of simul- 
taneous combinations of notes on principles whereby their acoustic 
properties interact with laws of rhythm and melody. 

7. The harmonic series is an infinite series of notes produced by 
the subdivision of a vibrating body or column of air into aliquot 
parts, such notes being generally inaudible except in the form of 
the timbre which their presence in various proportions imparts to 
the fundamental note produced by the whole vibrating body or 

8. A concord is a combination which, both by its acoustic smooth- 
ness and by its logical origin and purpose in a musical scheme, can 
form a point of repose. 

9. A discord is a combination in which both its logical origin in a 
musical scheme and its acoustic roughness show that it cannot 
form a point of repose. 

10. The perfect concords and perfect intervals are those comprised 
within the first four members of the harmonic series, namely, the 
octave, as between numbers 1 and 2 of the series (see Ex. 1 above) ; 
the 5th, as between Nos. 2 and 3; and the 4th, as between Nos. 
3 and 4. 

11. All notes exactly one or more octaves apart are regarded as 
harmonically identical. 

12. The root of a chord is that note from which the whole or the 
most important parts of the chord appear (if distributed in the right 
octaves) as members of the harmonic series. 

13. A chord is inverted when its lowest note is not its root. 

14. The major triad is a concord containing three different notes 
which (octaves being disregarded) are identical with the first, third 
and fifth members of the harmonic series (the second and fourth 
members being negligible as octaves). 

15. The minor triad is a concord containing the same intervals 
as the major triad in a different order; in consequence it is artificial, 
as one of its notes is not derivable from the harmonic series. 

16. Unessential discords are those that are treated purely as the 
phenomena of transition, delay or ornament, in an otherwise con- 
cordant harmony. 

17. Essential discords are those which are so treated that the mind 
tends to regard them as definite chords possessing roots. 

18. A key is an harmonic system in which there is never any 
doubt as to which note or triad shall be the final note of music 
in that system, nor of the relations between that note or chord 
and the other notes or chords. (In this sense the church modes 
are either not keys or else they are subtle mixtures of keys.) 

19. This final note of a key is called its tonic. 

20. The major mode is that of keys in which the tonic triad and 
the two other cardinal triads are major. 

21. The minor mode is that of keys in which the tonic triad 
and one other cardinal triad are minor. 

22. A diatonic scale is a series of the notes essential to one major 
or minor key, arranged in order of pitch and repeating itself in 
other octaves on reaching the limit of an octave. 

23. Modulation is the passing from one key to another. 

24. Chromatic notes and chords are those which do not belong to 
the diatonic scale of the passage in which they occur, but which are 
not so used as to cause modulation. 

25. Enharmonic intervals are minute intervals which never 
occur in music as directly measured quantities, though they exist 
as differences between approximately equal ordinary intervals, 
diatonic or chromatic. In an enharmonic modulation, two chords 
differing by an enharmonic quantity are treated as identical. 

26. Pedal or organ point is the sustaining of a single note in the 
jass (or, in the case of an inverted pedal, in an upper part) while the 

harmonies move independently. Unless the harmonies are some- 
times foreign to the sustained note, it does not constitute a pedal. In 
modern music pedals take place on cither the tonic or the dominant, 
other pedal-notes being rare and of complex meaning. Double 
pedals (of tonic and dominant, with tonic below) are not unusual. 
The device is capable of very free treatment, and has produced 
many very bold and rich harmonic effects in music since the earlier 
works of Beethoven. It probably accounts for many so-called 
" essential discords." 

In the form of drones the pedal is the only real harmonic device 
of ancient and primitive music. The ancient Greeks sometimes 



used a reiterated instrumental note as an accompaniment above 
the melody. These primitive devices, though harmonic in the true 
modern sense of the word, are out of the line of harmonic develop- 
ment, and did not help it in any definite way. 

27. The fundamental bass of a harmonic passage is an imaginary 
bass consisting of the roots of the chords. 

28. A figured bass, or continue, is the bass of a composition supplied 
with numerals indicating the chords to be filled in by the accompanist. 
Thorough-bass (Ger. Ceneralbass) is the art of interpreting such 
figures. (D. F. T.) 

HARMOTOME, a mineral of the zeolite group, consisting of 
hydrous barium and aluminium silicate, H2BaAl 2 (Si0 3 )5+5H20. 
Usually a small amount of potassium is present replacing part 

of the barium. The system of 
crystallization is monoclinic; only 
complex twinned crystals are 
known. A common and character- 
istic form of twinned crystal, such 
as is represented in the figure, con- 
sists of four intercrossing indi- 
viduals twinned together according 
to two twin-laws; the compound 
group resembles a tetragonal crystal 
with prism and pyramid, but may 
be distinguished from this by the 
grooves along the edges of the 
pseudo-prism. The faces of the 
crystals are marked by character- 
istic striations, as indicated in the figure. Twinned crystals of 
exactly the same kind are also frequent in phillipsite (q-v.). 
Crystals are usually white and translucent, with a vitreous 
lustre. The hardness is 4.5, and the specific gravity 2-5. 

The name harmotome (from apfios, " a joint," and renvew, 
" to cut ") was given by R. J. Haiiy in 1801, and has a crystallo- 
graphic signification. Earlier names are cross-stone (Ger. 
Kreuzstein) , ercinite, andreasbergolite and andreolite, the two 
last being derived from the locality, Andreasberg in the Harz. 
Morvenite (from Morven in Argyllshire) is the name given to 
small transparent crystals formerly referred to phillipsite. 

Like other zeolites, harmotome occurs with calcite in the 
amygdaloidal cavities of volcanic rocks, for example, in the 
dolerites of Dumbartonshire, and as fine crystals in the agate- 
lined cavities in the melaphyre of Oberstein in Germany. It 
also occurs in gneiss, and sometimes in metalliferous veins. 
At Andreasberg in the Harz it is. found in the lead and silver 
veins; and at Strontian in Argyllshire in lead veins, associated 
with brewsterite (a strontium and barium zeolite), barytes and 
calcite. (L. J. S.) 

HARMS, CLAUS (1778-1855), German divine, was born at 
Fahrstedt in Schleswig-Holstein on the 25th of May 1778, and 
in his youth worked in his father's mill. At the university of 
Kiel he repudiated the prevailing rationalism and under the 
influence of Schleiermacher became a fervent Evangelical 
preacher, first at Lunden (1806), and then at Kiel (1816). His 
trenchant style made him very popular, and he did great service 
for his cause especially in 181 7, when, on the 300th anniversary 
of the Reformation, he published side by side with Luther's 
theses, ninety-five of his own, attacking reason as " the pope of 
our time " who " dismisses Christ from the altar and throws 
God's word from the pulpit." He also had some fame as a hymn- 
writer, and besides volumes of sermons published a good book on 
Pastoraltheologie (1830). He resigned his pastorate on account 
of blindness in 1849, and died on the 1st of February 1855. 

See Autobiography (2nd ed., Kiel, 1852); M. Baumgarten, Ein 
Denkmal fur C. Harms (Brunswick, 1855). 

HARNACK, ADOLF (1851- ), German theologian, was born 
on the 7th of May 1851 at Dorpat, in Russia, where his father, 
Theodosius Harnack (1817-1880), held a professorship of pastoral 

Theodosius Harnack was a staunch Lutheran and a prolific 
writer on theological subjects; his chief field of work was 
practical theology, and his important book on that subject, 
summing up his long experience and teaching, appeared at 

Erlangen (1877-1878, 2 vols.). The liturgy of the Lutheran 
church of Russia has, since 1898, been based on his Liturgische 
Formulare (1872). 

The son pursued his studies at Dorpat (1869-1872) and at 
Leipzig, where he took his degree; and soon afterwards (1874) 
began lecturing as a Privatdozent. These lectures, which dealt 
with such special subjects as Gnosticism and the Apocalypse, 
attracted considerable attention, and in 1876 he was appointed 
professor extraordinarius. In the same year he began the publica- 
tion, in conjunction with 0. L. von Gebhardt and T. Zahn, of 
an edition of the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Patrum aposloli- 
corum opera, a smaller edition of which appeared in 1877. 
Three years later he was called to Giessen as professor ordinarius 
of church history. There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold 
von Gebhardt in Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschithte der 
altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, con- 
taining only essays in New Testament and patristic fields. In 
1 88 1 he published a work on monasticism, Das Monchtum, seine 
Ideale und seine Geschichte (5th ed., 1900; English translation, 
1901), and became joint-editor with Emil Schiirer of the 
Theologische Literaturzeitung. In 1885 he published the first 
volume of his epoch-making work, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichle 
(3rd ed. in three volumes, 1894-1898; English translation in 
seven volumes, 1 894-1 899). In this work Harnack traces the 
rise of dogma, by which he understands the authoritative 
doctrinal system of the 4th century and its development down 
to the Reformation. He considers that in its earliest origins 
Christian faith and the methods of Greek thought were so 
closely intermingled that much that is not essential to Chris- 
tianity found its way into the resultant system. Therefore 
Protestants are not only free, but bound, to criticize it; indeed, 
for a Protestant Christian, dogma cannot be said to exist. An 
abridgment of this appeared in 1889 with the title Grundriss 
der Dogmengeschichle (3rd ed., 1898). In 1886 Harnack was 
called to Marburg; and in 1888, in spite of violent opposition 
from the conservative section of the church authorities, to 
Berlin. In 1890 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences. 
At Berlin, somewhat against his will, he was drawn into a 
controversy on the Apostles' Creed, in which the paity antagon- 
isms within the Prussian Church had found expression. Harnack's 
view is that the creed contains both too much and too little to 
be a satisfactory test for candidates for ordination, and he 
would prefer a briefer symbol which could be rigorously exacted 
from all (cf. his Das apostolische Glaubensbekenntnis. Ein 
geschichtlicher Bericht nebst einem Nachworte, 1892; 27th ed., 
1896). At Berlin Harnack continued his literary labours. In 
1893 he published a history of early Christian literature down 
to Eusebius, Geschichte der altchristl. Litteratur bis Eusebius 
(part 2 of vol. i., 1897); and in 1900 appeared his popular - 
lectures, Das Wesen des Christentums (5th ed., 1901; English 
translation, What is Christianity? 1901; 3rd ed., 1904). One 
of his more recent historical works is Die Mission und Ausbreitung 
des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (1902; English 
translation in two volumes, 1904-1905). It has been followed 
by some very interesting and important New Testament studies 
(Beitrdge zur Einleitung in das neue Testament, 1906 sqq.; Engl. 
trans.: Luke the Physician, 1907; The Sayings of Jesus, 1908). 
Harnack, both as lecturer and writer, was one of the most 
prolific and most stimulating of modern critical scholars, and 
trained up in his " Seminar " a whole generation of teachers, 
who carried his ideas and methods throughout the whole-of 
Germany and even beyond its borders. His distinctive character- 
istics are his claim for absolute freedom in the study of church 
history and the New Testament; his distrust of speculative 
theology, whether orthodox or liberal; his interest in practical 
Christianity as a religious life and not a system of theology. 
Some of his addresses on social matters have been published 
under the heading " Essays on the Social Gospel " (1907). 

HARNESS (from O. Fr. harneis or harnois; the ultimate origin 
is obscure; the Celtic origin which connects it with the Welsh 
haiarn, iron, has phonetic and other difficulties; the French is 
the origin of the Span, arnes, and Ger. Harnisch), probably, in 



origin, gear, tackle, equipment in general, but early applied 
particularly to the body armour of a soldier, including the 
trappings of the horse; now the general term for the gear of an 
animal used for draft purposes, traces, collar, bridle, girth, 
breeching, &c. It is usually not applied to the saddle or bridle 
of a riding animal. The word, in its original meaning of tackle 
or working apparatus, is still found in weaving, for the mechanism 
which shifts the warp-threads to form the " shed," and in 
bell-hanging, for the apparatus by which a large bell is hung. 
The New English Dictionary quotes an early use of the word for 
the lines, rod and hooks of an angler {Fysshing with an Angle, 
c. 1450). 

HARO, CLAM EUR DE, the ancient Norman custom of " crying 
for justice," still surviving in the Channel Islands. The wronged 
party must on his knees and before witnesses cry: "Haro! 
Haro! Haro! a l'aide, mon prince, on me fait tort." This 
appeal has to be respected, and the alleged trespass or tort 
must cease till the matter has been thrashed out in the courts. 
The " cry " thus acts as an interim injunction, and no inhabitant 
of the Channel Islands would think of resisting it. The custom 
is undoubtedly very ancient, dating from times when there 
were no courts and no justice except such as was meted out by 
princes personally. The popular derivation for the name is 
that which explains "Haro" as an abbreviation of "Ha! 
Rollo," a direct appeal to Rollo, first duke of Normandy. It 
is far more probable that haro is simply an exclamation to call 
attention (O.H.G. hem, hara, " here "!). Indeed it is clear 
that the " cry for justice " was in no sense an institution of 
Rollo, but was a method of appeal recognized in many countries. 
It is said to be identical with the " Legatro of the Bavarians 
and the Thuringians," and the first mention of it in France is 
to be found in the " Grand coutumier de Normandie." A 
similar custom, only observed in criminal charges, was recognized 
by the Saxon laws under the name of " Clamor Violentiae." 
Thus there is reason to think that William the Conqueror on his 
arrival in England found the " cry " fully established as far as 
criminal matters were concerned. Later the " cry " was made 
applicable to civil wrongs, and, when the administration of 
justice became systematized, disappeared altogether in criminal 
cases. It naturally tended to become obsolete as the administra- 
tion of justice became systematized, but it was long retained 
in north-western France in cases of disputed possession, 
and was not actually repealed until the close of the 18th 
century. A survival of the English form of haro is possibly to 
be found in the " Ara," a cry at fairs when " settling time " 

HAROLD I. (d. 1040), surnamed Harefoot, the illegitimate 
son of Canute, king of England, and ^Elfgifu of Northampton. 
On the death of his father in 1035, he claimed the crown of 
England in opposition to Canute's legitimate son, Hardicanute. 
His claims were supported by Leofric, earl of Mercia, and the 
north; those of Hardicanute by his mother, Queen Emma, 
Godwine, earl of the West-Saxons and the south. Eventually 
Harold was temporarily elected regent, pending a final settle- 
ment on Hardicanute's return from Denmark. Hardicanute, 
however, tarried, and meanwhile Harold's party increased 
rapidly. In 1037 he was definitely elected king, and banished 
Emma from the kingdom. The only events of his brief reign 
are ineffectual inroads of the Welsh and Scots. Hardicanute 
was preparing to invade England in support of his claims when 
Harold died at Oxford on the 10th of March 1040. 

HAROLD II. (c. 1022-1066), king of the English, the second 
son of Earl Godwine, was born about 1022. While still very 
young (before 1045) he was appointed to the earldom of the 
East-Angles. He shared his father's outlawry and banishment 
in 105 1 ; but while Godwine went to Flanders, Harold with his 
brother Leofwine took refuge in Ireland. In 1052 Harold and 
Leofwine returned. Having plundered in the west of England, 
they joined their father, and were with him at the assembly 
which decreed the restoration of the whole family. Harold 
was now restored to his earldom of the East-Angles, and on his 
father's death in 1053 he succeeded him in the greater earldom 

of the West-Saxons. He was now the chief man in the kingdom, 
and when the older earls Leofric and Siward died his power 
increased yet more, and the latter part of Edward's reign was 
virtually the reign of Harold. In 1055 he drove back the Welsh, 
who had burned Hereford. In 1063 came the great Welsh war, 
in which Harold, with the help of his brother Tostig, crushed the 
power of Gruffyd, who was killed by his own people. But in 
spite of his power and his prowess, Harold was the minister of 
the king rather than his personal favourite. This latter position 
rather belonged to Tostig, who on the death of Siward in 1055 
received the earldom of Northumberland. Here, however, 
his harshness soon provoked enmity, and in 1065 the North- 
umbrians revolted against him, choosing Morkere in his place. 
Harold acted as mediator between the king and the insurgents, 
and at length agreed to the choice of Morkere, and the banish- 
ment of his brother. At the beginning of 1066 Edward died, 
with his last breath recommending Harold as his successor. 
He was accordingly elected at once and crowned. The men 
of Northumberland at first refused to acknowledge him, but 
Harold won them over. The rest of his brief reign was taken 
up with preparations against the attacks which threatened 
him on both sides at once. William challenged the crown, 
alleging both a bequest of Edward in his favour and a personal 
engagement which Harold had contracted towards him — 
probably in 1064; and prepared for the invasion of England. 
Meanwhile Tostig was trying all means to bring about his own 
restoration. He first attacked the Isle of Wight, then Lindesey, 
but was compelled to take shelter in Scotland. From May to 
September the king kept the coast with a great force by sea 
and land, but at last provisions failed and the land army was 
dispersed. Harold then came to London, ready to meet which- 
ever enemy came first. By this time Tostig had engaged Harold 
Hardrada of Norway to invade England. Together they sailed 
up the Humber, defeated Edwin and Morkere, and received the 
submission of York. Harold hurried northwards; and on the 
25th of September he came on the Northmen at Stamford 
Bridge and won a complete victory, in which Tostig and Harold 
Hardrada were slain. But two days later William landed at 
Pevensey. Harold marched southward as fast as possible. He 
gathered his army in London from all southern and eastern 
England, but Edwin and Morkere kept back the forces of the 
north. The king then marched into Sussex and engaged the 
Normans on the hill of Senlac near Battle (see Hastings). After 
a fight which lasted from morning till evening, the Normans had 
the victory, and Harold and his two brothers lay dead on the 
field (14th of October 1066). 

HARP (Fr. harpe; Ger. Harfe; Ital. arpa), a member of the 
class of stringed instruments of which the strings are twanged or 
vibrated by the fingers. The harp is an instrument of beautiful 
proportions, approximating to a triangular form, the strings 
diminishing in length as they ascend in pitch. The mechanism 
is concealed within the different parts of which the instrument 
is composed, (1) the pedestal or pedal-box, on which rest (2) the 
vertical pillar, and (3) the inclined convex body in which the 
soundboard is fixed, (4) the curved neck, with (5) the comb 
concealing the mechanism for stopping the strings, supported 
by the pillar and the body. 

(1) The pedestal or pedal-box forms the base of the harp and 
contains seven pedals both in single and double action harps, the 
difference being that in the single action the pedals are only capable 
of raising the strings one semitone by means of a drop into a notch, 
whereas with the double action the pedals, after a first drop, can by 
a further drop into a second and lower notch shorten the string a 
second semitone, whereby each string is made to serve in turn for 
flat, natural and sharp. The harp is normally in the key of C flat 
major, and each of the seven pedals acts upon one of the notes of 
this diatonic scale throughout the compass. The choice of this 
method of tuning was imposed by the construction of the harp with 
double action. The pedals remain in the notches until released by 
the foot, when the pedal returns to its normal position through the 
action of a spiral spring, which may be seen under each of the pedals 
by turning the harp up. 

(2) The vertical pillar is a kind of tunnel in which are placed the 
seven rods worked by the pedals, which set in motion the mechanism 
situated in the neck of the instrument. Although the pillar apparently 



rests on the pedestal, it is really supported by a brass shoulder firmly 
screwed to the beam which forms the lowest part of the body, a 
connexion which remains undisturbed when the pedal box and its 
cover are removed. 

(3) The body or sound-chest of the harp is in shape like the longi- 
tudinal section of a cone. It was formerly composed of staves joined 
together as in the lute and mandoline. Erard was the first to make 
it in two pieces of wood, generally sycamore, with the addition of a 
flat soundboard of Swiss pine. The body is strengthened on the 
inside, in order to resist the tension of the strings, by means of ribs; 
there are five soundholes in the back, which in the older models were 
furnished with swell shutters opened at will by the swell pedal, the 
fourth from the left worked by the left foot. As the increaseof 
sound obtained by means of the swell was infinitesimal, the device 
has now been discarded. The harp is strung by knotting the end of 
the string and passing it through its hole in the centre of the sound- 
board, where it is kept in position by means of a grooved peg which 
grips the string. 

(4) The neck consists of a curved piece of wood resting on the body 
at the treble end of the instrument and joining the pillar at the bass 
end. In the neck are set the tuning pins round which are wound the 

(5) The comb is the name given to two brass plates or covers 
which fit over both sides of the neck, concealing part of the mechan- 
ism for shortening the strings and raising their pitch a semitone 
when actuated by the pedals. On the front plate of the comb, to the 
left of the player, is a row of brass bridges against which the strings 
rest below the tuning pins, and which determine the vibrating length 
of the string reckoned from the peg in the soundboard. Below the 
bridges are two rows of brass disks, known as forks, connected by 
steel levers; each disk is equipped with two studs for grasping the 
string and shortening it. The mechanism is ingenious. When a 
pedal is depressed to the first notch, the corresponding lower disk 
turns a little way on a mandrel keeping the studs clear of the string. 
The upper disk, set in motion by the steel levers connecting the disks, 
revolves simultaneously till the string is caught by the two studs 
which thus form a new bridge, shortening the vibrating length of 
the string by just the length necessary' to raise the pitch a semitone. 
If the same pedal be depressed to the second notch, another move- 
ment causes the lower disk to revolve again till the string is a second 
time seized and shortened, the upper disk remaining stationary. 
The hidden mechanism meanwhile has gone through a series of 
movements ; the pedal is really a lever set upon a spring, and when 
depressed it draws down the connecting rod in the pillar which sets 
in motion chains governing the mandrels of the disks. 

The harp usually has forty-six strings, of gut in the middle and 
upper registers, and of covered steel wire in the bass; the C strings 
are red and the F strings blue. The compass thus has a range of 

6k octaves from 

The double stave is 

used as for the pianoforte. The single action harp used to be tuned 
to the key of Eb major. 

The modern harp with double action is the only instrument with 
fixed tones, not determined by the ear or touch of the performer, 
which has separate notes for naturals, sharps and flats, giving it an 
enharmonic compass. On the harp the appreciable interval between 
D# and Eb can be played. The harp in its normal condition is tuned 
to Cb major; it rests with the performer to transpose it at will in a 
few seconds into any other key by means of the pedals. Each of the 
pedals influences one note of the scale throughout the compass, 
beginning at the left with D, C, and B worked by the left foot. 
Missing the fourth or forte pedal, and continuing towards the right 
we get the E, F, G and A pedals worked by the right foot. By 
lowering the D pedal into the first notch the Db becomes Dt;, and 
into the second notch D#, and so on for all the pedals, if, for 
example, a piece be written in the key of E major, the harp is trans- 
posed into that key by depressing the E, A, and B pedals to the first 
notch, and those for F, G, C and D to the second or sharp notch and 
so on through all the keys. Accidentals and modulations are 
readily played by means of the pedals, provided the transitions be 
not too rapid. The harp is the instrument upon which transposition 
presents the least difficulty, for the fingering is the same for ail 
keys. The strings are twanged with the thumbs and the first three 

The quality of tone does not vary much in the different registers, 
but it has the greatest brilliancy in keys with many flats, forthe 
strings are then open and not shortened by the forks. Various 
effects can be obtained on the harp: (1) by harmonics, (2) by damp- 
ing, (3) by guitar tones, (4) by the glissando. (1) Harmonics are 
produced by resting the ball of the hand on the middle of the string 
and setting it in vibration by the thumb or the first two fingers of 
the same hand, whereby a mysterious and beautiful tone is obtained. 
Two or three harmonics can be played together with the left hand, 
and by using both hands at once as many as four are possible. 
(2) Damping is effected by laying the palm against the string in the 

bass and the back of the finger in the treble. (3) Guitar or pizzicato 
notes are obtained by twanging the strings sharply at the lower end 
near the soundboard with the nails. (4) The glissando effect is 
produced, as on the pianoforte, by sliding the thumb or finger along 
the strings in quick succession; this does not necessarily give the 
diatonic scale, for by means of the pedals the harp can be tuned 
beforehand to chords. It is possible to play on the harp all kinds of 
diatonic and arpeggio passages, but no chromatic, except in very 
slow tempo, on account of the time required by the mechanism of 
the pedals; and chords of three or four notes in each hand, shakes, 
turns, successions of double notes can be easily acquired. The same 
note can also be repeated slowly or quickly, the next string being 
tuned to a duplicate note, and the two strings plucked alternately 
in order to give the string time to vibrate. 

Pleyel's chromatic harp, patented in 1894 and improved in 1903 
by Gustave Lyon, manager of the firm of Pleyel, Wolff & Co., is 
an instrument practically without mechanism which has already 
won great favour in France and Belgium, notably in the orchestra. 
It has been constructed on the familiar lines of the pianoforte. 
Henry Pape, a piano manufacturer, had in 1845 conceived the idea 
of a chromatic harp of which the strings crossed in the centre as in 
the piano, and "a report on the construction was published at the 
time; the instrument, however, was not considered successful, and 
was relegated to oblivion until Mr Lyon revised the matter and 
brought out a successful and practical instrument. The advantages 
claimed for this harp are the abandonment . of the whole pedal 
mechanism, a metal framing which insures the strings keeping in 
tune as long as those of a piano, and an easily acquired technique. 
The chromatic harp consists of (1) a pedestal on castors, (2) a steel 
pillar without internal mechanism, (3) a wide neck containing two 
brass wrest-planks in which are fixed two rows of tuning pins, and 
(4) a soundchest in which is firmly riveted the steel plate to which 
the strings are fastened, and the soundboard pierced with eyelet 
holes through which the strings are drawn to the string plate. There 
is a string for every chromatic semitone of the scale of C major, the 
white strings representing the white keys of the piano keyboard, 
and the black strings corresponding to the black keys. The tuning 
pins for the black strings are set in the left side of the neck in alternate 
groups of twos and threes, and those for the white in the right side 
in alternate groups of threes and fours. The strings cross half-way 
between neck and soundboard, this being the point where they are 
plucked; the left hand finds the black notes above, and the right 
hand below the crossing. There is besides in the neck a set of twelve 
tuning buttons, each one of which on being pressed gives out one 
note of the chromatic scale tuned to the pitch of the diapason normal. 
It is obvious that the repertoire for this harp is very extensive, 
including many compositions written for the piano, which however 
cannot be played with any legato effects, these being still impossible 
on this chromatic harp. 

History. — While the instrument is of great antiquity, it is yet 
from northern Europe that the modern harp and its name are derived. 
The Greeks and Romans preferred to it the lyre in its different 
varieties, and a Latin writer, Venantius Fortunatus, 1 describes it in 
the 7th century of our era as an instrument of the barbarians — 
" Romanusque lyra, plaudat tibi barbarus harpa." This is believed 
to be the earliest mention of the name, which is clearly Teutonic, — ■ 
O.H.Ger. harapha, A.-S. hearpe, Old Norse harpa. The modern 
Fr. harpe retains the aspirate; in the Spanish and Italian arpa it is 

The earliest delineations of the harp in Egypt give no indication 
that it had not existed long before. There are, indeed, representa- 
tions in Egyptian paintings of stringed instruments of a bow-form 
having affinities with both primitive harp and nefer (a kind of oval 
guitar) that support the idea of the invention of the harp from 
the tense string of the 
warrior's or hunter's 
bow. This primitive- 
looking instrument, 
called nanga, had a boat- 
shaped sound-chest with 
a parchment or skin 
soundboard, down the 
centre of which one end 
of the string was fas- 
tened to a strip of wood, 
whilst the other was 
wound round pegs in 
the upper part of the 
bow. The nanga was 
played horizontally, being borne upon the performer's shoulder. 2 
Between it and the grand vertical harps in the frescos of the time of 
Rameses III., more than 3000 years old, discovered by the traveller 
Bruce 3 (fig. 1), there are varieties that permit us to bind the whole, 

1 Poemata, lib. vii. cap. 8, p. 245, Migne's Patrologiae cursus 
computus (Paris, 1857-1866, vol. 88). 

2 A few nangas (c. 1500 B.C.) are preserved among the Egyptian 
antiquities at the British Museum, fourth Egyptian room. 

3 Bruce's harps are reproduced by Champollion, tome iii. p. 261. 

Fig. 1. 



from the simplest bow-form to the almost triangular harp, into one 

family (see fig. 2). 

The Egyptian harp had no front pillar, and as it was strung with 

catgut the tension and pitch must necessarily have been low. The 

harps above - mentioned 
depicted in the tomb at 
Thebes, assumed from 
the players to be more 
than 6 ft. high, have not 
many strings, the one 
having ten, the other 
thirteen. What the 
accordance of these strings 
was it would be hard to 
recover. We must be 
content with the know- 
ledge that the old 
Egyptians possessed harps 
in principle like our 
own, the largest having 
pedestals upon which they 
if to show how much they 


many Irish harpers as could be at that late date assembled, he 

found the compass of their harps to comprise 

thirty notes which were tuned diatonically in the key of G, under 
certain circumstances transposable to C and rarely to D, the scales 
being the major of these keys. The harp first appeared in the coat 
of arms of Ireland in the reign of Henry VIII.; and some years 
after in a map of 1567 preserved in a volume of state papers, we 
find it truly drawn according to the outlines of the national Irish 
instrument. 2 References to the Highlands of Scotland are of neces- 
sity included with Ireland ; and in both we find another name 
erroneously applied by lexicographers to the 
harp, viz. " cruit." Bunting particularly 
mentions the " cinnard cruit " (harp with 
a high head) and the " crom cruit " (the 
curved harp). In the Ossianic MSS. of the 
Dean of Lismore. (15 12) the word " crwt " 
occurs several times, and in Neill M'Alpine's 
Gaelic Dictionary (1832), which gives the 
dialect of Islay, closely related to that of 
Ulster, the word " cruit " is rendered I 
" harp." The confusion doubtless arose from/ 
the fact that from the nth century citharal 
is glossed hearpan in Anglo-Saxon MSS., a 
word which, like citharisare in medieval 
Latin, referred to plucking or twanging of 
strings in contradistinction to those instru- 
ments vibrated by means of the bow. In ~ 
Irish of the 8th and 9th centuries (Zeuss) Irish (Dalway) Harp, 
cithara is always glossed by " crot." The modern Welsh " crwth " 
is not a harp but a " rotta " (see Crowd). An old Welsh harp, 
not triple strung, exists, which bears a great resemblance to 
the Irish harp in neck, soundboard and soundholes. But this 
does not imply derivation of the harp of Wales from that of 
Ireland or the reverse. There is really no good historical evidence, 

Fig. 3. 

bestowed a wealth of decoration, 
prized them. 

The ancient Assyrians had harps like those of Egypt in being 
without a front pillar, but differing from them in having the sound- 
body uppermost, in which we find the early use of soundholes ;, 
while the lower portion was a liar to which the strings were tied and 
by means of which the tuning was apparently effected. 1 What the 
Hebrew harp was, whether it followed the Egyptian or the Assyrian, 
we do not know. That King David played upon the harp as com- 
monly depicted is rather a modern idea. Medieval artists frequently 
gave King David the psaltery, a horizontal stringed instrument from 
which has gradually developed the modern piano. The Hebrew 
" kinnor " may have been a kind ol trigonon, a triangular stringed 
instrument between a small harp and a psaltery, sounded by a 
plectrum, or more probably, as advocated by Dr Stainer in his essay 

on the music of the Bible, a kind of lyre. i ■ 1 11 - i- • • • u- t. 

The earliest records that we possess of the Celtic race, whether | and there may have been a common or distinct origin on which 
Gaelic or Cymric, give the harp a prominent place and harpists ! ethnology only can throw light. 3 The Welsh like the Irish harp 

peculiar veneration and distinction. The names for the harp are, 
however, quite different from the Teutonic. The Irish " clairseach," 
the Highland Scottish " clarsach," the Welsh, Cornish, Breton 
" telyn," " telein," " telen," show no. etymological kinship to the 
other European names. The first syllable in clairseach or clarsach 
is derived from the Gaelic " clar," a board or table (soundboard), 
while the first syllable of telyn is distinctly Old Welsh, and has a 
tensile meaning; thus resonance supplies the one idea, tension 
the other. 

The literature of these Celtic harps may be most directly found in 
Bunting's Ancient Music of Ireland (Dublin, 1840,/, Gunn's His- 
torical Enquiry respecting the Performance onthe Harp in the Highlands 
of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1807), and E. Jones's Musical and Poetical 
Memoirs of the Welsh Bards (London, 1784). The treatises of Walker, 
Dalyell, and others may also be consulted ; but in all these authorities 
due care must be taken of the bias of patriotism, and the delusive 
aim to reconstruct much that we must be content to receive as only 
vaguely indicated in records and old monuments. There is, however, 
one early Irish monument about which there can be no mistake, the 
harp upon a cross belonging to the ancient church of Ullard near 
Kilkenny, the date of which cannot be later than 830; the sculpture 
is rude, but the instrument is clearly shown by the drawing in 
Bunting's work to have no front pillar. This remarkable structural 
likeness to the old harps of Egypt and Assyria may be accidental, 
but permits the plausible hypothesis of Eastern descent. The oldest 
specimen of the beautiful form by which the Irish harp is now 
recognized, with gracefully curved front pillar and sweep of neck 
(the latter known as the harmonic curve), is the famous harp in 
Trinity College, Dublin, the possession of which has been attributed 
to King Brian Boiroimhe. From this mythic ownership Dr Petrie 
(see essay in Bunting) has delivered it; but he can only deduce the 
age from the ornamentation and heraldry, which fix its date in the 
14th century or a little later. There is a cast of it in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. The next oldest is in the Highlands of Scotland, 
the Clarsach Lumanach, or Lamont's Clarschoe, belonging, with 
another of later date, to the old Perthshire family of Robertson of 
Lude. Both are described in detail by Gunn. This Lamont harp 
was taken by a lady of that family from Argyleshire about 1460, 
on her marriage into the family of Lude. It had about thirty strings 
tuned singly, but the scale was sometimes doubled in pairs of unisons 
like lutes and other contemporary instruments. The Dalway harp 
in Ireland (fig. 3) inscribed " Ego sum Regina Cithararum," and 
dated 1621, appears to have had pairs of strings in the centre only. 
These were of brass wire, and played with the pointed finger-nails. 
The Italian contemporary " Arpa Doppia " was entirely upon the 
duplex principle, but with gut strings played by the fleshy ends of 
the fingers. When E. Bunting met at Belfast in I~'J2 as 

1 Representations of these may be seen among the musical scenes 
in the Nimrod Gallery at the British Museum. 

was often an hereditary instrument to be preserved with great 
care and veneration, and used by the bards of the family, who were 
alike the poet-musicians and historians. A slave was not allowed 
to touch a harp, and it was exempted by the Welsh laws from seizure 
for debt. The old Welsh harp appears to have been at one time 
strung with horse-hair, and by the Eisteddfod laws the pupil spent 
his noviciate of three years in the practice of a harp with that string- 
ing. The comparatively modern Welsh triple harp (fig. 4) is always 
strung with gut. It has a rising neck as before 
stated, and three rows of strings, — the outer rows 
tuned diatonic, the centre one chromatic for the 
sharps and flats. Jones gives it 98 strings and 
a compass of 5 octaves and one note, from 
violoncello C. As in all Celtic harps, the left is 
the treble hand, and in the triple harps there are 
27 strings on that side, the right or bass hand 
having 37, and the middle or chromatic row 34. 

The first pattern of the modern harp is dis- 
covered in German and Anglo-Saxon illuminated 
MSS. as far back as the 9th century. 4 A diatonic 
instrument, it must have been common through- 
out Europe, as Orcagna, Fra Angelico, and other 
famous Italian painters depict it over and over 
again in their masterpieces. No accidental 
semitones were possible with this instrument, 
unless the strings were shortened by the player's 
fingers. This lasted until the 17th century, 
when a Tirolese maker adapted hooks 6 (perhaps Fig. 4. 

suggested by the fretted or bonded clavichord) WelshTripleHarp. 
that, screwed into the neck, could be turned 
downwards to fix the desired semitone at pleasure. At last, some- 
where about 1720, Hochbrucker, a Bavarian, invented pedals that, 
acting through the pedestal of the instrument, governed by mechan- 
ism the stopping, and thus left the player's hands free, an indisput- 
able advantage ; and it became possible at once to play in no less 

2 See also a woodcut in John Derrick's Image of Ireland (1581), 
pi. iii. (Edinburgh ed. 1883). 

3 See the fine volume Musical Instruments on the Irish and. 
Scottish harps by Robert Bruce Armstrong (1904), vol. i. Vol. ii., 
which deals with the Welsh harp, has unfortunately, been withdrawn 
from sale. 

4 See for the medieval harp a careful article by Hortense Panum, 
" Harfe und Lyra im alten Nord-Europa," in Intern. Mus. Ges. 
vol. vii. pt. 1 (Leipzig, 1905) ; and for references as to illuminated 
MSS., early woodcuts, paintings, &c. see Hugo Leichtentritt, " Was 
lehren uns die Bildwerke des 14-17 Jahrhunderts fiber die Instru- 
mentalmusik ihrer Zeit ?" ibid. vol. vii. p. 3 (Leipzig, 1906). 

6 See Nauwerk, " Die Hakenharfe, Die Vervoilkommnung des 
Meriianismus an der deutschen Harfe." in Allg. musik. Ztg. (Leipzig, 
1815), p. 545 seq. 



Fig. 5. 

Modern Erard 


than eight major scales. By a sequence of improvements, in which 
two Frenchmen named Cousineau took an important part, the 
various defects inherent in Hochbrucker's plan became ameliorated. 
The pedals were doubled, and, the tuning of the instrument being 
changed from the key of Eb to Cb, it became possible to play in 
fifteen keys, thus exceeding the power of the keyboard instruments, 
over which the harp has another important advantage in the sim- 
plicity of the fingering, which is the same for every key. 

It is to Sebastian Erard we owe the perfecting of the pedal harp 
(fig- 5)> a triumph he gained in Paris by unremitting studies begun 
when he adopted a " fork " mechanism in 1786 
and ended in 18 10 when he had attained com- 
plete success with the double action pedal 
mechanism already described above. Erard 's 
merit was not confined to this improvement 
only; he modified the structure of the comb 
that conceals the mechanism, and constructed 
the sound-body of the instrument upon a 
modern principle more advantageous to the 

Notwithstanding these improvements and the 
great beauty of tone the harp possesses, the 
domestic use of it in modern times has almost 
disappeared. The great cost of a good harp, 
and the trouble to many amateurs of tuning, 
may have led to the supplanting of the harp 
by the more convenient and useful pianoforte. 
With this comes naturally a diminution in 
the number of solo-players on the instru- 
ment. Were it not for the increasing use of 
the harp in the orchestra, the colour of its 
tone having attracted the masters of instrumentation, so that 
the great scores of Meyerbeer and Gounod, of Berlioz, Liszt and 
Wagner are not complete without it, we should perhaps know 
little more of the harp than of the dulcimer, in spite of the 
efforts of distinguished virtuosi whose devotion to their instrument 
maintains its technique on an equality with that of any other, even 
the most in public favour. The first record of the use of harps in the 
orchestra occurs in the account of the Ballet comique de la royne 
performed at the chateau de Moutiers on the occasion of the marriage 
of Mary of Lorraine with the due de Joyeuse in 1581, when harps 
formed part of the concert de musique. 

See in addition to the works already referred to, Engel's Musical 
Instruments in the South Kensington Museum (1874); ai, d the 
articles " Harp," in Rees's Cyclopaedia, written by Dr Burney, in 
Stainer and Barrett's Dictionary of Musical Terms (1876), and in 
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. On the origins of the 
instrument see Proceedings of British Association (1904) (address of 
president of anthropological section). (K. S. ; A. J. H.) 

HARPENDEN, an urban district in the Mid or St Albans 
parliamentary division of Hertfordshire, England, 25 m. N.W. 
by N. from London by the Midland railway, served also by a 
branch of the Great Northern railway. Pop. (1901) 4725. It 
is a favourite outlying residential district for those whose work 
lies in London. The church of St Nicholas is a modern recon- 
struction with the exception of the Perpendicular tower. In the 
Lawes Testimonial Laboratory there is a vast collection of 
samples of experimentally grown produce, annual products, 
ashes and soils. Sir John Bennet Lawes (d. 1900) provided an 
endowment of £100,000 for the perpetuation of the agricultural 
experiments which he inaugurated here at his seat of Rothamsted 
Park. The success of his association of chemistry with botany 
is shown by the fact that soil has been made to bear wheat without 
intermission for upwards of half a century without manure. 
The country neighbouring to Harpenden is very pleasant, includ- 
ing the gorse-covered Harpenden Common and the narrow 
well-wooded valley of the upper Lea. 

HARPER'S FERRY, a town of Jefferson county, West 
Virginia, U.S.A., finely situated at the confluence of the Potomac 
and Shenandoah rivers (which here pass through a beautiful 
gorge in the Blue Ridge), 55 m. N.W. of Washington. Pop. 
(1900) 896; (1910) 766. It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio 
railway, which crosses the Potomac here, by the Winchester & 
Potomac railway (Baltimore & Ohio) of which it is a terminus, 
and by boats on the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, which passes 
along the Maryland side of the Potomac. Across the Potomac 
on the north rise the Maryland Heights; across the Shenandoah, 
on the West Virginia side, the Virginia or Loudoun Heights; 
and behind the town to the W. the Bolivar Heights. A United 
States arsenal and armoury were established at Harper's Ferry 
in 1796, the site being chosen because of the good water-power; 

these were seized on the 16th of October 1859 by John Brown 
(q.v.), the abolitionist, and some 21 of his followers. For four 
months before the raid Brown and his men lived on the Kennedy 
Farm, in Washington county, Maryland, about 4 m. N.W. of 
Harper's Ferry. The engine-house in which Brown was captured 
was exhibited at the Columbian Exposition at Chicago and was 
later rebuilt on Bolivar Heights; a marble pillar, marked 
" John Brown's Fort," has been erected on its original site. 
On Camp Hill is Storer College (state-aided), a normal school for 
negroes, which was established under Free Baptist control in 
1867, and has academic, normal, biblical, musical and industrial 

The first settlement here was made about 1747 by Robert 
Harper, who ran a ferry across the Potomac. The position 
of Harper's Ferry at the lower end of the Shenandoah Valley 
rendered it a place of strategic importance during the Civil 
War. On the 18th of April 1861, the day after Virginia passed 
her ordinance of secession, when a considerable force of Virginia 
militia under General Kenton Harper approached the town — an 
attack having been planned in Richmond two days before — the 
.Federal garrison of 45 men under Lieutenant Roger Jones set fire 
to the arsenal and fled. Within the next few days large numbers 
of Confederate volunteers assembled here; and Harper was 
succeeded in command (27th April) by " Stonewall " Jackson, 
who was in turn succeeded by Brigadier- General Joseph E. 
Johnston on the 23rd of May. Johnston thought that the place 
was unimportant, and withdrew when (15th June) the Federal 
forces under General Robert Patterson and Colonel Lew Wallace 
approached, and Harper's Ferry was again occupied by a Federal 
garrison. In September 1862, during General Lee's first invasion 
of the North, General McClellan advised that the place be 
abandoned in order that the 10,000 men defending it might be 
added to his fighting force, but General Halleck would not 
consent, so that when Lee needed supplies from the Shenandoah 
Valley he was blocked by the garrison, then under the command 
of Colonel Dixon S. Miles. On Jackson's approach they were 
distributed as follows: about 7000 men on Bolivar Heights, 
about 2000 on Maryland Heights, and about 1800 on the lower 
ground. On the 13th of September General Lafayette McLaws 
carried Maryland Heights and General John G. Walker planted 
a battery on Loudoun Heights. On the 14th there was some 
fighting, but early on the 15 th, as Jackson was about to make 
an assault on Bolivar Heights, the garrison, surrounded by a 
superior force, surrendered. The total Federal loss (including 
the garrisons at Winchester and Martinsburg) amounted to 
44 killed (the commander was mortally wounded), 12,520 
prisoners, and 13,000 small arms. For this terrible loss to the 
Union army the responsibility seems to have been General 
Halleck's, though the blame was officially put on Colonel Miles, 
who died immediately after the surrender. Jackson rejoined 
Lee on the following day in time to take part in the battle of 
Antietam, and after the battle General McClellan placed a 
strong garrison (the 12th Corps) at Harper's Ferry. In June 
1863 the place was again abandoned to the Confederates on their 
march to Pennsylvania. After their defeat at Gettysburg, the 
town again fell into the hands of the Federal troops, and it 
remained in their possession until the end of the war. On the 
4th of July 1864 General Franz Sigel, who was then in command 
here, withdrew his troops to Maryland Heights, and from there 
resisted Early's attempt to enter the town and to drive the 
Federal garrison from Maryland Heights. Harper's Ferry was 
seriously damaged by a flood in the Shenandoah in October 

HARPIES (Gr. "kfrnviai, older form 'Apeirviai., " swift 
robbers "), in ancient mythology, the personification of the sweep- 
ing storm- winds. In Homer, where they appear indifferently under 
the name of aprvi-ai, and dveWaL, their function is to carry off 
those whose sudden disappearance is desired by the gods. Only 
one of them is there mentioned (Iliad, xvi. 1 50) by name, Podarge, 
the mother of the coursers of Achilles by Zephyrus, the generative 
wind. According to Hesiod (Theog. 265) they are two in number, 
Aello and Ocypete, daughters of Thaumas and Electra, winged 



goddesses with beautiful locks, swifter than winds and birds 
in their flight, and their domain is the air. In later times their 
number was increased (Celaeno being a frequent addition and 
their leader in Virgil), and they were described as hateful and 
repulsive creatures, birds with the faces of old women, the ears 
of bears, crooked talons and hanging breasts ; even in Aeschylus 
(Eumenides, 50) they appear as ugly and misshapen monsters. 
Their function of snatching away mortals to the other world 
brings them into connexion with the Erinyes, with whom they 
are often confounded. On the so-called Harpy monument from 
Lycia, now in the British Museum, the Harpies appear carrying 
off some small figures, supposed to be the daughters of Pandareus, 
unless they are intended to represent departed souls. The 
repulsive character of the Harpies is more especially seen in the 
legend of Phineus, king of Salmydessus in Thrace (Apollodorus 
i. 9, 21; see also Diod. Sic. iv. 43). Having been deprived of 
his sight by the gods for his ill-treatment of his sons by his first 
wife (or for having revealed the future to mortals), he was con- 
demned to be tormented by two Harpies, who carried off what- 
ever food was placed before him. On the arrival of the Argonauts, 
Phineus promised to give them particulars of the course they 
should pursue and of the dangers that lay before them, if they 
would deliver him from his tormentors. Accordingly, when the 
Harpies appeared as usual to carry off the food from Phineus's 
table, they were driven off and pursued by Calais and Zetes, the 
sons of Boreas, as far as the Strophades islands in the Aegean. 
On promising to cease from molesting Phineus, their lives were 
spared. Their place of abode is variously placed in the 
Strophades, the entrance to the under-world, or a cave in Crete. 
According to Cecil Smith, Journal of Hellenic Studies, xiii. 
(1892-1893), the Harpies are the hostile spirits of the scorching 
south wind; E. Rohde (Rheinisches Museum, i., 1895) regards 
them as spirits of the storm, which at the bidding of the gods 
carry off human beings alive to the under-world or some spot 
beyond human ken. 

See articles in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie and Daremberg 
and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquitis. In the article Greek Art, 
fig. 14 gives a representation of the winged Harpies. 

HARPIGNIES, HENRI (1819- ), French landscape painter, 
born at Valenciennes in 1819, was intended by his parents for 
a business career, but his determination to become an artist was 
so strong that it conquered all obstacles, and he was allowed at 
the age of twenty-seven to enter Achard's atelier in Paris. From 
this painter he acquired a groundwork of sound constructive 
draughtsmanship, which is so marked a feature of his landscape 
painting. After two years under this exacting teacher he went 
to Italy, whence he returned in 1850. During the next few 
years he devoted himself to the painting of children in landscape 
setting, and fell in with Corot and the other Barbizon masters, 
whose principles and methods are to a certain extent re- 
flected in his own personal art. To Corot he was united by a 
bond of warm friendship, and the two artists went together to 
Italy in i860. On his return, he scored his first great success 
at the Salon, in 1861, with his " Lisiere de bois sur les bords 
de rAllier." After that year he was a regular exhibitor at the old 
Salon; in 1886 he received his first medal for " Le Soir dans la 
campagne de Rome," which was acquired for the Luxembourg 
Gallery. Many of his best works were painted at Herisson in 
the Bourbonnais, as well as in the Nivernais and the Auvergne. 
Among his chief pictures are " Soir sur les bords de la Loire " 
(1861), "Les Corbeaux" (1865), " Le Soir" (1866), " Le 
Saut-du-Loup " (1873), "La Loire" (1882), and " Vue de 
Saint-Prive " (1883). He also did some decorative work for the 
Paris Opera — the " Vallee d'Egerie " panel, which he ishowed 
at the Salon of 1870. 

HARP-LUTE, or Dital Harp, one of the many attempts to 
revive the popularity of the guitar and to increase its compass, 
invented in 1798 by Edward Light. The harp-lute owes the first 
part of its name to the characteristic mechanism for shortening 
the effective length of the strings; its second name — dital harp — 
emphasizes the nature of the stops, which are worked by the 
thumb in contradistinction to the pedals of the harp worked 

by the feet. It consists of a pear-shaped body, to which is added 
a curved neck supported on a front pillar or arm springing from 
the body, and therefore reminiscent of the harp. There are 
12 catgut strings. The curved fingerboard, almost parallel with 
the neck, is provided with frets, and has in addition a thumb- 
key for each string, by means of which the accordance of the 
string is mechanically raised a semitone at will. The dital or 
key, on being depressed, acts upon a stop-ring or eye, which 
draws the string down against the fret, and thus shortens its 
effective length. The fingers then stop the strings as usual 
over the remaining frets. A further improvement was patented 
in 1816 as the British harp-lute. Other attempts possessing less 
practical merit than the dital harp were the lyra-guitarre, which 
appeared in Germany at the beginning of the 19th century; 
the accord-guitarre, towards the middle of the same century; 
and the keyed guitar. (K. S.) 

HARPOCRATES, originally an Egyptian deity, adopted by 
the Greeks, and worshipped in later times both by Greeks and 
Romans. In Egypt, Harpa-khruti, Horus the child, was one of 
the forms of Horus, the sun-god, the child of Osiris. He was 
supposed to carry on war against the powers of darkness, and 
hence Herodotus (ii. 144) considers him the same as the Greek 
Apollo. He was represented in statues with his finger on his 
mouth, a symbol of childhood. The Greeks and Romans, not 
understanding the meaning of this attitude, made him the god 
of silence (Ovid, Metam. ix. 691), and as such he became a 
favourite deity with the later mystic schools of philosophy. 

See articles by G. Lafaye in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire 
des antiquitSs, and by E. Meyer (s.v. " Horos ") in Roscher's Lexikon 
der Mythologie. 

HARPOCRATION, VALERIUS, Greek grammarian of Alex- 
andria. He is possibly the Harpocration mentioned by Julius 
Capitolinus (Life of Verus, 2) as the Greek tutor of Antoninus 
Verus (2nd century A.D.); some authorities place him much 
later, on the ground that he borrowed from Athenaeus. He 
is the author of a Ae%uibv (or Htpl twv Xe£ecoy) ra>v8eKa pyropuv, 
which has come down to us in an incomplete form. The work 
contains, in more or less alphabetical order, notes on well-known 
events and persons mentioned by the orators, and explanations 
of legal and commercial expressions. As nearly all the lexicons to 
the Greek orators have been lost, Harpocration's work is especially 
valuable. Amongst his authorities were the writers of Atthides 
(histories of Attica), the grammarian Didymus, Dionysius of 
Halicarnassus, and the lexicographer Dionysius, son of Tryphon. 
The book also contains contributions to the history of Attic 
oratory and Greek literature generally. Nothing is known of 
an 'AvBripwv avvaywy-q, a sort of anthology or chrestomathy 
attributed to him by Suidas. A series of articles in the margin 
of a Cambridge MS. of the lexicon forms the basis of the Lexicon 
rhetoricum Cantabrigiense (see Dobree, P. P.). 

The best edition is by W. Dindorf (1853); see also J. E. Sandys, 
History of Classical Scholarship, i. (1906), p. 325; C. Boysen, De 
Harpocrationis fontibus (Kiel, 1876). 

HARPOON (from Fr. harpon, a grappling-iron, O. Fr. harpe, 
a dog's claw, an iron clamp for fastening stones together; the 
source of these words is the Lat. harpago, harpa, &c, formed 
from Gr. aprayri, hook, apira^uv, to snatch, tear away, cf. 
" harpy "), barbed spear, particularly one used for spearing 
whales or other large fish, and either thrown by hand or fired 
from a gun (see Whale-Fishery). 

HARPSICHORD, Harpsicon, double virginals (Fr. clavecin; . 
Ger. Clavicymbel, Kiel-Fliigel; Ital. arpicordo, cembalo, clavi- 
cembalo, gravecembalo; Dutch, clavisinbal) , a large keyboard 
instrument (see Pianoforte), belonging to the same family as 
the virginal and spinet, but having 2, 3, or even 4 strings to each 
note, and a case of the harp or wing shape, afterwards adopted 
for the grand pianoforte. J. S. Bach's harpsichord, preserved 
in the museum of the Hochschule fur Musik at Charlottenburg, 
has two manuals and 4 strings to each note, one 16 ft., two 
8 ft. and one 4 ft. By means of stops the performer has within 
his power a number of combinations for varying the tone and 
dynamic power. In all instruments of the harpsichord family 



the strings, instead of being struck by tangents as in the clavi- 
chord, or by hammers as in the pianoforte, are plucked by means 
of a quill firmly embedded in the centred tongue of a jack or 
upright placed on the back end of the key-lever. When the 
finger depresses a key, the jack is thrown up, and in passing the 
crow-quill catches the string and twangs it. It is this twanging 
of the string which produces the brilliant incisive tone peculiar 
to the harpsichord family. What these instruments gain in 
brilliancy of tone, however, they lose in power of expression and 
of accent. The impossibility of commanding any emphasis 
necessarily created for the harpsichord an individual technique 
which influenced the music composed for it to so great an extent 
that it cannot be adequately rendered upon the pianoforte. 

The harpsichord assumed a position of great importance 
during the 16th and 17th centuries, more especially in the 
orchestra, which was und?r the leadership of the harpsichord 
player. The most famous of all harpsichord makers, whose 
names form a guarantee for excellence, were the Ruckers, 
established at Antwerp from the last quarter of the 16th 
century. (K. S.) 

HARPY, a large diurnal bird of prey, so named after the 
mythological monster of the classical poets (see Harpies), — the 
Thrasaetus harpyia of modern ornithologists — an inhabitant 
of the warmer parts of America from Southern Mexico to Brazil. 
Though known since the middle of the 17th century, its habits 
have come very little under the notice of naturalists, and what 
is said of them by the older writers must be received with some 


suspicion. A cursory inspection of the bird, which is not un- 
frequently brought alive to Europe, its size, and its enormous 
bill and talons, at once suggest the vast powers of destruction 
imputed to it, and are enough to account for the stories told of 
its ravages on mammals — sloths, fawns, peccaries and spider- 
monkeys. It has even been asserted to attack the human race. 
How much of this is fabulous there seems no means at present of 
determining, but some of the statements are made by veracious 
travellers — D'Orbigny and Tschudi. It is not uncommon in the 
forests of the isthmus of Panama, and Salvin says (Proc. Zool. 
Society, 1864, p. 368) that its flight is slow and heavy. Indeed 
its owl-like visage, its short wings and soft plumage, do not in- 
dicate a bird of very active habits, but the weapons of offence 
with which it is armed show that it must be able to cope with 
vigorous prey. Its appearance is sufficiently striking — the head 
and lower parts, except a pectoral band, white, the former 

adorned with an erectile crest, the upper parts dark grey bandec 
with black, the wings dusky, and the tail barred; but the huge 
bill and powerful scutellated legs most of all impress the be- 
holder. The precise affinities of the harpy cannot be said tc 
have been determined. By some authors it is referred to the 
eagles, by others to the buzzards, and by others again to the 
hawks; but possibly the first of these alliances is the most likely 
"to be true. (A. N.) 

HARRAN, Haran or Charran (Sept. Xappav or Xappa : Strabo, 
Kappcu: Pliny, Carrae or Carrhae; Arab. Harran), in biblical 
history the place where Terah halted after leaving Ur, and ap- 
parently the birthplace of Abraham, a town on the stream 
Jullab, some nine hours' journey from Edessa in Syria. At this 
point the road from Damascus joins the highway between 
Nineveh and Carchemish, and Haran had thus considerable 
military and commercial value. As a strategic position it 
is mentioned in inscriptions as early as the time of Tiglath 
Pileser I., about 1100 B.C., and subsequently by Sargon II., who 
restored the privileges lost at the rebellion which led to the con- 
quest referred to in 2 Kings xix. 12 ( = Isa. xxxvii. 12). It was 
the centre of a considerable commerce (Ezek. xxvii. 23), and one 
of its specialities was the odoriferous gum derived from the 
strobus (Pliny, H.N. xii. 40). It was here that Crassus in his 
eastern expedition was attacked and slain by the Parthians (53 
B.C.); and here also the emperor Caracalla was murdered at the 
instigation of Macrinus (a.d. 217). Haran was the chief home of 
the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings, 
among them Assur-bani-pal and Nabunidus and Herodian (iv. 
13, 7) mentions the town as possessing in his day a temple of the 
moon. In the middle ages it is mentioned as having been the 
seat of a particular heathen sect, that of the Haranite Sabeans. 
It retained its importance down to the period of the Arab 
ascendancy; but by Abulfeda it is mentioned as having before 
his time fallen into decay. It is now wholly in ruins. The 
Yahwistic writer (Gen. xxvii. 43) makes it the home of Laban 
and connects it with Isaac and Jacob. But we cannot thus put 
Haran in Ara mnaharaim ; the home of the Labanites is rather 
to be looked for in the very similar word Hauran. 

HARRAR (or Harar), a city of N.E. Africa, in 8° 45' N., 
42 36' E., capital of a province of Abyssinia and 220 m. S.S.W. 
of the ports of Zaila (British) and Jibuti (French) on the Gulf of 
Aden. With Jibuti it is connected by a railway (188 m. long) 
and carriage-road. Harrar is built on the slopes of a hill at an 
elevation of over 5000 ft. A lofty stone wall, pierced by five 
gates and flanked by twenty-four towers, encloses the city, 
which has a population of about 40,000. The streets are steep, 
narrow, dirty and unpaved, the. roadways consisting of rough 
boulders. The houses are in general made of undressed stone 
and mud and are flat-topped, the general aspect of the city 
being Oriental and un-Abyssinian. A few houses, including the 
palace of the governor and the foreign consulates, are of more 
elaborate and solid construction than the majority of the build- 
ings. There are several mosques and an Abyssinian church (of 
the usual circular construction) built of stone. Harrar is a city 
of considerable commercial importance, through it passing all 
the merchandise of southern Abyssinia, Kaffa and Galla land. 
The chief traders are Abyssinians, Armenians and Greeks. The 
principal article of export is coffee, which is grown extensively 
in the neighbouring hills and is of the finest quality. Besides 
coffee there is a large trade in durra, the kat plant (used by the 
Mahommedans as a drug), ghee, cattle, mules and camels, skins 
and hides, ivory and gums. The import trade is largely in cotton 
goods, but every kind of merchandise is included. 

Harrar is believed to owe its foundation to Arab immigrants 
from the Yemen in the 7th century of the Christian era. In the 
region of Somaliland, now the western part of the British pro- 
tectorate of that name, the Arabs established the Moslem state 
of Adel or Zaila, with their capital at Zaila on the Gulf of Aden. 
In the 13th century the sultans of Adel enjoyed great power. In 
1 52 1 the then sultan Abubekr transferred the seat of govern- 
ment to Harrar, probably regarding Zaila as too exposed to the 
attacks of the Turkish and Portuguese navies then contending 


I 7 

for the mastery of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Abubekr's 
successor was Mahommed III., Ahmed ibn Ibrahim el-Ghazi 
(1507-1543), surnamed Gran (Granye), the left-handed. He 
was not an Arab but, probably, of Somali origin. The son of a 
noted warrior, he quickly rose to supreme power, becoming 
sultan or amir in 1525. He is famous for his invasion of Abys- 
sinia, of which country he was virtual master for several years. 
From the beginning of the 17th century Adel suffered greatly 
from the ravages of pagan Galla tribes, and Harrar sank to the 
position of an amirate of little importance. It was first visited 
by a European in 1854 when (Sir) Richard Burton spent ten days 
there in the guise of an Arab. In 1875 Harrar was occupied by 
an Egyptian force under Raouf Pasha, by whose orders the amir 
was strangled. The town remained in the possession of Egypt 
until 1885, when the garrison was withdrawn in consequence of 
the rising of the Mahdi in the Sudan. The Egyptian garrison 
and many Egyptian civilians, in all 6500 persons, left Harrar 
between November 18S4 and the 25th of April 1885, when a son 
of the ruler who had been deposed by Egypt was installed as 
amir, the arrangement being carried out under the super- 
intendence of British officers. The new amir held power until 
January 1887, in which month Harrar was conquered by 
Menelek II., king of Shoa (afterwards emperor of Abyssinia). 
The governorship of Harrar was by Menelek entrusted to Ras 
Makonnen, who held the post until his death in 1906. 

The Harrari proper are of a distinct stock from the neigh- 
bouring peoples, and speak a special language. Harrarese 
is " a Semitic graft inserted into an indigenous stock " (Sir R. 
Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa). The Harrari are 
Mahommedans of the Shafa'i or Persian sect, and they employ 
the solar year and the Persian calendar. Besides the native 
population there are in Harrar colonies of Abyssinians, Somalis 
and Gallas. By the Somalis the place is called Adari, by the 
Gallas Adaray. 

See Abyssinia; Somaliland. Also P. Paulitschke, Harar: 
Forschungsreise nach den Somal- und oGalla-Lundern Osl-Ajrikas 
(Leipzig, 1888). 

HARRATIN, black Berbers, dwelling in Tidikelt and other 
Saharan oases. Many of them are blacker than the average 
negro. In physique, however, they are true to the Berber type, 
being of handsome appearance with European features and well- 
proportioned bodies. They are the result of an early crossing 
with the Sudanese negro races, though to-day they have all the 
pride of the Berbers (q.v.), and do not live with or intermarry 
among negroes. 

HARRIER, or Hen-Harrier, name given to certain birds of 
prey which were formerly very abundant in parts of the British 
Islands, from their habit of harrying poultry. The first of these 
names has now become used in a generic sense for all the species 
ranked under the genus Circus of Lacepede, and the second con- 
fined to the particular species which is the Falco cyaneus of 
Linnaeus and the Circus cyaneus of modern ornithologists. 

One European species, C. aeruginosus, though called in books 
the marsh-harrier, is far more commonly known in England and 
Ireland as the moor-buzzard. But harriers are not, like buzzards, 
arboreal in their habits, and always affect open country, generally, 
though not invariably, preferring marshy or fenny districts, for 
snakes and frogs form a great part of their ordinary food. On 
the ground their carriage is utterly unlike that of a buzzard, and 
their long wings and legs render it easy to distinguish the two 
groups when taken in the hand. All the species also have a more 
or less well-developed ruff or frill of small thickset feathers 
surrounding the lower part of the head, nearly like that seen in 
owls, and accordingly many systematists consider that the genus 
Circus, though undoubtedly belonging to the Falconidae, connects 
that family with the Striges. No osteological affinity, however, can 
be established between the harriers and any section of the owls, 
and the superficial resemblance will have to be explained in some 
other way. Harriers are found almost all over the world, 1 and 

1 The distribution of the different species is rather curious, while 
the range of some is exceedingly wide, — one, C. maillardi, seems to be 
limited to the island of Reunion (Bourbon). 

fifteen species are recognized by Bowdler Sharpe {Cat. Birds 
Brit. Museum, i. pp. 50-73). In most if not all the harriers the 
sexes differ greatly in colour, so much so that for a long while the 
males and females of one of the commonest and best known, the 
C. cyaneus above mentioned, were thought to be distinct species, 
and were or still are called in various European languages by 
different names. The error was maintained with the greater 
persistency since the young males, far more abundant than the 
adults, wear much the same plumage as their mother, and it was 
not until after Montagu's observations were published at the 

Hen-Harrier (Male and Female). 

beginning of the 19th century that the " ringtail," as she was 
called (the Falco pygargus of Linnaeus), was generally admitted 
to be the female of the " hen-harrier." But this was not Montagu's 
only good service as regards this genus. He proved the hitherto 
unexpected existence of a second species, 2 subject to the same 
diversity of plumage. This was called by him the ash-coloured 
falcon, but it now generally bears his name, and is known as 
Montagu's harrier, C. cineraceus. In habits it is very similar to 
the hen-harrier, but it has longer wings, and its range is not so 
northerly, for while the hen-harrier extends to Lapland, Mon- 
tagu's is but very rare in Scotland, though in the south of 
England it is the most common species. Harriers indeed in the 
British Islands are rapidly becoming things of the past. Their 
nests are easily found, and the birds when nesting are easily 
destroyed. In the south-east of Europe, reaching also to the 
Cape of Good Hope and to India, there is a fourth species, the 
C. swainsoni of some writers, the C. pallidus of others. In North 
America C. cyaneus is represented by a kindred form, C. hudsonius, 
usually regarded as a good species, the adult male of which is 
always to be recognized by its rufous markings beneath, in which 
character it rather resembles C. cineraceus, but it has not the long 
wings of that species. South America has in C. cinereus another 
representative form, while China, India and Australia possess 
more of this type. Thus there is a section in which the males 
have a strongly contrasted black and grey plumage, and finally 
there is a group of larger forms allied to the European C. aeru- 
ginosus, wherein a grey dress is less often attained, of which the 
South African C. ranivorus and the New Zealand C. gouldi are 
examples. (A. N.) . 

HARRIGAN, EDWARD (1845- ), American actor, was 
born in New York of Irish parents on the 26th of October 1845. 
He made his first appearance in San Francisco in 1867, and soon 
afterwards formed a stage partnership with Tony' Hart, whose 
real name was Anthony Cannon. As " Harrigan and Hart," they 
had a great success in the presentation of types of low life in New 
York. Beginning as simple sketches, these were gradually 
worked up into plays, with occasional songs, set to popular music 

2 A singular mistake, which has been productive of further error, 
was made by Albin, who drew his figure (Hist. Birds, ii. pi. 5) from 
a specimen of one species, and coloured it from a specimen of the 



by David Braham. The titles of these plays indicate their 
character, The Mulligan Guards, Squatter Sovereignly, A Leather 
Patch, The 0' Regans. The partnership with Hart lasted from 
1871-1884. Subsequently Harrigan played in different cities of 
the United States, one of his favourite parts being George Coggs- 
well in Old Lavender. 

HARRIMAN, EDWARD HENRY (1848-1909), American 
financier and railroad magnate, son of the Rev. Orlando 
Harriman, rector of St George's Episcopal church, Hempstead, 
L.I., was born at Hempstead on the 25th of February 1848. He 
became a broker's clerk in New York at an early age, and in 
1870 was able to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange 
on his own account. For a good many years there was nothing 
sensational in his success, but he built up a considerable business 
connexion and prospered in his financial operations. Meanwhile 
he carefully mastered the situation affecting American railways. 
In this respect he was assisted by his friendship with Mr Stuy- 
vesant Fish, who, on becoming vice-president of the Illinois 
Central in 1883, brought Harriman upon the directorate, and in 
1887, being then president, made Harriman vice-president; 
twenty years later it was Harriman who dominated the finance 
of the Illinois Central, and Fish, having become his opponent, 
was dropped from the board. It was not till 1898, however, that 
his career as a great railway organizer began with his formation, 
by the aid of the bankers, Kuhn, Loeb & Co., of a syndicate to 
acquire the Union Pacific line, which was then in the hands of a 
receiver and was generally regarded as a hopeless failure. It 
was soon found that a new power had arisen in the railway world. 
Having brought the Union Pacific out of bankruptcy into 
prosperity, and made it an efficient instead of a decaying line, 
he utilized his position to draw other lines within his control, 
notably the Southern Pacific in 1901. These extensions of his 
power were not made without friction, and his abortive contest 
in 1901 with James J. Hill for the control of the Northern 
Pacific led to one of the most serious financial crises ever known 
on Wall Street. But in the result he became the dominant 
factor in American railway matters. At his death, on the 9th of 
September 1909, his influence was estimated to extend over 
60,000 m. of track, with an annual earning power of $700,000,000 
or over. Astute and unscrupulous manipulation of the stock 
markets, and a capacity for the hardest of bargaining and the 
most determined warfare against his rivals, had their place in 
this success, and Harriman's methods excited the bitterest 
criticism, culminating in a stern denunciation from President 
Roosevelt himself in 1907. Nevertheless, besides acquiring 
colossal wealth for himself, he helped to create for the 
American public a vastly improved railway service, the benefit 
of which survived all controversy as to the means by which he 
triumphed over the obstacles in his way. 

HARRIMAN, a city of Roane county, Tennessee, U.S.A., on the 
Emory river, about 35 S. of Knoxville. Pop. (1900)3442 
(516 being negroes) ; (1910) 306 1 . Harriman is served by the Har- 
riman & North Eastern, the Tennessee Central, and the Southern 
railways. It is the seat of the East Tennessee Normal and 
Industrial Institute, for negroes, and of the American University 
of Harriman (Christian Church, coeducational; 1893), which 
comprises primary, preparatory, collegiate, Bible school, civic 
research, commercial, music and art departments, and in 1907- 
1908 had 12 instructors and 317 students. Near the city are 
large deposits of iron and an abundance of coal and timber. 
Among manufactures are cotton products, farming tools, leather, 
tannic acid, furniture and flour. Harriman was founded in 1890 
by a land company. A clause in this company's by-laws requires 
that every conveyance of real estate by the company " shall 
contain a provision forbidding the use of the property or any 
building thereon, for the purpose of making, storing or selling 
intoxicating beverages as such." Harriman was chartered as a 
city in 1891, and its charter was revised in 1899. 

HARRINGTON, EARLS OF. The first earl of Harrington 
was the diplomatist and politician, William Stanhope (c. 1690- 
1756), a younger son of John Stanhope of Elvaston, Derbyshire, 
and a brother of Charles Stanhope (1673-1760), an active 

politician during the reign of George I. His ancestor, Sir Johri 
Stanhope (d. 1638), was a half-brother of Philip Stanhope, 1st 
earl of Chesterfield. Educated at Eton, William Stanhope 
entered the army and served in Spain, but soon he turned his 
attention to more peaceful pursuits, went on a mission to Madrid 
and represented his country at Turin. When peace was made 
between England and Spain in 1720 Stanhope became British 
ambassador to the latter country, and he retained this position 
until March 1727, having built up his reputation as a diplomatist 
during a difficult period. In 1729 he had some part in arranging 
the treaty of Seville between England, France and Spain, and for 
his services in this matter he was created Baron Harrington in 
January 1730. Laterin thesame year he was appointed secretary 
of state for the northern department under Sir Robert Walpole, 
but, like George II., he was anxious to assist the emperor Charles 
VI. in his war with France, while Walpole favoured a policy of 
peace. Although the latter had his way Harrington remained 
secretary until the great minister's fall in 1742, when he was 
transferred to the office of president of the council and was 
created earl of Harrington and Viscount Petersham. In 1744, 
owing to the influence of his political allies, the Pelhams, he 
returned to his former post of secretary of state, but he soon 
lost the favour of the king, and this was the principal cause 
why he left office in October 1746. He was lord lieutenant 
of Ireland from 1747 to 1751, and he died in London on the 8th 
of December 1756. 

The earl's successor was his son, William (1719-1779), who 
entered the army, was wounded at Fontenoy and became a 
general in 1770. He was a member of parliament for about ten 
years and he died on the 1st of April 1779. This earl's wife 
Caroline (17 2 2-1 784), daughter of Charles Fitzroy, 2nd duke of 
Grafton, was a noted beauty, but was also famous for her 
eccentricities. Their elder son, Charles(i753-i829),who became 
the 3rd earl, was a distinguished soldier. He served with the 
British army during the American War of Independence and 
attained the rank of general in 1802. From 1805 to 181 2 he was 
commander-in-chief in Ireland; he was sent on diplomatic 
errands to Vienna and to Berlin, and he died at Brighton on the 
15th of September 1829. 

Charles Stanhope, 4th earl of Harrington (1780-1851), the 
eldest son of the 3rd earl, was known as Lord Petersham 
until he succeeded to the earldom in 1829. He was very well 
known in society owing partly to his eccentric habits; he 
dressed like the French king Henry IV., "and had other personal 
peculiarities. He married the actress, Maria Foote, but when 
he died in March 185 1 he left no sons, and his brother Leicester 
Fitzgerald Charles (1 784-1862) became the 5th earl. This 
nobleman was a soldier and a politician of advanced views, who 
is best known as a worker with Lord Byron in the cause of 
Greek independence. He was in Greece in 1823 and 1824, where 
his relations with Byron were not altogether harmonious. He 
wrote A Sketch of the History and Influence of the Press in British 
India (1823); and Greece in 1823 and 1824 (English edition 
1824, American edition 1825). His son Sydney Seymour Hyde, 
6th earl (1845-1866), dying unmarried, was succeeded by a 
cousin, Charles Wyndham Stanhope (1809-1881), as 7th earl, 
and in 1881 the latter's son Charles Augustus Stanhope (b. 1844) 
became 8th earl of Harrington. 

Before the time of the first earl of Harrington the Stanhope family 
had held the barony of Stanhope of Harrington, which was created 
in 1605 in favour of Sir John Stanhope (c. 1550-1621) of Harrington, 
Northamptonshire. Sir John was a younger son of Sir Michael 
Stanhope (d. 1552) of Shelford, Nottinghamshire, who was a brothef- 
in-law of the protector Somerset. Sir Michael's support of Somerset 
cost him his life, as he was beheaded on the 26th of February 1552. 
Sir John was treasurer of the chamber from 1596 to 1616 and was a 
member of parliament for several years. He died on the 9th of 
March 1621, and when his only son Charles, 2nd baron (c. 1595-1675), 
died without issue in 1675 the barony became extinct. 

HARRINGTON, or Harington, JAMES (1611-1677), English 
political philosopher, was born in January 161 1 of an old Rutland- 
shire family. He was son of Sir Sapcotes Harrington of Rand, 
Lincolnshire, and great-nephew of the first Lord Harington of 
Exton (d. 1615). In 1629 he entered Trinity College, Oxford, as 


I 9 

a gentleman commoner. One of his tutors was the famous 
Chillingworth. After several years spent in travel, and as a 
soldier in the Dutch army, he returned to England and lived in 
retirement till 1646, when he was appointed to the suite of 
Charles I., at that time being conveyed from Newcastle as 
prisoner. Though republican in his ideas, Harrington won the 
king's regard and esteem, and accompanied him to the Isle of 
Wight. He roused, however, the suspicion of the parliament- 
arians and was dismissed: it is said that he was for a short time 
put in confinement because he would not swear to refuse assist- 
ance to the king should he attempt to escape. After Charles's 
death Harrington devoted his time to the composition of his 
Oceana, a work which pleased neither party. By order of Cromwell 
it was seized when passing through the press. Harrington, how- 
ever managed to secure the favour of the Protector's favourite 
daughter, Mrs Claypole; the work was restored to him, and 
appeared in 1656, dedicated to Cromwell. The views embodied 
in Oceana, particularly that bearing on vote by ballot and rota- 
tion of magistrates and legislators, Harrington and others (who 
in 1659 formed a club called the " Rota ") endeavoured to push 
practically, but with no success. In November 1 661, by order 
of Charles II., Harrington was arrested, apparently without 
sufficient cause, on a charge of conspiracy, and was thrown into 
the Tower. Despite his repeated request no public trial could 
be obtained, and when at length his sisters obtained a writ of 
habeas corpus he was secretly removed to St Nicholas Island off 
Plymouth. There his health gave way owing to his drinking 
guaiacum on medical advice, and his mind appeared to be 
affected. Careful treatment restored him to bodily vigour, but 
his mind never wholly recovered. After his release he married,— 
at what date does not seem to be precisely known. He died on 
the nth of September 1677, and was buried next to Sir Walter 
Raleigh in St Margaret's, Westminster. 

Harrington's writings consist of the Oceana, and of papers, 
pamphlets, aphorisms, even treatises, in defence of the Oceana. 
The Oceana is a hard, prolix, and in many respects heavy exposi- 
tion of an ideal constitution, " Oceana " being England, and the 
lawgiver Olphaus Megaletor, Oliver Cromwell. The details are 
elaborated with infinite care, even the salaries of officials being 
computed, but the main ideas are two in number, each with 
a practical corollary. The first is that the determining element 
of power in a state is property generally, property in land in 
particular; the second is that the executive power ought not 
to be vested for any considerable time in the same men or class 
of men. In accordance with the first of these, Harrington re- 
commends an agrarian law, limiting the portion of land held to 
that yielding a revenue of £3000, and consequently insisting on 
particular modes of distributing landed property. As a practical 
issue of the second he lays down the rule of rotation by ballot. A 
third part of the executive or senate are voted out by ballot every 
year (not being capable of being elected again for three years). 
Harrington explains very carefully how the state and its govern- 
ing parts are to be constituted by his scheme. Oceana contains 
many valuable ideas, but it is irretrievably dull. 

His Works were edited with biography by John Toland in 1700; 
Toland's edition, with additions by Birch, appeared in 1747, and 
again in 1771. Oceana was reprinted by Henry Morley in 1887. 
See Dwight in Political Science Quarterly (March, 1887). Harrington 
has often been confused with his cousin Sir James Harrington, a 
member of the commission which tried Charles I., and afterwards 
excluded from the acts of pardon. 

HARRIOT, or Harriott, THOMAS (1 560-16 2 1 ) , English mathe- 
matician and astronomer, was born at Oxford in 1560. After 
studying at St Mary Hall, Oxford, he became tutor to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, who appointed him in 1585 to the office of geographer 
to the second expedition to Virginia. Harriot published an 
account of this expedition in 1588, which was afterwards 
reprinted in Hakluyt's Voyages. On his return to England, 
after an absence of two years, he resumed his mathematical 
studies, and having made the acquaintance of Henry Percy, 
earl of Northumberland, distinguished for his patronage of 
men of science, he received from him a yearly pension of £120. 
He died at London on the 2nd of July 1621. A manuscript of 

Harriot's entitled Ephemeris chrysometria is preserved in Sion 
College; and his Artis analyticae praxis ad aequaliones alge- 
braicas resolvendas was published at London in 1631. His con- 
tributions to algebra are treated in the article Algebra; 
Wallis's History of Algebra (1685) may also be consulted. From 
some papers of Harriot's, discovered in 1784, it would appear 
that he had either procured a telescope from Holland, or divined 
the construction of that instrument, and that he coincided in 
point of time with Galileo in discovering the spots on the sun's 

See Charles Hutton, Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary 
(1815), and J. E. Montucla, Histoire des mathematiques (1758). 

HARRIS, GEORGE, ist Baron (1746-1829), British general, 
was the son of the Rev George Harris, curate of Brasted, Kent, 
and was born on the 18th of March 1746. Educated at West- 
minster school and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, 
he was commissioned to the Royal Artillery in 1760, transferring 
to an ensigncy in the 5th foot (Northumberland Fusiliers) in 
1762. Three years later he became lieutenant, and in 1771 
captain. His first active service was in the American War of 
Independence, in which he served at Lexington, Bunker Hill 
(severely wounded) and in every engagement of Howe's army 
except one up to November 1778. By this time he had obtained 
his majority, and his next service was under Major-General 
Medows at Santa Lucia in 1778-1779, after which his regiment 
served as marines in Rodney's fleet. Later in 1779 he was for a 
time a prisoner of war. Shortly before his promotion to lieu- 
tenant-colonel in his regiment (1780) he married. After com- 
manding the 5th in Ireland for some years, he exchanged and 
went with General Medows to Bombay, and served with that 
officer in India until 1792, taking part in various battles and 
engagements, notably Lord Cornwallis's attack on Seringapatam. 
In 1794, after a short period of home service, he was again in 
India. In the same year he became major-general, and in 1796 
local lieutenant-general in Madras. Up to 1800 he commanded 
the troops in the presidency, and for a short time he exercised the 
civil government as well. In December 1798 he was appointed 
by Lord Wellesley, the governor-general, to command the field 
army which was intended to attack Tipu Sahib, and in a few 
months Harris reduced the Mysore country and stormed the 
great stronghold of Seringapatam. His success established his 
reputation as a capable and experienced commander, and its 
political importance led to his being offered the reward (which 
he declined) of an Irish peerage. He returned home in 1800, 
became lieutenant-general in the army the following year, and 
attained the rank of full general in 1812. In 1815 he was made a 
peer of the United Kingdom under the title Baron Harris of 
Seringapatam and Mysore, and of Belmont, Kent. In 1820 he 
received the G.C.B., and in 1824 the governorship of Dumbarton 
Castle. Lord Harris died at Belmont in May 1829. He had 
been colonel of the 73rd Highlanders since 1800. 

His descendant, the 4th Baron Harris (b. 1851), best known as 
a cricketer, was under-secretary for India (1885-1886), under- 
secretary for war (1886-1889) and governor of Bombay (1890- 


See Rt. Hon. S. Lushington, Life of Lord Harris (London, 1840), 
and the regimental histories of the 5th Northumberland Fusiliers 
and 73rd Highlanders. 

HARRIS, JAMES (1709-1780), English grammarian, was born 
at Salisbury on the 20th of July 1709. He was educated at the 
grammar school in the Close at Salisbury, and at Wadham 
College, Oxford. On leaving the university he was entered at 
Lincoln's Inn as a student of law, though not intended for the 
bar. The death of his father in 1733 placed him in possession of 
an independent fortune and of the house in Salisbury Close. He 
became a county magistrate, and represented Christchurch in 
parliament from 1761 till his death, and was comptroller to the 
queen from 1774 to 1780. He held office under Lord Grenville, 
retiring with him in 1765. The decided bent of his mind had 
always been towards the Greek and Latin classics; and to the 
study of these, especially of Aristotle, he applied himself with 
unremitting assiduity during a period of fourteen or fifteen 



years. He published in 1744 three treatises — on art; on music, 
painting and poetry; and on happiness. In 1751 appeared the 
work by which he became best known, Hermes, a philosophical 
inquiry concerning universal grammar. He also published 
Philosophical Arrangements and Philosophical Inquiries. Harris 
was a great lover of music, and adapted the words for a selec- 
tion from Italian and German composers, published by the 
cathedral organist, James Corfe. He died on the 22nd of 
December 1780. 

His works were collected and published in 1801, by his son, the 
first earl of Malmesbury, who prefixed a brief biography. 

HARRIS, JOEL CHANDLER (1848-1008), American author, 
was born in Eatonton, Putnam county, Georgia, on the 8th of 
December 1848. He started as an apprentice to the printer's 
trade in the office of the Countryman, a weekly paper published 
on a plantation not far from his home. He then studied law, 
and practised for a short time in Forsyth, Ga., but soon took 
to journalism. He joined the staff of the Savannah Daily News 
in 1871, and in 1876 that of the Atlanta Constitution, of which 
he was an editor from 1890 to 1901, and in this capacity did 
much to further the cause of the New South. But his most 
distinctive contribution to this paper, and to American literature, 
consisted of his dialect pieces dealing with negro life and folklore. 
His stories are characterized by quaint humour, poetic feeling 
and homely philosophy; and " Uncle Remus," the principal 
character of most of them, is a remarkably vivid and real creation. 
The first collection of his stories was published in 1880 as Uncle 
Remus: his Songs and his Sayings. . Among his later works are 
Nights with Uncle Remus (1883), Mingo and Other Sketches in 
Black and White (1884), Free Joe and Other Georgian Sketches 
(1887), Balaam and His Master and Other Sketches and Stories 
(1891), Uncle Remus and His Friends (1892), On the Plantation 
(1892), which is partly autobiographic, Sister Jane (1896), The 
Chronicles of Aunt Minervy Ann (1899), and The Tar-Baby and 
Other Rhymes of Uncle Remus (1904). More purely juvenile are 
Daddy Jake the Runaway and Other Stories (1889), Little Mr 
Thimblefinger and his Queer Country (1894) and its sequel Mr 
Rabbit at Home (1895), Aaron in the Wildwoods (1897), Plantation 
Pageants (1899), Told by Uncle Remus (1905), and Uncle Remus 
and Br'cr Rabbit (1907). He was one of the compilers of the 
Life of Henry W. Grady, including his Writings and Speeches 
(1890) and wrote Stories of Georgia (1896), and Georgia from the 
Invasion of De Soto to Recent Times (1899). He died in Atlanta 
on the 3rd of July 1908. 

HARRIS, JOHN (c. 1666-17 19), English writer. He is best 
known as the editor of the Lexicon technicum, or Dictionary 
of the Arts and Sciences (1704), which ranks as the earliest of the 
long line of English encyclopaedias, and as the compiler of the 
Collection of Voyages and Travels which passes under his name. 
He was born about 1666, probably in Shropshire, and was a 
scholar of Trinity College, Oxford, from 1684 to 1688. He was 
presented to the vicarage of Icklesham in Sussex, and subse- 
quently to the rectory of St Thomas, Winchelsea. In 1698 he 
was entrusted with the delivery of the seventh series of the 
Boyle lectures — Atheistical Objections against the Being of God 
and His Attributes fairly considered and fully refuted. Between 
1702 and 1704 he delivered at the Marine Coffee House in 
Birchin Lane the mathematical lectures founded by Sir Charles 
Cox, and advertised himself as a mathematical tutor at Amen 
Corner. The friendship of Sir William Cowper, afterwards lord 
chancellor, secured for him the office of private chaplain, a 
prebend in Rochester cathedral (1708), and the rectory of the 
united parishes of St Mildred, Bread Street and St Margaret 
Moses, in addition to other preferments. He showed himself 
an ardent supporter of the government, and engaged in a bitter 
quarrel with the Rev. Charles Humphreys, who afterwards was 
chaplain to Dr Sacheverel. Harris was one of the early members 
of the Royal Society, and for a time acted as vice-president. 
At his death on the 7th of September 17 19, he was busy 
completing an elaborate History of Kent. He is said to have 
died in poverty brought on by his own bad management of his 

HARRIS, THOMAS LAKE (1823-1906), American spiritual- 
istic " prophet," was born at Fenny Stratford in Buckinghamshire, 
England, on the 15th of May 1823. His parents were Calvinistic 
Baptists, and very poor. They settled at Utica, New York, 
when Harris was five years old. When he was about twenty 
Harris became a Universalist preacher, and then a Swedenborgian. 
He became associated about 1847 with a spiritualist of indifferent 
character named Davis. After Davis had been publicly exposed, 
Harris established a congregation in New York. About 1850 
he professed to receive inspirations, and published some long 
poems. He had the gift of improvisation in a very high degree. 
About 1859 he preached in London, and is described as a man 
" with low, black eyebrows, black beard, and sallow countenance." 
He was an effective speaker, and his poetry was admired by 
many; Alfred Austin in his book The Poetry of the Period even 
devoted a chapter to Harris. He founded in 1861 a community 
at Wassaic, New York, and opened a bank and a mill, which 
he superintended. There he was joined by about sixty converts, 
including five orthodox clergymen, some Japanese people, some 
American ladies of position, and especially by Laurence Oliphant 
(q.v.) v.'ith his wife and mother. The community — the Brother- 
hood of the New Life — decided to settle at the village of Brocton 
on the shore of Lake Erie. Harris established there a wine- 
making industry. In reply to the objections of teetotallers he 
said that the wine prepared by himself was filled with the 
divine breath so that all noxious influences were neutralized. 
' Harris also built a tavern and strongly advocated the use of 
tobacco. He exacted complete surrender from his disciples — 
even the surrender of moral judgment. He taught that God 
was bi-sexual, and apparently, though not in reality, that the 
rule of society should be one of married celibacy. He professed 
to teach his community a change in the mode of respiration 
which was to be the visible sign of possession by Christ and the 
seal of immortality. The Oliphants broke away from the restraint 
about 1 88 1, charging him with robbery and succeeding in getting 
back from him many thousands of pounds by legal proceedings. 
But while losing faith in Harris himself, they did not abandon 
his main teaching. In Laurence Oliphant's novel Masollam 
his view of Harris will be found. Briefly, he held that Harris 
was originally honest, greatly gifted, and possessed of certain, 
psychical powers. But in the end he came to practise unbridled 
licence under the loftiest pretensions, made the profession of 
extreme disinterestedness a cloak to conceal his avarice, and 
demanded from his followers a blind and supple obedience. 
Harris in 1876 discontinued for a time public activities, but 
issued to a secret circle books of verse dwelling mainly on sexual 
questions. On these his mind ran from the first. In 1891 he 
announced that his body had been renewed, and that he had 
discovered the secret of the resuscitation of humanity. He pub- 
lished a book, Lyra triumphalis, dedicated to A. C. Swinburne. 
He also made a third marriage, and visited England intending 
to remain there. He was called back by a fire which destroyed 
large stocks of his wine, and remained in New York till 1903, 
when he visited Glasgow. His followers believed that he had 
attained the secret of immortal life on earth, and after his death 
on the 23rd of March 1906 declared that he was only sleeping. 
It was three months before it was acknowledged publicly that 
he was really dead. . There can be little or no doubt as to the 
real character of Harris. His teaching was esoteric in form, but 
is a thinly veiled attempt to alter the ordering of sexual relations. 

The authoritative biography from the side of his disciples is the 
Life by A. A. Cuthbert, published in Glasgow in 1908. It is full of the 
jargon of Harris's sect, but contains some biographical facts as well 
as many quotations. Mrs Oliphant's Life of Laurence Oliphant 
(1891) has not been shaken in any important particular, and Oli- 
phant's own portrait of Harris in Masollam is apparently unexag- 
gerated. But Harris had much personal magnetism, unbounded 
self-confidence, along with endless fluency, and to the last was 
believed in by some disciples of character and influence. (W. R. N I .) 

HARRIS, SIR WILLIAM SNOW (1 791-1867), English 
electrician, was descended from an old family of solicitors at 
Plymouth, where he was born on the 1st of April 1791. He 
received his early education at the Plymouth grammar-school, 



and completed a course of medical studies at the university of 
Edinburgh, after which he established himself as a general 
medical practitioner in Plymouth. On his marriage in 1824 he 
resolved to abandon his profession on account of its duties 
interfering too much with his favourite study of electricity. As 
early as 1820 he had invented a new method of arranging the 
lightning conductors of ships, the peculiarity of which was that 
the metal was permanently fixed in the masts and extended 
throughout the hull; but it was only with great difficulty, and 
not till nearly thirty years afterwards, that his invention was 
adopted by the government for the royal navy. In 1826 he 
read a paper before the Royal Society " On the Relative Powers of 
various Metallic Substances as Conductors of Electricity," which 
led to his being elected a fellow of the society in 183 1. Subse- 
quently, in 1834, 1836 and 1839, he read before the society several 
valuable papers on the elementary laws of electricity, and he 
also communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh various 
interesting accounts of his experiments and discoveries in the 
same field of inquiry. In 1835 he received the Copley gold 
medal from the Royal Society for his papers on the laws of 
electricity of high tension, and in 1839 he was chosen to deliver 
the Bakerian lecture. Meanwhile, although a government 
commission had recommended the general adoption of his 
conductors in the royal navy, and the government had granted 
him an annuity of £300 "in consideration of services in the 
cultivation of science," the naval authorities continued to offer 
various objections to his invention; to aid in removing these 
he in 1843 published his work on Thunderstorms, and also about 
the same time contributed a number of papers to the Nautical 
Magazine illustrative of damage by lightning. His system waS 
actually adopted in the Russian navy before he succeeded in 
removing the prejudices against it in England, and in 1845 the 
emperor of Russia, in acknowledgment of his services, presented 
him with a valuable ring and vase. At length, the efficiency of 
his system being acknowledged, he received in 1847 the honour 
of knighthood, and subsequently a grant of /5000. After suc- 
ceeding in introducing his invention into general use Harris 
resumed his labours in the field of original research, but as he 
failed to realize the advances that had been made by the new 
school of science his application resulted in no discoveries of 
much value. His manuals of Electricity, Galvanism and 
Magnetism, published between 1848 and 1856, were, however, 
written with great clearness, and passed through several editions. 
He died at Plymouth on the 22nd of January 1867, while having 
in preparation a Treatise on Frictional Electricity, which was 
published posthumously in the same year, with a memoir of the 
author by Charles Tomlinson. 

HARRIS, WILLIAM TORREY (1835-1900), American edu- 
cationist, was born in North Killingly, Connecticut, on the 
10th of September 1835. He studied at Phillips Andover 
Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, and entered Yale, but left 
in his junior year (1857) to accept a position as a teacher of 
shorthand in the St Louis, Missouri, public schools. Advancing 
through the grades of principal and assistant superintendent, 
he was city superintendent of schools from 1867 until 1880. In 
1858, under the stimulus of Henry C. Brockmeyer, Harris 
became interested in modern German philosophy in general, 
and in particular in Hegel, whose works a small group, gather- 
ing about Harris and Brockmeyer, began to study in 1859. 
From 1867 to 1893 Harris edited The Journal of Speculative 
Philosophy (22 vols.), which was the quarterly organ of the 
Philosophical Society founded in 1866. The Philosophical 
Society died out before 1874, when Harris founded in St Louis 
a Kant Club, which lived for fifteen years. In 1873, with Miss 
Susan E. Blow, he established in St Louis the first permanent 
public-school kindergarten in America. He represented the 
United States Bureau of Education at the International Con- 
gress of Educators at Brussels in 1880. In 1889 he represented 
the United States Bureau of Education at the Paris Exposition, 
and from 1889 to 1906 was United States commissioner of 
education. In 1899 the university of Jena gave him the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy for his work on Hegel. In 1906 

the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 
conferred upon him "as the first man to whom such recognition 
for meritorious service is given, the highest retiring allowance 
which our rules will allow, an annual income of $3000." Besides 
being a contributor to the magazines and encyclopedias on 
educational and philosophical subjects, he wrote An Intro- 
duction to the Study of Philosophy (1889); The Spiritual Sense 
of Dante's Divina Coin-media (1889); Hegel's Logic (1890); 
and Psychologic Foundations of Education (1898); and edited 
Appleton's International Education Series and Webster's Inter- 
national Dictionary. He died on the 5th 'of November 1909. 

See Henry R. Evans, "A List of the Writings of William Torrey 
Harris" in the Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1Q07, 
vol. i. (Washington, 1908). 

HARRISRURG, the capital of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., and the 
county-seat of Dauphin county, on the E. bank of the Susque- 
hanna river, about 105 m. W. by N. of Philadelphia. Pop. 
(1890), 39,385; (1900), 50,167, of whom 2493 were foreign-born 
and 4107 were negroes; (1910 census) 64,186. It is served by 
the Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia & Reading, the Northern 
Central and the Cumberland Valley railways; and the Pennsyl- 
vania canal gives it water communication with the ocean. The 
river here is a mile wide, and is ordinarily very shallow and 
dotted with islets, but rises from 4 to 6 ft. after a moderate rain; 
it is spanned by several bridges. 

The city lies for the most part on the E. slope of a hill extend- 
ing from the river bank, several feet in height, across the Penn- 
sylvania canal to Paxton Creek. Front Street, along the river, 
is part of a parkway connecting the park system with which the 
city is encircled. Overlooking it are the finest residences, among 
them the governor's mansion. State Street, 120 ft. in width, 
runs at right angles with Front Street through the business 
centre of the city, being interrupted by the Capitol Park (about 
16 acres). The Capitol, 1 dedicated in 1906, was erected to re- 
place one burned in 1897; it is a fine building, with a dome 
modelled after St Peter's at Rome. At the main entrance are 
bronze doors, decorated in relief with scenes from the state's 
history; the floor of the rotunda is of tiles made at Doylestown, 
in the style of the pottery made by early Moravian settlers, and 
illustrating the state's resources; the Senate Chamber and the 
House Chamber have stained-glass windows by W. B. van Ingen 
and mural paintings by Edwin A. Abbey, who painted a series, 
" The Development of the Law," for the Supreme Court room 
in the eastern wing and decorated the rotunda. The mural 
decorations of the south corridor, by W. B. van Ingen, portray 
the state's religious sects; those in the north corridor, by John 
W. Alexander, represent the changes in the physical and material 
character of the state; and there is a frieze by Miss Violet 
Oakley, " The Founding of the State of Liberty Spiritual," 
in the governor's reception room. Two heroic groups of 
statuary for the building were designed by George Grey Barnard. 
The state library in the Capitol contains about 150,000 volumes. 
In the same park is also a monument 105 ft. high erected in 

1 For this building the legislature in 1901 appropriated $4,000,000, 
stipulating that it should be completed before the 1st of January 
1907. It was completed by that time, the net expenditure of the 
building commission being about $3,970,000. Although the legis- 
lature had made no provision for furniture and decoration, the state 
Board of Public Grounds and Buildings (governor, auditor-general 
and treasurer) undertook to complete the furnishing and decoration 
of the building within the stipulated time, and paid out for that 
purpose more than $8,600,000. In May 1906 a new treasurer entered 
office, who discovered that many items for furniture and decoration 
were charged twice, once at a normal and again at a remarkably high 
figure. In 1907 the legislature appointed a committee to investigate 
the charge of fraud. The committee's decision was that the Board 
of Grounds and Buildings was not authorized to let the decorating 
and furnishing of the state house; that it had illegally authorized 
certain expenditures; and that architect and contractors had made 
fraudulent invoices and certificates. Various indictments were 
found: in the first trial for conspiracy in the making and delivering 
of furniture the contractor and the former auditor-general, state 
treasurer and superintendent of public grounds and buildings were 
convicted and in December 1908 were sentenced to two years' 
imprisonment and fined $500 each; in 1910 a suit was brought for 
the recovery of about $5,000,000 from those responsible. 



1868 to the memory of the soldiers who fell in the Mexican War; 
it has a column of Maryland marble 76 ft. high, which is sur- 
mounted by an Italian marble statue of Victory, executed in 
Rome. At the base of the monument are muskets used by 
United States soldiers in that war and guns captured at Cerro 
Gordo. In State Street is the Dauphin County Soldiers' monu- 
ment, a shaft 10 ft. sq. at the base and no ft. high, with a pyra- 
midal top. 

For several years prior to 1902 Harrisburg suffered much from 
impure water, a bad sewerage system, and poorly paved and 
dirty streets. In that year, however, a League for Municipal 
Improvements was formed; in February 1902 a loan of 
$1,000,000 for municipal improvements was voted, landscape 
gardeners and sewage engineers were consulted, and a non- 
partisan mayor was elected, under whom great advances were 
made in street cleaning and street paving, a new filtration plant 
was completed, the river front was beautified and protected 
from flood, sewage was diverted from Paxton Creek, and the 
development of an extensive park system was undertaken. 

Harrisburg's charitable institutions include a city hospital, 
a home for the friendless, a children's industrial home, and 
a state lunatic hospital (1845). The city is the seat of a Roman 
Catholic bishopric. Both coal and iron ore abound in the 
vicinity, and the city has numerous manufacturing establish- 
ments. The value of its factory products in 1905 was 
$17,146,338 (14-3% more than in 1900), the more import- 
ant being those of steel works and rolling mills ($4,528,907), 
blast furnaces, steam railway repair shops, cigar and cigarette 
factories ($1,258,498), foundries and machine shops ($953,617), 
boot and shoe factories ($922,568), flouring and grist mills, 
slaughtering and meat-packing establishments and silk mills. 

Harrisburg was named in honour of John Harris, who, upon 
coming into this region to trade early in the 18th century, was 
attracted to the site as an easy place at which to ford the Susque- 
hanna, and about 1726 settled here. He was buried in what is 
now Harris Park, where he erected the first building, a small hut, 
within the present limits of Harrisburg. In 1753 his son estab- 
lished a ferry over the river, and the place was called Harris's 
Ferry until 1785, when the younger Harris laid out the town and 
named it Harrisburg. In the same year it was made the county- 
seat of the newly constituted county of Dauphin, and its name was 
changed to Louisburg; but when, in 1791, it was incorporated 
as a borough, the present name was again adopted. In 1812, 
after an effort begun twenty-five years before, it was made the 
capital of the state; and in i860 it was chartered as a city. In 
the summer of 1827, through the persistent efforts of persons 
most interested in the woollen manufactures of Massachusetts 
and other New England states to secure legislative aid for that 
industry, a convention of about 100 delegates — manufacturers, 
newspaper men and politicians — was held in Harrisburg, and 
the programme adopted by the convention did much to bring 
about the passage of the famous high tariff act of 1828. 

HARRISMITH, a town in the Orange Free State, 60 m. N.W. 
by rail of Ladysmith, Natal, and 240 m. N.E. of Bloemfontein 
via Bethlehem. Pop. (1904) 8300 (including troops 1921). It is 
built on the banks of the Wilge, 5250 ft. above the sea and some 
20 m. W. of the Drakensberg. Three miles N. is the Platberg, 
a table-shaped mountain rising 2000 ft. above the town, whence 
an excellent supply of water is derived. The town is well laid 
out and several of the streets are lined with trees. Most of the 
houses are built of white stone quarried in the neighbourhood. 
The Kaffirs, who numbered in 1904 3483, live in a separate 
location. Harrismith has a dry, bracing climate and enjoys a 
high reputation in South Africa as a health resort. It serves 
one of the best -watered and most fertile agricultural and pastoral 
districts of the province, of which it is the chief eastern trading 
centre. Wool and hides are the principal exports. 

Harrismith was founded in 1849, the site first chosen being on 
the Elands river, where the small town of Aberfeldig now is; 
but the advantages of the present site soon became apparent 
and the settlement was removed. The founders were Sir Harry 
Smith (after whom the town is named), then governor of Cape 

Colony, suid Major Henry D. Warden, at that time Britisl 
resident at Bloemfontein, whose name is perpetuated in tha 
of the principal street. In a cave about 2 m. from the town an 
well-preserved Bushman paintings. 

HARRISON, BENJAMIN -(1833-1901), the twenty-thirc 
president of the United States, was born at North Bend, neai 
Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 20th of August 1833. His great- 
grandfather, Benjamin Harrison of Virginia (c. 1740-1791), was 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His grandfather 
William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), was ninth president oi 
the United States. His father, John Scott Harrison (1804-1878) 
represented his district in the national House of Representatives 
in 1853-1857. Benjamin's youth was passed upon the ancestral 
farm, and as opportunity afforded he attended school in the log 
school-house near his home. He was prepared for college by a 
private tutor, studied for two years at the Farmers' College, 
near Cincinnati, and in 1852 graduated from Miami University, 
at that time the leading educational institution in the State oi 
Ohio. From his youth he was diligent in his studies and a 
great reader, and during his college life showed a marked talent 
for extemporaneous speaking. He pursued the study of law, 
partly in the office of Bellamy Storer (1798-1875), a leading 
lawyer and judge of Cincinnati, and in 1853 he was admitted 
to the bar. At the age of twenty-one he removed to Indianapolis. 
He had but one acquaintance in the place, the clerk of the federal 
court, who permitted him to occupy a desk in his office and 
place at the door his sign as a lawyer. Waiting for professional 
business, he was content to act as court crier for two dollars 
and a half a day; but he soon gave indications of his talent, and 
his studious habits and attention to his cases rapidly brought 
him clients. Within a few years he took rank among the leading 
members of the profession at a bar which included some of the 
ablest lawyers of the country. His legal career was early inter- 
rupted by the Civil War. His whole heart was enlisted in the 
anti-slavery cause, and during the second year of the war he 
accepted a commission from the governor of the state as second- 
lieutenant and speedily raised a regiment. He became its 
colonel, and as such continued in the Union Army until the close 
of the war, and on the 23rd of January 1865 was breveted a 
brigadier-general of volunteers for " ability and manifest energy 
and gallantry in command of brigade." He participated with 
his regiment in various engagements during General Don Carlos 
Buell's campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee in 1862 and 1863; 
took part in General W. T. Sherman's march on Atlanta in 1864 
and in the Nashville campaign of the same year; and was 
transferred early in 1865 to Sherman's army in its march through 
the Carolinas. As the commander of a brigade he served with 
particular distinction in the battles of Kenesaw Mountain 
(June 29-July 3, 1864), Peach Tree Creek (20th of July 1864) 
and Nashville (i5th-i6th of December 1864). 

Allowing for this interval of military service, he applied 
himself exclusively for twenty-four years to his legal work. 
The only office he held was that of reporter of the supreme court 
of Indiana for two terms (1860-1862 and 1864-1868), and this 
was strictly in the line of his profession. He was a devoted 
member of the Republican party, but not a politician in the 
strict sense. Once he became a candidate for governor, in 1876, 
but his candidature was a forlorn hope, undertaken from a sense 
of duty after the regular nominee had withdrawn. He took 
a deep interest in the campaign which resulted in the election 
of James A. Garfield as president, and was offered by him a 
place in his cabinet; but this he declined, having been elected 
a member of the United States 'Senate, in which he took his seat 
on the 4th of March 1881. He was chairman of the committee 
on territories, and took an active part in urging the admission 
as states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Idaho 
and Montana, which finally came into the Union during his 
presidency. He served also on the committee of military and 
Indian affairs, the committee on foreign relations and others, 
was prominent in the discussion of matters brought before the 
Senate from these committees, advocated the enlargement of 
the navy and the reform of the civil service, and opposed the 



pension veto messages of President Cleveland. Having failed to 
secure a re-election to the Senate in 1887, Harrison was nominated 
by the Republican party for the presidency in 1888, and defeated 
Grover Cleveland, the candidate of the Democratic party, 
receiving 233 electoral votes to Cleveland's 168. Among the 
measures and events distinguishing his term as president were 
the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at 
Washington; the. passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the 
Sherman Silver Bill of 1800; the suppressing of the Louisiana 
Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in 
civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an 
international monetary conference; the establishment of 
commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and 
Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; 
the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, 
however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the 
Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning 
the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with 
Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question. His adminis- 
tration was marked by a revival of American industries and a 
reduction of the public debt, and at its conclusion the country 
was left in a condition of prosperity and on friendly terms with 
foreign nations. He was nominated by his party in 1892 for 
re-election, but was defeated by Cleveland, this result being due, 
at least in part, to the labour strikes which occurred during the 
presidential campaign and arrayed the labour unions against the 
tariff party. 

After leaving public life he resumed the practice of the law, 
and in 1898 was retained by the government of Venezuela as its 
leading counsel in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with 
Great Britain. In this capacity he appeared before the inter- 
national tribunal of arbitration at Paris in 1899, worthily main- 
taining the reputation of the American bar. After the Spanish- 
American War he strongly disapproved of the colonial policy 
of his party, which, however, he continued to support. He 
occupied a portion of his leisure in writing a book, entitled 
This Country of Ours (1897), treating of the organization and 
administration of the government of the United States, and a 
collection of essays by him was published posthumously, in 
1901, under the title Views of an Ex- President. He died at 
Indianapolis on the 13th of March 1901. Harrison's distinguish- 
ing trait of character, to which his success is to be most largely 
attributed, was his thoroughness. He was somewhat reserved 
in manner, and this led to the charge in political circles that he 
was cold and unsympathetic; but no one gathered around him 
more devoted and loyal friends, and his dignified bearing in and 
out of office commanded the hearty respect of his countrymen. 

President Harrison was twice married; in 1853 to Miss 
Caroline Lavinia Scott, by whom he had a son and a daughter, 
and in 1896 to Mrs Mary Scott Lord Dimmock, by whom he had 
a daughter. 

A " campaign " biography was published by Lew Wallace (Phila- 
delphia, 1888), and a sketch of his life may be found in Presidents 
of the United States (New York, 1894), edited by James Grant 
Wilson. (J. W. Fo.) 

HARRISON, FREDERIC (1831- ), English jurist and 
historian, was born in London on the 18th of October 1831. 
Members of his family (originally Leicestershire yeomen) had 
been lessees of Sutton Place, Guildford, of which he wrote an 
interesting account (Annals of an Old Manor House, 1893). He 
was educated at King's College school and at Wadham College, 
Oxford, where, after taking a first-class in Literae Humaniores in 
1853, he became fellow and tutor. He was called to the bar in 
1858, and, in addition to his practice in equity cases, soon began 
to distinguish himself as an effective contributor to the higher- 
class reviews. Two articles in the Westminster Review, one on 
the Italian question, which procured him the special thanks of 
Cavour, the other on Essays and Reviews , which had the probably 
undesigned effect of stimulating the attack on the book, attracted 
especial notice. A few years later Mr Harrison worked at the 
codification of the law with Lord Westbury, of whom he con- 
tributed an interesting notice to Nash's biography of the chan- 

cellor. His special interest in legislation for the working classes 
led him to be placed upon the Trades Union Commission of 1867- 
1869; he was secretary to the commission for the digest of the 
law, 1869-1870; and was from 1877 to 1889 professor of juris- 
prudence and international law under the council of legal educa- 
tion. A follower of the positive philosophy, but in conflict with 
Richard Congreve (q.v.) as to details, he led the Positivists who 
split off and founded Newton Hall in 1881, and he was president 
of the English Positivist Committee from 1880 to 1905; he was 
also editor and part author of the Positivist New Calendar of 
Great Men (1892), and wrote much on Comte and Positivism. Of 
his separate publications, the most important are his lives of 
Cromwell (1888), William the Silent, (1897), Ruskin (1902), and 
Chatham (1905); his Meaning of History (1862; enlarged 1894) 
and Byzantine History in the Early Middle Ages (1900); and 
his essays on Early Victorian Literature (1896) and The Choice 
of Books (1886) are remarkable alike for generous admiration 
and good sense. In 1904 he published a " romantic mono- 
graph " of the 10th century, Theophano, and in 1906 a verse 
tragedy, Nicephorus. An advanced and vehement Radical in 
politics and Progressive in municipal affairs, Mr Harrison in 1886 
stood unsuccessfully for parliament against Sir John Lubbock 
for London University. In 1889 he was elected an alderman 
of the London County Council, but resigned in 1893. In 1870 
he married Ethel Berta, daughter of Mr William Harrison, by 
whom he had four sons. George Gissing, the novelist, was at 
one time their tutor; and in 1905 Mr Harrison wrote a preface 
to Gissing's Veranilda (see also Mr Austin Harrison's article on 
Gissing in the Nineteenth Century, September 1906). As a relig- 
ious teacher, literary critic, historian and jurist, Mr Harrison 
took a prominent part in the life of his time, and his writings, 
though often violently controversial on political and social 
subjects, and in their judgment and historical perspective 
characterized by a modern Radical point of view, are those of an 
accomplished scholar, and of one whose wide knowledge of 
literature was combined with independence of thought and 
admirable vigour of style. In 1907 he published The Creed of a 
Layman, Apologia pro fide mea, in explanation of his religious 

HARRISON, JOHN (1693-1776), English horologist, was the 
son of a carpenter, and was born at Faulby, near Pontefract 
in Yorkshire, in the year 1693. Thence his father and family 
removed in 1700 to Barrow in Lincolnshire. Young Harrison 
at first learned his father's trade, and worked at it for several 
years, at the same time occasionally making a little money by 
land-measuring and surveying. The bent of his mind, however, 
was towards mechanical pursuits. In 171 5 he made a clock with 
wooden wheels, which is in the patent museum at South 
Kensington, and in 1726 he devised his ingenious " gridiron 
pendulum," which maintains its length unaltered in spite of 
variations of temperature (see Clock). Another invention of 
his was a recoil clock escapement in which friction was reduced 
to a minimum, and he was the first to employ the commonly 
used and effective form of " going ratchet," which is a spring 
arrangement for keeping the timepiece going at its usual rate 
during the interval of being wound up. 

In Harrison's time the British government had become fully 
alive to the necessity of determining more accurately the longi- 
tude atsea. Forthis purpose they passed an act in 1713 offering 
rewards of £10,000, £15,000 and £20,000 to any who should 
construct chronometers that would determine the longitude 
within 60, 40 and 30 m. respectively. Harrison applied himself 
vigorously to the task, and in 1735 went to the Board of Longi- 
tude with a watch which he also showed to Edmund Halley, 
George Graham and others. Through their influence he was 
allowed to proceed in a king's ship to Lisbon to test it; and the 
result was so satisfactory that he was paid £500 to carry out 
further improvements. Harrison worked at the subject with the 
utmost perseverance, and, after making several watches, went up 
to London in 1761 with one which he considered almost perfect. 
His son William was sent on a voyage to Jamaica to test it ; and, 
on his return to Portsmouth in 1762, it was found to have lost 



only i minute 54! seconds. This was surprisingly accurate, as it 
determined the longitude within 18 m., and Harrison claimed the 
full reward of £20,000; but though from time to time he received 
sums on account, it was not till 1773 that he was paid in full. 
In these watches compensation for changes of temperature was 
applied for the first time by means of a " compensation-curb," 
designed to alter the effective length of the balance-spring in 
proportion to the expansion or contraction caused by variations 
of temperature. Harrison died in London on the 24th of March 
1776. His want of early education was felt by him greatly 
throughout life. He was unfortunately never able to express his 
ideas clearly in writing, although in conversation he could give 
a very precise and exact account of his many intricate mechanical 

Among his writings were a Description concerning such Mechanism 
as will afford a Nice or True Mensuration of Time (1775), and The 
Principles of Mr Harrison's Timekeeper, published by order of the 
Commissioners of Longitude (1767). 

HARRISON, THOMAS (1 606-1 660), English parliamentarian, 
a native of Newcastle-under-Lyme in Staffordshire, the son of a 
butcher and mayor of that town, was baptized in 1606. He was 
placed with an attorney of Clifford's Inn, but at the beginning of 
the war in 1642 he enlisted in Essex's lifeguards, became major 
in Fleetwood's regiment of horse under the earl of Manchester, 
was present at Marston Moor, at Naseby, Langport and at the 
taking of Winchester and Basing, as well as at the siege of Oxford. 
At Basing Harrison was accused of having killed a prisoner in cold 
blood. In 1646 he was returned to parliament for Wendover, 
and served in Ireland in 1647 under Lord Lisle, returning to 
England in May, when he took the side of the army in the dispute 
with the parliament and obtained from Fairfax a regiment of 
horse. In November he opposed the negotiations with the king, 
whom he styled " a man of blood " to be called to account, 
and he declaimed against the House of Lords. At the surprise of 
Lambert's quarters at Appleby on the 18th of July 1648, in the 
second civil war, he distinguished himself by his extraordinary 
daring and was severely wounded. He showed a special zeal in 
bringing about the trial of the king. Charles was entrusted to 
his care on being brought up from Hurst Castle to London, and 
believed that Harrison intended his assassination, but was at 
once favourably impressed by his bearing and reassured by his 
disclaiming any such design. Harrison was assiduous in his 
attendance at the trial, and signed the death-warrant with the 
fullest conviction that it was his duty. He took part in sup- 
pressing the royalist rising in the midlands in May 1649, and in 
July was appointed to the chief command in South Wales, where 
he is said to have exercised his powers with exceptional severity. 
On the 20th of February 1651 he became a member of the council 
of state, and during Cromwell's absence in Scotland held the 
supreme military command in England. He failed in stopping 
the march of the royalists into England at Knutsford on the 
16th of August 1651, but after the battle of Worcester he ren- 
dared great service in pursuing and capturing the fugitives. 
Later he pressed on Cromwell the necessity of dismissing the 
Long Parliament, and it was he who at Cromwell's bidding, on 
ihe 20th of April 1653, laid hands on Speaker Lenthall and com- 
pelled him to vacate the chair. He was president of the council 
of thirteen which now exercised authority, and his idea of govern- 
ment appears to have been an assembly nominated by the congre- 
gations, on a strictly religious basis, such as Barebone's Parlia- 
ment which now assembled, of which he was a member and a 
ruling spirit. Harrison belonged to the faction of Fifth Monarchy 
men, whose political ideals were entirely destroyed by Cromwell's 
assumption of the protectorate. He went immediately into 
violent opposition, was deprived of his commission on the 22nd of 
December 1653, and on the 3rd of February 1654 was ordered to 
confine himself to his father's house in Staffordshire. Suspected 
of complicity in the plots of the anabaptists, he was imprisoned 
for a short time in September, and on that occasion was sent 
for by Cromwell, who endeavoured in a friendly manner to per- 
suade him to desist. He, however, incurred the suspicions of the 
.idministration afresh, and on the 15th of February 1655 he was 

imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle, being liberated in March 1656 
when he took up his residence at Highgate with his family. L 
April 1657 he was arrested for supposed complicity in Vernier'; 
conspiracy, and again once more in February 1658, when he wa: 
imprisoned in the Tower. At the Restoration, Harrison, wh( 
was excepted from the Act of Indemnity, refused to take an) 
steps to save his life, to give any undertaking not to conspiri 
against the government or to flee. " Being so clear in the thing,' 
he declared, " I durst not turn my back nor step a foot out o: 
the way by reason I had been engaged in the service of so glorious 
and great a God." He was arrested in Staffordshire in May 166c 
and brought to trial on the nth of October. He made a manl) 
and straightforward defence, pleading the authority of parlia 
ment and adding, " May be I might be a little mistaken, but J 
did it all according to the best of my understanding, desiring tc 
make the revealed will of God in His holy scriptures a guide tc 
me." At his execution, which took place at Charing Cross on th( 
13th of October 1660, he behaved with great fortitude. 

Richard Baxter, who was acquainted with him, describe: 
Harrison as " a man of excellent natural parts for affectior 
and oratory, but not well seen in the principles of his religion 
of a sanguine complexion, naturally of such a vivacity, hilarit) 
and alacrity as another man hath when he hath drunken a cuf 
too much, but naturally also so far from humble thoughts ol 
himself that it was his ruin." Cromwell also complained of his 
excessive eagerness. " Harrison is an honest man and aims al 
good things, yet from the impatience of his spirit will not wail 
the Lord's leisure but hurries me on to that which he and al! 
honest men will have cause to repent." Harrison was ar 
eloquent and fluent expounder of the scriptures, and his " rap- 
tures" on the field of victory are recorded by Baxter. He was 
of the chief of those " fiery spirits " whose ardent and emotiona 
religion inspired their political action, and who did wonders 
during the period of struggle and combat, but who later, in the 
more sober and difficult sphere of constructive statesmanship, 
showed themselves perfectly incapable. 

Harrison married about 1648 Katherine, daughter and heiress 
of Ralph Harrison of Highgate in Middlesex, by whom he had 
several children, all of whom, however, appear to have died in 

See the article on Harrison by C. H. Firth in the Diet, of Nat. 
Biog.; Life of Harrison by C. H. Simpkinson (1905); Notes and 
Queries, 9 series, xi. 21 1. 

artist, was born in Philadelphia on the 17th of January 1853. 
He was a pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and 
of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, whither he went in 1878, 
having previously been with a United States government survey 
expedition on the Pacific coast. Chafing under the restraints of 
the schools, he went into Brittany, and at Pont Aven and Con- 
carneau turned his attention to marine painting and landscape. 
In 1882 he sent a figure-piece to the Salon, a fisher boy on the 
beach, which he called " Chateaux en Espagne." This attracted 
attention, and in 1885 he received an honourable mention, the 
first of many awards conferred upon him, including the Temple 
gold medal (Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 
7), first medal, Paris Exhibition (1889), andmedals in Munich, 

Brussels, Ghent, Vienna and elsewhere. He became a member 
of the Legion of Honour and officier of Public Instruction, 
Paris; a member of the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, 
Paris; of the Royal Institute of Painters in Oil Colours, London; 
of the Secession societies of Munich, Vienna and Berlin; of the 
National Academy of Design, the Society of American Artists, 
New York, and other art bodies. In the Salon of 1885 he had 
a large canvas of several nude women, called " In Arcady," a 
remarkable study of flesh tones in light and shade which had a 
strong influence on the younger men of the day. But his reputa- 
tion rests rather on his marine pictures, long waves rolling in on 
the beach, and great stretches of open sea under poetic con- 
ditions of light and colour. 

His brother, Birge Harrison (1854- ), also a painter, 
particularly successful in snow scenes, was a pupil of the Ecole 



des Beaux Arts, Paris, under Cabanel and Carolus Duran; his 
" November " (honourable mention, 1882) was purchased by 
the French government. Another brother, Butler Harrison 
(d. 1886), was a figure painter. 

HARRISON, WILLIAM (1534-1593), English topographer and 
antiquary, was born in London on the 18th of April 1534. He 
was educated, according to his own account, at St Paul's school 
and at Westminster under Alexander No well. In 1551 he was 
at Cambridge, but he took his B.A. degree from Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1560. He was inducted early in 1559 to the rectory 
of Radwinter, Essex, on the presentation of Sir William Brooke, 
Lord Cobham, to whom he had formerly acted as chaplain; and 
from 1571 to 1581 he held from another patron, Francis de la 
Wood, the living of Wimbish in the same county. He became 
canon of Windsor in 1586, and his death and burial are noted in 
the chapter book of St George's chapel on the 24th of April 1593. 

His famous and amusing Description of England was under- 
taken for the queen's printer, Reginald Wolfe, who designed the 
publication of " an universall cosmographie of the whole world 
. . . with particular histories of every knowne nation." After 
Wolfe's death in 1576 this comprehensive plan was reduced to 
descriptions and histories of England, Scotland and Ireland. 
The historical section was to be supplied by Raphael Holinshed, 
the topographical by Harrison. The work was eventually pub- 
lished as The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland . . . 
by Raphael Holinshed and others, and was printed in two black- 
letter folio volumes in 1577. Harrison's Description of England, 
humbly described as his " foule frizeled treatise," and dedicated 
to his patron Cobham, is an invaluable survey of the condition of 
England under Elizabeth, in all its political, religious and social 
aspects. Harrison is a minute and careful observer of men and 
things, and his descriptions are enlivened with many examples 
of a lively and caustic humour which makes the book excellent 
reading. In spite of his Puritan prejudices, which lead him to 
regret that the churches had not been cleared of their " pictures 
in glass " (" by reason of the extreme cost thereof "), and to 
exhaust his wit on the effeminate Italian fashions of the younger 
generation, he had an eye for beauty and is loud in his praise of 
such architectural gems as Henry VII. 's chapel at Westminster. 
He is properly contemptuous of the snobbery that was even then 
characteristic of English society; but his account of " how 
gentlemen are made in England " must be read in full to be 
appreciated. He is especially instructive on the condition and 
services of the Church immediately after the Reformation; 
notably in the fact that, though an ardent Protestant, he is quite 
unconscious of any breach of continuity in the life and organiza- 
tion of the Church of England. 

Harrison also contributed the translation from Scots into 
English of Bellenden's version of Hector Boece's Latin Descrip- 
tion of Scotland. His other works include a " Chronologic," 
giving an account of events from the creation to the year 1593, 
which is of some value for the period covered by the writer's 
lifetime. This, with an elaborate treatise on weights and 
measures, remains in MS. in the diocesan library of Londonderry. 

For the later editions of the Chronicles of England . . . see 
Holinshed. The second and third books of Harrison's Description 
were edited by Dr F. J. Furnivall for the New Shakspere Society, 
with extracts from his " Chronologic " and from other contemporary 
writers, as Shakspere's England (2 vols., 1877-1878). 

HARRISON, WILLIAM HENRY (1773-1841), ninth president 
of the United States, was born at Berkeley, Charles City county, 
Virginia, on the 9th of February 1773, the third son of Benjamin 
Harrison (c 1740-1701). His father was long prominent in 
Virginia politics, and became a member of the Virginia House 
of Burgesses in 1764, opposing Patrick Henry's Stamp Act 
resolutions in the following year; he was a member of the 
Continental Congress in 1774-1777, signing the Declaration of 
Independence and serving for a time as president of the Board 
of War; speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1777- 
1782; governor of Virginia in 1781-17S4; and in 1788 as a 
member of the Virginia Convention he actively opposed the 
ratification of the Federal Constitution by his state. William 

Henry Harrison received a classical education at Hampden- 
Sidney College, where he was a student in 1 787-1 790, and began 
a medical course in Philadelphia, but the death of his father 
caused him to discontinue his studies, and in November 1791 he 
entered the army as ensign in the Tenth Regiment at Fort 
Washington, Cincinnati. In the following year he became a 
lieutenant, and subsequently acted as aide-de-camp to General 
Anthony Wayne in the campaign which ended in the battle of 
Fallen Timbers on the 10th of August 1 794. He was promoted to 
a captaincy in 1797 and for a brief period served as commander of 
Fort Washington, but resigned from the army in June 1798. 
Soon afterwards he succeeded Winthrop Sargent as secretary of 
the North-west Territory. In 1799 he was chosen by the Jeffer- 
sonian party of this territory as the delegate of the territory in 
Congress. While serving in this capacity he devised a plan for 
disposing of the public lands upon favourable terms to actual 
settlers, and also assisted in the division of the North-west 
Territory. It was his ambition to become governor of the more 
populous eastern portion, which retained the original name, but 
instead, in January 1800, President John Adams appointed him 
governor of the newly created Indiana Territory, which com- 
prised until 1809 a much larger area than the present state of 
the same name. (See Indiana: History.) He was not sworn 
into office until the 10th of January 1801, and was governor 
until September 181 2. Among the legislative measures of his 
administration may be mentioned the attempted modification 
of the slavery clause of the ordinance of ^87 by means of an 
indenture law — a policy which Harrison favoured; more 
effective land laws; and legislation for the more equitable 
treatment of the Indians and for preventing the sale of liquor to 
them. In 1803 Harrison also became a special commissioner to 
treat with the Indians " on the subject of boundary or lands," 
and as such negotiated various treaties — at Fort Wayne (1803 
and 1809), Vincennes (1804 and 1809) and Grouseland (1805) — • 
by which the southern part of the present state of Indiana and 
portions of the present states of Illinois, Wisconsin and Missouri 
were opened to settlement. For a few months after the division 
in 1804 of the Louisiana Purchase into the Orleans Territory 
and the Louisiana Territory he also acted as governor of the 
Louisiana Territory — all of the Louisiana Purchase N. of the 
thirty-third parallel, his jurisdiction then being the greatest 
in extent ever exercised by a territorial official in the United 

The Indian cessions of 1809, along the Wabash river, aroused 
the hostility of Tecumseh (q.v.) and his brother, familiarly known 
as " The Prophet," who were attempting to combine the tribes 
between the Ohio and the Great Lakes in opposition to the 
encroachment of the whites. Several fruitless conferences 
between the governor and the Indian chiefs, who were believed 
to be encouraged by the British, resulted in Harrison's advance 
with a force of militia and regulars to the Tippecanoe river, 
where (near the present Lafayette, Ind.) on the 7th of November 
181 1 he won over the Indians a victory which established his 
military reputation and was largely responsible for his sub- 
sequent nomination and election to the presidency of the United 
States. From one point of view the battle of Tippecanoe may 
be regarded as the opening skirmish of the war of 181 2. When 
in the summer of 181 2 open hostilities with Great Britain began, 
Harrison was appointed by Governor Charles Scott, of Kentucky 
major-general in the militia of that state. A few weeks later 
(22nd August 1812) he was made brigadier-general in the regular 
U.S. army, and soon afterwards was put in command of all the 
troops in the north-west, and on the 2nd of March i8r3 he was 
promoted to the rank of major-general. General James Win- 
chester, whom Harrison had ordered to prepare to cross Lake 
Erie on the ice and surprise Fort Maiden, turned back to rescue 
the threatened American settlement at Frenchtown (now 
Monroe), on the Raisin river, and there on the 22nd of January 
1813 was forced to surrender to Colonel Henry A. Proctor. 
Harrison's offensive operations being thus checked, he accom- 
plished nothing that summer except to hold in check Proctor, who 
(May 1-5) besieged him at Fort Meigs, the American advanced 



post after the disaster of the river Raisin. After Lieutenant 
O. H. Perry's naval victory on the ioth of September 1813, 
Harrison no longer had to remain on the defensive; he advanced 
to Detroit, re-occupied the territory surrendered by General 
William Hull, and on the 5th of October administered a crushing 
defeat to Proctor at the battle of the Thames. 

In 1814 Harrison received no active assignments to service, 
and on this account and because the secretary of war (John 
Armstrong) issued an order to one of Harrison's subordinates 
without consulting him, he resigned his commission. Armstrong 
accepted the resignation without consulting President Madison, 
but the president later utilized Harrison in negotiating with the 
north-western Indians, the greater part of whom agreed (22nd 
July 1814) to a second treaty of Greenville, by which they were 
to become active allies of the United States, should hostilities 
with Great Britain continue. This treaty publicly marked an 
American policy of alliance with these Indians and caused the 
British peace negotiators at Ghent to abandon them. In the 
following year Harrison held another conference at Detroit with 
these tribes in order to settle their future territorial relations 
with the United States. 

From 1816 to 1819 Harrison was a representative in Congress, 
and as such worked in behalf of more liberal pension laws and a 
better militia organization, including a system of general military 
education, of improvements in the navigation of the Ohio, and of 
relief for purchasers of public lands, and for the strict construc- 
tion of the power of Congress over the Territories, particularly 
in regard to slavery. In accordance with this view in 1819 he 
voted against Tallmadge's amendment (restricting the extension 
of slavery) to the enabling act for the admission of Missouri. 
He also delivered forcible speeches upon the death of Kosciusko 
and upon General Andrew Jackson's course in the Floridas, 
favouring a partial censure of the latter. 

Harrison was a member of the Ohio senate in 1819-1821, and 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the National House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1822, when his Missouri vote helped to cause his 
defeat; he was a presidential elector in 1824, supporting Henry 
Clay, and from 1825 to 1828 was a member of the United States 
Senate. In 1828 after unsuccessful efforts to secure for him the 
command of the army, upon the death of Major-General Jacob 
Brown, and the nomination for the vice-president, on the ticket 
with John Quincy Adams, his friends succeeded in getting 
Harrison appointed as the first minister of the United States to 
Colombia. He became, however, an early sacrifice to Jackson's 
spoils system, being recalled within less than a year, but not 
until he had involved himself in some awkward diplomatic com- 
plications with Bolivar's autocratic government. 

For some years after his return from Colombia he lived in 
retirement at North Bend, Ohio. He was occasionally " men- 
tioned " for governor, senator or representative, by the anti- 
Jackson forces, and delivered a few addresses on agricultural or 
political topics. Later he became clerk of the court of common 
pleas of Hamilton county — a lucrative position that was then 
most acceptable to him. Early in 1835 Harrison began to be 
mentioned as a suitable presidential candidate, and later in the 
year he was nominated for the presidency at large public meet- 
ings in Pennsylvania, New York and Maryland. In the election 
of the following year he attracted a large part of the Whig and 
Anti-Masonic vote of the Middle and Western states and led 
among the candidates opposing Van Buren, but received only 
73 electoral votes while Van Buren received 170. His unexpected 
strength, due largely to his clear, if non-committal, political 
record, rendered him the most " available " candidate for the 
Whig party for the campaign of 1840, and he was nominated by 
the Whig convention at Harrisburg, Pa., in December 1839, his 
most formidable opponent being Henry Clay, who, though 
generally regarded as the real leader of his party, was less 
" available '* because as a mason he would alienate former 
members of the old Anti-Masonic party, and as an advocate of a 
protect i ve tariff would repel many Southern voters. The conven- 
tion adjourned without adopting any " platform " of principles, 
the party shrewdly deciding to make its campaign merely on the 

issue of whether the Van Buren administration should be con- 
tinued in power and thus to take full advantage of the popular 
discontent with the administration, to which was attributed the 
responsibility for the panic of 1837 and the subsequent business 
depression. Largely to attract the votes of Democratic mal- 
contents the Whig convention nominated for the vice-presidency 
John Tyler, who had previously been identified with the Demo- 
cratic party. The campaign was marked by the extraordinary 
enthusiasm exhibited by the Whigs, and by their skill in attacking 
Van Buren without binding themselves to any definite policy. 
Because of his fame as a frontier hero, of the circumstance that 
a part of his home at North Bend, Ohio, had formerly been a log 
cabin, and of the story that cider, not wine, was served on his 
table, Harrison was derisively called by his opponents the " log 
cabin and hard cider " candidate; the term was eagerly accepted 
by the Whigs, in whose processions miniature log cabins were 
carried and at whose meetings hard cider was served, and 
the campaign itself has become known in history as the "log 
cabin and hard cider campaign." Harrison's canvass was con- 
spicuous for the immense Whig processions and mass meetings, 
the numerous " stump " speeches (Harrison himself addressing 
meetings at Dayton, Chillicothe, Columbus and other places), 
and the use of campaign songs, of party insignia, and of campaign 
cries (such as " Tippecanoe and Tyler too "); and in the election 
he won by an overwhelming majority of 234 electoral votes to 
60 cast for Van Buren. 

President Harrison was inaugurated on the 4th of March 1841. 
He chose for his cabinet Daniel Webster as secretary of state, 
Thomas Ewing as secretary of the treasury, John Bell as secretary 
of war, George E. Badger as secretary of the navy, Francis 
Granger as postmaster-general, and John J. Crittenden as 
attorney-general. He survived his inauguration only one month, 
dying on the 4th of April 1841, and being succeeded by the vice- 
president, John Tyler. The immediate cause of his death was 
an attack of pneumonia, but the disease was aggravated by the 
excitement attending his sudden change in circumstances and 
the incessant demands of office seekers. After temporary 
interment at Washington, his body was removed to the tomb at 
North Bend, Ohio, where it now lies. A few of Harrison's public 
addresses survive, the most notable being A Discourse on the 
Aborigines of the Ohio. It has been said of him: " He was not a 
great man, but he had lived in a great time, and he had been a 
leader in great things." He was the first territorial delegate in 
the Congress of the United States and was the author of the first 
step in the development of the country's later homestead policy; 
the first presidential candidate to be selected upon the ground 
of " expediency " alone; and the first president to die in office. 
In 1795 he married Anna Symmes (1775-1864), daughter of John 
Cleves Symmes. Their grandson, Benjamin Harrison, was the 
twenty-third president of the United States. 

Authorities. — In 1824 Moses Dawson published at Cincinnati the 
Historical Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of Major- 
General William H. Harrison. This is a combined defence and 
political pamphlet, but it is the source of all the subsequent " lives " 
that have appeared. There are several " campaign " biographies, 
including one by Richard Hildreth (1839) and one by Caleb Cushing 
( 1 840) ; and there is a good sketch in Presidents of the United States 
(New York, 1894), edited by J. G. Wilson. An excellent study of 
Harrison's career in Indiana appears in vol. 4 of the Indiana Historical 
Society Publications. Selections from his scanty correspondence 
appear in vols. ii. and iii. of the Quarterly Publications of the Historical 
and Philosophical Society of Ohio. 

HARRISON, a town of Hudson county, New Jersey, U.S.A^, 
on the Passaic river, opposite Newark (with which it is connected 
by bridges and electric railways), and 7 m. W. of Jersey City. 
Pop. (1890) 8338; (1900) 10,596, of whom 3633 were foreign- 
born; (1910 census) 14,498. It is served by the Pennsylvania, 
the Erie, and the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railways. 
Harrison was chosen as the eastern terminal of the Pennsylvania 
railroad for steam locomotive service, transportation thence 
to New York being by electric power through the railway's 
Hudson river tunnels. The town has an extensive river-front, 
along which are many of its manufactories; among their 
products are steam-pumps, steel, iron, machinery, roller bearings, 



brass tubing, iron and brass castings, marine engines, hoisting 
engines, metal novelties, dry batteries, electric lamps, concrete 
blocks, cotton thread, wire cloth, leather, trunks, beer, barrels, 
lumber, inks and cutlery. The factory product in 1905 was 
valued at $8,408,924. The town is governed by a mayor and a 
common council. Harrison was settled toward the close of the 
17th century, and for many years constituted the S. portion of 
the township of Lodi. In 1840, however, it was set off from 
Lodi and named in honour of President William Henry Harrison, 
and in 1873 it was incorporated. Harrison originally included 
what is now the town of Kearny (q.v.). 

HARRODSBURG, a city and the county-seat of Mercer 
county, Kentucky, U.S.A., 32 m. S. of Frankfort, on the Southern 
railway. Pop. (1890) 3230; (1900) 2876, of whom 1150 were 
negroes; (1910 U.S. census) 3147. On account of its sulphur 
springs Harrodsburg became early in the 19th century a fashion- 
able resort, and continues to attract a considerable number of 
visitors. The city is the seat of Harrodsburg Academy, Beau- 
mont College for women (1894; founded as Daughters' College 
in 1856); and Wayman College (African M.E.) for negroes. 
Among its manufactures are flour, whisky, dressed lumber and 
ice. About 7 m. E. of Harrodsburg is Pleasant Hill, or Union 
Village, a summer resort and the home, since early in the 19th 
century, of a Shaker community. Harrodsburg was founded on 
the 1 6th of June 1774 by James Harrod (1 746-1 793) and a 
few followers, and is the oldest permanent settlement in the 
state. It was incorporated in 1875. Harrodsburg was formerly 
the seat of Bacon College (see Lexington, Kentucky). 

HARROGATE, a municipal borough and watering-place in 
the Ripon parliamentary division of the West Riding of York- 
shire, England, 203 m. N. by W. from London, on the North- 
Eastern railway. Pop. (1891) 16,316; (1901) 28,423. It is 
indebted for its rise and importance to its medicinal springs, 
and is the principal inland watering-place in the north of England. 
It consists of two scattered townships, Low Harrogate and High 
Harrogate, which have gradually been connected by a continuous 
range of handsome houses and villas. A common called the 
Stray, of 200 acres, secured by act of parliament from ever being 
built upon, stretches in front of the main line of houses, and on 
this account Harrogate, notwithstanding its rapid increase, has 
retained much of its rural charm. As regards climate a choice 
is offered between the more bracing atmosphere of High Harro- 
gate and the sheltered and warm climate of the low town. The 
waters are chalybeate, sulphureous and saline, and some of the 
springs possess all these qualities to a greater or less extent. 
The principal chalybeate springs are the Tewitt well, called by 
Dr Bright, who wrote the first account of it, the " English Spa," 
discovered by Captain William Slingsby of Bilton Hall near the 
close of the 16th century; the Royal Chalybeate Spa, more 
commonly known as John's Well, discovered in 1631 by Dr 
Stanhope of York; Muspratt's chalybeate or chloride of iron 
spring discovered in 1819, but first properly analysed by Dr 
Sheridan Muspratt in 1865; and the Starbeck springs midway 
between High Harrogate and Knaresborough. The principal 
sulphur springs are the old sulphur well in the centre of Low 
Harrogate, discovered about the year 1656; the Montpellier 
springs, the principal well of which was discovered in 1822, 
situated in the grounds of the Crown Hotel and surmounted by 
a handsome building in the Chinese style, containing pump-room, 
baths and reading-room; and the Harlow Car springs, situated 
in a wooded glen about a mile west from Low Harrogate. Near 
Harlow Car is Harlow observatory, a square tower 100 ft. in 
height, standing on elevated ground and commanding a very 
extensive view. A saline spring situated in Low Harrogate was 
discovered in 1783. Some eighty springs in all have been dis- 
covered. The principal bath establishments are the Victoria 
Baths (1871) and the Royal Baths (1897). There are also a 
handsome kursaal (1903), a grand opera house, numerous modern 
churches, and several hospitals and benevolent institutions, 
including the Royal Bath hospital. The corporation owns the 
Stray, and also the Spa concert rooms and grounds, Harlow 
Moor, Crescent Gardens, Royal Bath gardens and other large 

open spaces, as well as Royal Baths, Victoria Baths and Starbeck 
Baths. The mineral springs are vested in the corporation. The 
high-lying moorland of the surrounding district is diversified 
by picturesque dales; and Harrogate is not far from nmny 
towns and sites oT great interest, such as Ripon, Knaresborough 
and Fountains Abbey. The town was incorporated in 1884, 
and the corporation consists of a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 
councillors. Area, 3276 acres. 

HARROW, 1 an agricultural implement used for (1) levelling 
ridges left by the plough and preparing a smooth surface for 
the reception of seeds; (2) covering in seeds after sowing; (3) 
tearing up and gathering weeds; (4) disintegrating and levelling 
the soil of meadows and pastures; (5) forming a surface tilth 
by pulverizing the top soil and so conserving moisture. 

The harrow rivals the plough in antiquity. In its simplest 
form it consists of the boughs of trees interlaced into a wooden 
frame, and this form survives in the " bush-harrow." Another 
old type, found in the middle ages and still in use, consists of a 
wooden framework in which iron pegs or " tines " are set. This 
is now generally superseded by the " zig-zag " harrow patented 
by Armstrong in 1839, built of iron bars in which the tines are so 
arranged that each follows its own track and has a separate line 
of action. This harrow is usually made in two or three sections 

Fig. 1. — Jointed Zig-zag Harrow. (Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies, Ltd.) 

which fold over one another and are thus easily portable, the 
arrangement at the same time giving a flexibility on uneven 
ground. Additional flexibility may be imparted to the imple- 
ment by jointing the stays of the frame which are in the line of 
draught. The liability that the tines may snap off is the chief 
weakness of this type, and improvements have consisted chiefly 
in alterations in their shape and the method of fixing them to the 

The other type of harrow most used is the chain harrow, con- 
sisting of a number of square-link chains connected by cross links 
and attached to a draught-bar, the whole being kept expanded 
by stretchers and trailing weights. It is used for levelling and 
spreading manure over grass-land, from which it at the same 
time tears up moss and coarse herbage. Mention may also be 
made of the drag-harrow, a heavy implement with long tines, 
approximating closely to the cultivator, and of the Norwegian 
harrow with its revolving rows of spikes. 

A few variations and developments of the ordinary harrow require 
notice. In the adjustable harrow (fig. 2) the teeth are secured to 
bars pivoted at their ends in the side bars of the frame, and provided 
with crank arms connected to a common link bar, which may be 
moved horizontally by means of a lever for the purpose of adjusting 

1 In Mid. Eng. harwe; the O. Eng. appears to have been hearge; the 
word is cognate with the Dutch hark, Swed. harke, Ger. Harke, rake, 
and with Danish harv, and Swed. harf, harrow, but the ultimate 
origin is unknown ; the Fr. herse is a different word, cf. HEARSE. 



the angle which the teeth make with the ground, and thus convert 
the machine from a pulverizer to a smoothing harrow. The small 
figure illustrates a spring connexion between the adjusting lever and 
its locking bar, which allows the teeth to yield upon striking an 
obstruction. As the briskness of the operation adds to its effective- 

Fig. 2. — Adjustable Harrow. 

ness, the harrow is often made with a seat from which the operator 
can hasten the team without fatiguing himself. 

Fig. 3 illustrates a spring-tooth harrow. In this harrow the in- 
dependent frames are carried upon wheels, and a seat for the operator 
is mounted upon standards supported by the two frames. The teeth 
consist of flat steel springs of scroll form, which yield to rigid obstruc- 
tions and are mounted on rock shafts in the same manner as in the 
walking harrow before described. The levers enable the operator t o 
raise the teeth more or less, and thus free them from rubbish and 
also regulate the depth ot action. 

Another variation of the harrow with great pulverizing and 
loosening capabilities consists of a main frame, having a pole and 
whipple-trees attached ; to this frame are pivoted two supplemental 
frames, each of which has mounted on it a shaft carrying a series of 
concavo-convex disks. The supplemental frames may be swung by 

member of parliament for Tiverton in 1784 and under-secretary 
for foreign affairs in 1789. In 1791 he was appointed paymaster 
of the forces and vice-president of the board of trade, but he 
resigned the positions and also that of treasurer of the navy 

when he succeeded to 
his father's barony in 
June 1803. In 1804 he 
was secretary of state 
for foreign affairs and 
in 1805 chancellor of 
the duchy of Lancaster 
under his intimate 
friend William Pitt; in 
the latter year he was 
sent on a special and 
important mission to 
the emperors of Austria 
and Russia and the 
king of Prussia, and 
and 1827 he was lord 

Showing looth mechanism of harrow. 

Fig. 3. — Spring-tooth Harrow. 

the adjusting levers to any, angle with relation to the line of draught, 
and the disks then act like that of the disk plough (see Plough), 
throwing the soil outward with more or less force, according to the 
angle at which they are set, and thus thoroughly breaking up and 
pulverizing the clods. Above the disks is a bar to which are pivoted 
a series of scrapers, one for each disk, which are held to their work 
with a yielding action, being thrown out of operation when desired 
by the levers shown in connexion with the operating bar. Pans on 
the main frame are used to carry weights to hold the disks down to 
their work. The cut away disk harrow differs from the ordinary disk 
harrow in that its disks are notched and so have greater penetrating 
power. The curved knife-tooth harrow consists of a frame to which 
a row of curved blades is attached. Other forms of the implement 
are illustrated and discussed in Farm Machinery and Farm Motors 
by J. B. Davidson and L. W. Chase (New York, 1908). 

HARROWBY, DUDLEY RYDER, ist Earl of (1762-1847), 
the eldest son of Nathaniel Ryder, ist Baron Harrowby (1735- 
1803), was born in London on the 22nd of December 1762. His 
grandfather Sir Dudley Ryder (1691-1756) became a member 
of parliament and solicitor-general owing to the favour of Sir 
Robert Walpole in 1733; in 1737 he was appointed attorney- 
general and three years later he was knighted; in 1754 he was 
made lord chief justice of the king's bench and a privy councillor, 
the patent creating him a peer having been just signed by the 
king, but not passed, when he died on the 25th of May 1756. His 
only son Nathaniel, who was member of parliament for Tiverton 
for twenty years, was created Baron Harrowby in 1776. Edu- 
cated at St John's College, Cambridge, Dudley Ryder became 

for the long period between 18 12 
president of the council. After Canning's death in 1827 he 
refused to serve George IV. as prime minister and he 
never held office again, although he continued to take part 
in politics, being especially prominent during the deadlock 
which preceded the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832. 
Harrowby's long association with the Tories did not prevent 
him from assisting to remove the disabilities of Roman Catholics 
and Protestant dissenters, or from supporting the movement 
for electoral reform; he was also in favour of the emancipation 
of the slaves. The earl died at his Staffordshire residence, 
Sandon Hall, on the 26th of December 1847, being, as Charles 
Greville says, " the last of his generation and of the colleagues 
of Mr Pitt, the sole survivor of those stirring times and mighty 

Harrowby's eldest son, Dudley Ryder, 2nd earl (1798-1882), was 
born in London on the 19th of May 1798, his mother being Susan 
(d. 1838), daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower, marquess of 
Stafford, a lady of exceptional attainments. As Viscount Sandon 
he became member of parliament for Tiverton in i8rg, in 1827 
he was appointed a lord of the admiralty, and in 1830 secretary 
to the India board. From 1831 to 1847 Sandon represented 
Liverpool in the House of Commons. For a long time he was 
out of office, but in 1855, eight years after he had become earl 
of Harrowby, he was appointed chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster by Lord Palmerston; in a few months he was trans- 
ferred to the office of lord privy seal, a position which he resigned 
in 1857. He was chairman of the Maynooth commission and a 
member of other important royal commissions, and was among 
the most stalwart and prominent defenders of the established 
church. He died at Sandon on the 19th of November 1882. His 
successor was his eldest son, Dudley Francis Stuart Ryder (1831- 
1900), vice-president of the council from 1874 to 1878, president of 
the board of trade from 1878 to 1880, and lord privy seal in 1885 
and 1886. He died without sons on the 26th of March 1900, and 
was succeeded by his brother, Henry Dudley Ryder (1836-1900), 
whose son, John Herbert Dudley Ryder (b. 1864), became 5th 
earl of Harrowby. 

HARROWING OF HELL, an English poem in dialogue, dating 
from the end of the 13th century. It is written in the East 
Midland dialect, and is generally cited as the earliest dramatic 
work of any kind preserved in the language, though it was in 
reality probably intended for recitation rather than performance; 
It is closely allied to the kind of poem known as a debat, and the 
opening words — " Alle herkneth to me nou A strif wille I tellen 
ou Of Jesu and of Satan " — seem to indicate that the piece was 
delivered by a single performer. The subject — the descent of 
Christ into Hades to succour the souls of the just, as related in 
the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus — is introduced in a kind of 
prologue; then follows the dispute between " Dominus " and 
"Satan" at the gate of Hell; the gatekeeper runs away, and 
the just are set free, while Adam, Eve, Habraham, David, 
Johannes and Moyses do homage to the deliverer. The poem 



ends with a short prayer: " God, for his moder loue Let ous 
never thider come." Metrically, the poem is characterized by 
frequent alliteration imposed upon the rhymed octosyllabic 
couplet : — 

Welcome, louerd, god of londe 

Godes sone and godes sonde (ii. 149-150). 

The piece is obviously connected with the Easter cycle of litur- 
gical drama, and the subject is treated in the York and Townley 

MSS. are: Brit. Mus., Harl. MS. 2253; Edinburgh, Auchinleck 
MS., W 41; Oxford, Bodleian, Digby 86. It was privately printed 
by J. P. Collier and by J. O. Halliwell, but is available in Appendix 
III. of A. \V. Pollard's English Miracle Plays . . . (4th ed., 1904) 
K. Boddeker, Altengl. Dichtungen des MS. Harl. 2253 (Berlin, 1878) ; 
and E. Mall, The Harrowing of Hell (Breslau, 1871). See also E. K. 
Chambers, The Medieval Stage (2 vols., 1903). 

HARROW-ON-THE-HILL, an urban district in the Harrow 
parliamentary division of Middlesex, England, 12 m. W.N.W. 
of St Paul's cathedral, London, served by the London and North 
Western, Metropolitan and District railways. Pop. (1901), 10,220. 
It takes its name from its position on an isolated hill rising to 
a height of 345 ft. On the summit, and forming a conspicuous 
landmark, is the church of St Mary, said to have been founded by 
Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, in the reign of William I., 
and Norman work appears at the base of the tower. The re- 
mainder of the church is of various later dates, and there are 
several ancient monuments and brasses. 

Harrow is celebrated for its public school, founded in 1571 by 
John Lyon, whose brass is in the church, a yeoman of the 
neighbouring village of Preston who had yearly during his life 
set aside 20 marks for the education of poor children of Harrow; 
though a school existed before his time. Though the charter 
was granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1571, and the statutes drawn 
up by the founder in 1590, two years before his death, it was not 
till 161 1 that the first building was opened for scholars. Lyon 
originally settled about two-thirds of his property on the school, 
leaving the remainder for the maintenance of the highway 
between London and Harrow, but in the course of time the 
values of the respective endowments have changed so far that 
the benefit accruing to the school is a small proportion of the 
whole. About 1660 the headmaster, taking advantage of a con- 
cession in Lyon's statutes, began to receive " foreigners," i.e. 
boys from other parishes, who were to pay for their education. 
From this time the prosperity of the school may be dated. In 
1809 the parishioners of Harrow appealed to the court of chan- 
cery against the manner in which the school was conducted, but 
the decision, while it recognized their privileges, confirmed the 
right of admission to foreigners. The government of the school 
was originally vested in six persons of standing in the parish who 
had the power of filling vacancies in their number by election 
among themselves; but under the Public Schools Act of 1868 
the governing body now consists of the surviving members of 
the old board, besides six new members who are elected re- 
spectively by the lord chancellor, the universities of Oxford, 
Cambridge and London, the Royal Society, and the assistant 
masters of the school. There are several scholarships in con- 
nexion with the school to Oxford and Cambridge Universities. 
Harrow was originally an exclusively classical school, but 
mathematics became a compulsory study in 1837; modern 
languages, made compulsory in the upper forms in 1851, were 
extended to the whole school in 1855; while English history and 
literature began to be especially studied about 1869. The 
number of boys is about 600. The principal buildings are 
modern, including the chapel (1857), the library (1863), named 
after the eminent headmaster Dr Charles John Vaughan, and the 
speech-room (1877), the scene of the brilliant ceremony on 
'' Speech Day " each summer term. The fourth form room, 
however, dates from i6n, and on its panels are cut the names of 
many eminent alumni, such as Byron, Robert Peel, R. B. 
Sheridan and Temple (Lord Palmerston). Several of the 
buildings were erected out of the Lyon Tercentenary Fund, sub- 
scribed after the tercentenary. celebration in 1871. 

A considerable extension of Harrow as an outer residential 
suburb of London has taken place north of the hill, where is the 
urban district of Wealdstone (pop. 5901), and there are also 
important printing and photographic works. 

HARRY THE MINSTREL, or Blind Harry (fl. 1470-1492), 
author of the Scots historical poem The Actis and Deidis of the 
Illustere and Vaiheand Campioun Schir William Wallace, Knicht 
of Ellerslie, flourished in the latter half of the 1 5th century. The 
details of his personal history are of the scantiest. He appears 
to have been a blind Lothian man, in humble circumstances, who 
had some reputation as a story-teller, and who received, on five 
occasions, in 1490 and 1491, gifts from James IV. The entries of 
these, in the Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer, occur among 
others to harpers and singers. He is alluded to by Dunbar (q.v.) 
in the fragmentary Interlude of the Droichis Part of the Play, where 
a " droich," or dwarf, personates 

" the nakit blynd Harry 
That lang has bene in the fary 
Farleis to find;" 

and again in Dunbar's Lament for the Makaris. John Major 
(q.v.) in his Latin History speaks of " one Henry, blind from his 
birth, who, in the time of my childhood, fashioned a whole book 
about William Wallace, and therein wrote down in our popular 
verse — and this was a kind of composition in which he had much 
skill — all that passed current among the people in his day. I, 
however, can give but partial credence to these writings. This 
Henry used to recite his tales before nobles, and thus received 
food and clothing as his reward " (Bk. iv. ch. xv.). 

The poem (preserved in a unique MS., dated 1488, in the 
Advocates' library, Edinburgh) is divided into eleven books and 
runs to 11,853 lines. Its poetic merits are few, and its historical 
accuracy is easily impugned. It has the formal interest of being 
one of the earliest, certainly one of the most extensive verse- 
documents in Scots written in five-accent, or heroic, couplets. 
It is also the earliest outstanding work which discloses that 
habit of Scotticism which took such strong hold of the popular 
Northern literature during the coming years of conflict with 
England. In this respect it is in marked contrast with all the 
patriotic verse of preceding and contemporary literature. This 
attitude of the Wallace may perhaps be accepted as corroborative 
evidence of the humble milieu and popular sentiment of its 
author. The poem owed its subsequent widespread reputation 
to its appeal to this sentiment rather than to its literary quality. 
On the other hand, there are elements in the poem which show 
that it is not entirely the work of a poor crowder; and these 
(notably references to historical and literary authorities, and 
occasional reminiscences of the literary tricks of the Scots 
Chaucerian school) have inclined some to the view that the text, 
as we have it, is an edited version of the minstrel's rough song- 
story. It has been argued, though by no means conclusively, that 
the " editor " was John Ramsay, the scribe of the Edinburgh MS. 
and of the companion Edinburgh MS. of the Brus by John 
Barbour (q.v.). 

The poem appears, on the authority of Laing, to have been printed 
at the press of Chepman & Myllar about 1508, but the fragments 
which Laing saw are not extant. The first complete edition, now 
available, was printed by Lekprevik for Henry Charteris in 1570 
(Brit. Museum). It was reprinted by Charteris in 1594 and 1601, 
and by Andro Hart in 161 1 and 1620. At least six other editions 
appeared in the 17th century. There are many later reprints, 
including some of William Hamilton of Gilbertfield's modern Scots 
version of 1722. The first critical edition was prepared by Dj- 
Jamieson and published in 1820. In 1889 the Scottish Text Society 
completed their edition of the text, with prolegomena and notes by 
James Moir. 

See, in addition to Jamieson's and Moir's volumes (u.s.), J. T. T. 
Brown's The Wallace and the Bruce Restudied (Bonner, Beitrdge zur 
Anglistik. vi., 1900), a plea for Ramsay's authorship of the known 
text; also W. A. Craigie's article in The Scottish Review (July 1903), 
a comparative estimate of the Brus and Wallace, in favour of the 

poet, was born at Nuremberg on the 1st of November 1607. He 
studied law at Altdorf and Strassburg, and subsequently travelled 



through Holland, England, France and Italy. His knowledge 
of languages gained for him the appellation " the learned," 
though he was as little a learned man as he was a poet. As a 
member of the Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft he was called der 
Spielende (the player). Jointly with Johann Klaj (q.v.) he 
founded in 1644 at Nuremberg the order of the Pegnitzschafer, 
a literary society, and among the members thereof he was known 
by the name of Strephon. He died at Nuremberg on the 22nd of 
September 1658. His writings in German and Latin fill fifty 
volumes, and a selection of his poems, interesting mostly for 
their form, is to be found in Miiller's Bibliothek deutscher Dichter 
des iyten Jahrhunderls, vol. ix. (Leipzig, 1826). 

His life was written by Widmann (Altdorf, 1 707). See also 
Tittmann, Die Niirnberger Dichterschule (Gottingen, 1847); Hoder- 
mann, Fine vornehme Gesellschaft, nach Harsdorffers " Gesprdch- 
spielen " (Paderborn, 1890); T. Bischoff, " Georg Philipp Hars- 
dorffer " in the Festschrift zur 2;ojdhrigen Jitbelfeier des Peg- 
nesischen Blumenordens (Nuremberg, 1894); an d Krapp, Die 
dsthetischen Tendenzen Harsdorffers (Berlin, 1904). 

HARSHA, or Harshavardhana (fl. a.d. 606-648), an Indian 
king who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over 
forty years. The events of his reign are related by Hsiian Tsang, 
the Chinese pilgrim, and by Bana, a Brahman author. He was 
the son of a raja of Thanesar, who gained prominence by success- 
ful wars against the Huns, and came to the throne in a.d. 606, 
though he was only crowned in 612. He devoted himself to a 
scheme of conquering the whole of India, and carried on wars for 
thirty years with success, until (a.d. 620) he came in contact 
with Pulakesin II., the greatest of the Chalukya dynasty, who 
made himself lord of the south, as H^rsha was lord of the north. 
The Nerbudda river formed the boundary between the two 
empires. In the latter years of his reign Harsha's sway over the 
whole basin of the Ganges from the Himalayas to the Nerbudda 
was undisputed. After thirty-seven years of war he set himself 
to emulate Asoka and became a patron of art and literature. 
He was the last native monarch who held paramount power in 
the north prior to the Mahommedan conquest; and was suc- 
ceeded by an era of petty states. 

See Bana, Sri-harsha-charita, trans. Cowell and Thomas (1897); 
Ettinghausen, Harsha Vardhana (Louvain, 1906). 

HARSNETT, SAMUEL (1561-1631), English divine, arch- 
bishop of York, was born at Colchester in June 1561, and was 
educated at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, where he was success- 
ively scholar, fellow and master (1605-1616). He was also vice- 
chancellor of the university in 1606 and 1614. His ecclesiastical 
career began somewhat unpromisingly, for he was censured by 
Archbishop Whitgift for Romanist tendencies in a sermon which 
he preached against predestination in 1584. After holding the 
living of Chigwell (1 597-1605) he became chaplain to Bancroft 
(then bishop of London), and afterwards archdeacon of Essex 
(1603-1609), rector of Stisted and bishop of Chichester (1609- 
16 19) and archbishop of York (1629). He died on the 25th of 
May 1 63 1. Harsnett was no favourite with the Puritan com- 
munity, and Charles I. ordered his Considerations for the better 
Settling of Church Government (1629) to be circulated among the 
bishops. His Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures (1603) 
furnished Shakespeare with the names of the spirits mentioned 
by Edgar in King Lear. 

HART, ALBERT BUSHNELL (1854- ), American his- 
torian, was born at Clarksville, Mercer county, Pennsylvania, 
on the 1st of July 1854. He graduated at Harvard College in 
1880, studied at Paris, Berlin and Freiburg, and received 
the degree of Ph.D. at Freiburg in 1883. He was instructor in 
history at Harvard in 1883-1887, assistant professor in 1887- 
1897, and became professor in 1897. Among his writings are: 
Introduction to the Study of Federal Government (1890), Forma- 
tion of the Union (1892, in the Epochs of American History 
series), Practical Essays on American Government (1893), Studies 
in American Education (1895), Guide to the Study of American 
History (with Edward Channing, 1897), Salmon Portland Chase 
(1899, in the American Statesman series), Foundations of 
American Foreign Policy (1901), Actual Government (1903), 
Slavery and Abolition (1906, the volume in the American 

Nation series dealing with the period 1831-1841), National 
Ideals Historically Traced (1907), the 26th volume of the 
American Nation series, and many historical pamphlets and 
articles. In addition he edited American History told by Con- 
temporaries (4 vols., 1898-1901), and Source Readers in American 
History (4 vols., 1901-1903), and two co-operative histories of the 
United States, the Epochs of American History series (3 small 
text-books), and, on a much larger scale, the American Nation 
series (27 vols., 1903-1907); he also edited the American 
Citizen series. 

HART, CHARLES (d. 1683), English actor, grandson of 
Shakespeare's sister Joan, is first heard of as playing women's 
parts at the Blackfriars' theatre as an apprentice of Richard 
Robinson. In the Civil War he was a lieutenant of horse in 
Prince Rupert's regiment, and after the king's defeat he played 
surreptitiously at the Cockpit and at Holland House and other 
noblemen's residences. After the Restoration he is known to 
have been in 1660 the original Dorante in The Mistaken Beauty, 
adapted from Corneille's Le Menteur. In 1663 he went to the 
Theatre Royal in Killigrew's company, with which he remained 
until 1682, taking leading parts in Dryden's, Jonson's and 
Beaumont and Fletcher's plays. He is highly spoken of by 
contemporaries in such Shakespearian parts as Othello and 
Brutus. He is often mentioned by Pepys. Betterton praised 
him, and would not himself play the part of Hotspur until after 
Hart's retirement. He died in 1683 and was buried on the 20th 
of August. Hart is said to have been the first lover of Nell Gwyn, 
and to have trained her for the stage. 

HART, ERNEST ABRAHAM (1835-1898), English medical 
journalist, was born in London on the 26th of June 1835, the son 
of a Jewish dentist. He was educated at the City of London 
school, and became a student at St George's hospital. In 1856 
he became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, making 
a specialty of diseases of the eye. He was appointed ophthalmic 
surgeon at St Mary's hospital at the age of 28, and occupied 
various other posts, introducing into ophthalmic practice some 
modifications since widely adopted. His name, too, is associated 
with a method of treating popliteal aneurism, which he was the 
first to use in Great Britain. His real life-work, however, was 
as a medical journalist, beginning with the Lancet in 1857. 
He was appointed editor of the British Medical Journal in 1866. 
He took a leading part in the exposures which led to the inquiry 
into the state of London workhouse infirmaries, and to the reform 
of the treatment of sick poor throughout England, and the 
Infant Life Protection Act of 1872, aimed at the evils of baby- 
farming, was largely due to his efforts. The record of his public 
work covers nearly the whole field of sanitary legislation during 
the last thrity years of his life. He had a hand in the amend- 
ments of the Public Health and of the Medical Acts; in the 
measures relating to notification of infectious disease, to vaccina- 
tion, to the registration of plumbers; in the improvement of 
factory legislation; in the remedy of legitimate grievances of 
Army and Navy medical officers; in -the removal of abuses and 
deficiencies in crowded barrack schools; in denouncing the 
sanitary shortcomings of the Indian government, particularly in 
regard to the prevention of cholera. His work on behalf of the 
British Medical Association is shown by the increase from 
2000 to 19,000 in the number of members, and the growth of the 
British Medical Journal from 20 to 64 pages, during his editor- 
ship. From 1872 to 1897 he was chairman of the Association's 
Parliamentary Bill Committee. He died on the 7th of January 
1898. For his second wife he married Alice Marion Rowland, 
who had herself studied medicine in London and Paris, and was 
no less interested than her husband in philanthropic reform. 
She was most active in her encouragement of Irish cottage 
industries, and was the founder of the Donegal Industrial 

' HART, SIR ROBERT, Bart. (1835- ), Anglo-Chinese 
statesman, was born at Milltown, Co. Armagh, on the 20th of 
February 1835. He was educated at Taunton, Dublin and 
Belfast, and graduated at Queen's College, Belfast, in 1853. 
In the following year he received an appointemnt as student- 



interpreter in the China consular service, and after serving for 
a short time at the Ningpo vice-consulate, he was transferred to 
Canton, where after acting as secretary to the allied commis- 
sioners governing the city, he was appointed the local inspector 
of customs. There he first gained an insight into custom-house 
work. One effect of the Taiping rebellion was to close the native 
custom-house at Shanghai; and as the corrupt alternatives 
proposed by the Chinese were worse than useless, it was arranged 
by Sir Rutherford Alcock, the British consul, with his French 
and American colleagues, that they should undertake to collect 
the duties on goods owned by foreigners entering and leaving 
the port. Sir T. Wade was appointed to the post of collector 
in the first instance, and after a short tenure of office was succeeded 
by Mr H. N. Lay, who held the post until 1863, when he resigned 
owing to a disagreement with the Chinese government in con- 
nexion with the Lay-Osborn fleet. During his tenancy of office 
the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty 
ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was 
appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself 
at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of up- 
wards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports. 
From the date when Mr Hart took up his duties at Peking, in 
1863, he unceasingly devoted the whole of his energies to the 
work of the department, with the result that the revenue grew 
from upwards of eight million taels to nearly twenty-seven 
million, collected at the thirty-two treaty ports, and the customs 
staff, which in 1864 numbered 200, reached in 1901 a total of 
5704. From the first Mr Hart gained the entire confidence of 
the members of the Chinese government, who were wise enough 
to recognize his loyal and able assistance. Of all their numerous 
sources of revenue, the money furnished by Mr Hart was the only 
certain asset which could be offered as security for Chinese loans. 
For many years, moreover, it was customary for the British 
minister, as well as the ministers of other powers, to consult him 
in every difficulty; and such complete confidence had Lord 
Granville in his ability and loyalty, that on the retirement of 
Sir T. Wade he appointed him minister plenipotentiary at Peking 
(1885). Sir Robert Hart, however — who was made a K.C.M.G. 
in 1882 — recognized the anomalous position in which he would 
have been placed had he accepted the proposal, and declined the 
proffered honour. On all disputed points, whether commercial, 
religious or political, his advice was invariably sought by the 
foreign ministers and the Chinese alike. Thrice only did he visit 
Europe between 1863 and 1902, the result of this long comparative 
isolation, and of his constant intercourse with the Peking 
officials, being that he learnt to look at events through Chinese 
spectacles; and his work, These from the Land of Sinim, shows 
how far this affected his outlook. The faith which he put in the 
Chinese made him turn a deaf ear to the warnings which he re- 
ceived of the threatening Boxer movement in 1900. To the last 
he believed that the attacking force would at least have spared 
his house, which contained official records of priceless value, 
but he was doomed to see his faith falsified. The building was 
burnt to the ground with all that it contained, including his 
private diary for forty years. When the stress came, and he 
retreated to the British legation, he took an active part in the 
defence, and spared neither risk nor toil in his exertions. In 
addition to the administration of the foreign customs service, 
the establishment of a postal service in the provinces devolved 
upon him, and after the signing of the protocol of 1901 he was 
called upon to organize a native customs service at the treaty 

The appointment of Sir Robert Hart as inspector-general 
of the imperial maritime customs secured the interests of 
European investors in Chinese securities, and helped to place 
Chinese finance generally on a solid footing. When, therefore, 
in May 1906 the Chinese government appointed a Chinese 
administrator and assistant administrator of the entire customs 
of China, who would control Sir Robert Hart and his staff, great 
anxiety was aroused. The Chinese government had bound 
itself in 1896 and 1898 that the imperial maritime customs 
services should remain as then constituted during the currency 

of the loan. The British government obtained no satisfactory 
answer to its remonstrances, and Sir Robert Hart, finding 
himself placed in a subordinate position after his long service, 
retired in July 1907. He received formal leave of absence in 
January 1908, when he received the title of president of the 
board of customs. Both the Chinese and the British govern- 
ments from time to time conferred honours upon Sir Robert 
Hart. By giving him a Red Button, or button of the highest 
rank, a Peacock's Feather, the order of the Double Dragon, a 
patent of nobility to his ancestors for three generations, and the 
title of Junior Guardian of the heir apparent, the Chinese showed 
their appreciation of his manifold and great services; while 
under the seal of the British government there were bestowed 
uponhimtheordersofC.M.G. (1880), K.C.M.G. (1882), G.C.M.G. 
(1889), and a baronetcy (1893). He has also been the recipient 
of many foreign orders. Sir Robert Hart married in 1886 
Hester, the daughter of Alexander Bredon, Esq., M.D., of 

See his life by Julia Bredon {Sir Robert Hart, 1909). 

HART, WILLIAM (1823-1894), American landscape and 
cattle painter, was born in Paisley, Scotland, on the 31st of 
March 1823, and was taken to America in early youth. He was 
apprenticed to a carriage painter at Albany, New York, and his 
first efforts in art were in making landscape decorations for the 
panels of coaches. Subsequently he returned to Scotland, 
where he studied for three years. He opened a studio in New 
York in 1853, and was elected an associate of the National 
Academy of Design in 1857 and an academician in the following 
year. He was also a member of the American Water Colour 
Society, and was its president from 1870 to 1873. As one of the 
group of the Hudson River School he enjoyed considerable 
popularity, his pictures being in many well-known American 
collections. He died at Mount Vernon, New York, on the 17th 
of June 1894. 

His brother, James McDougal Hart (1828-1901), born in 
Kilmarnock, Scotland, was also a landscape and cattle painter. 
He was a pupil of Schirmer in Dusseldorf, and became an 
associate of the National Academy of Design in 1857 and a full 
member in 1859. He was survived by two daughters, both 
figure painters, Letitia B. Hart (b. 1867) and Mary Theresa 
Hart (b.1872). 

HARTE, FRANCIS BRET (1839-1902), American author, was 
born at Albany, New York, on the 25th of August 1839. His 
father, a professor of Greek at the Albany College, died during 
his boyhood. After a common-school education he went with 
his mother to California at the age of seventeen, afterwards 
working in that state as a teacher, miner, printer, express- 
messenger, secretary of the San Francisco mint, and editor. His 
first literary venture was a series of Condensed Novels (travesties 
of well-known works of fiction, somewhat in the style of 
Thackeray), published weekly in The Calif ornian, of which he 
was editor, and reissued in book form in 1867. The Overland 
Monthly, the earliest considerable literary magazine on the 
Pacific coast, was established in 1868, with Harte as editor. 
His sketches and poems, which appeared in its pages during the 
next few years, attracted wide attention in the eastern states 
and in Europe. 

Bret Harte was an early master of the short story, and his 
Californian talcs were regarded as introducing a new genre into 
fiction. " The Luck of Roaring Camp " (1868), " The Outcasts 
of Poker Flat " (1869), the later sketch " How Santa Claus came 
to Simpson's Bar," and the verses entitled " Plain Language 
from Truthful James," combined humour, pathos and power 
of character portrayal in a manner that indicated that the new 
land of mining-gulches, gamblers, unassimilated Asiatics, and 
picturesque and varied landscape had found its best delineator; so 
that Harte became, in his pioneer pictures, a sort of later Fenimore 
Cooper. Forty-four volumes were published by him between 
1867 and 1898. After a year as professor in the university of 
California, Harte lived in New York, 1871-1878; was United 
States consul at Crefeld, Germany, 1878-1880; consul at. 
Glasgow, 1880-1885; and after 1885 resided in London, engaged 



in literary work. He died at Camberley, England, on the 5th 
of May 1902. 

A library edition of his Writings (16 vols.) was issued in 1900, and 
increased to 19 vols, in 1904. See also H. VV. Boynton, Bret Harte 
(1905) in the Contemporary Men of Letters series; T. E. Peraberton, 
Lije of Bret Harte (1903), which contains a list of his poems, tales, &c. 

HARTEBEEST, the Boer name for a large South African 
antelope (also known as caama) characterized by its red colour, 
long face with naked muzzle and sharply angulated lyrate 
horns, which are present in both sexes. This antelope is the 

Cape Hartebeest (Bubalis cama). 

Biibalis cama or Alcelaphtis cama of naturalists; but the name 
hartebeest has been extended to include all the numerous 
members of the same genus, some of which are to be found in 
every part of Africa, while one or two extend into Syria. Some 
of the species of the allied genus Damaliscus, such as Hunter's 
antelope (D. hunteri), are also often called hartebeests. (See 

HARTFORD, a city and the capital of Connecticut, U.S.A., 
the county-seat of Hartford county, and a port of entry, coter- 
minous with the township of Hartford, in the west central part 
of the state, on the W. bank of the Connecticut river, and about 
35 m. from Long Island Sound. Pop. (1890), 53,23°; (ro 00 ), 
79,850, of whom 23,758 were foreign-born (including 8076 Irish, 
2700 Germans, 2260 Russians, 1952 Italians, 1714 Swedes, 
1634 English and 1309 English Canadians); (1910 census) 
98,915. Of the total population in 1900, 43,872 were of foreign 
parentage (both parents foreign-born), and of these 18,410 were 
of Irish parentage. Hartford is served by two divisions of the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, by the Central 
New England railway, by the several electric lines of the Con- 
necticut Company which radiate to the surrounding towns, and 
by the steamboats of the Hartford & New York Transporta- 
tion Co., all of which are controlled by the N.Y., N.H. & H. 
The river, which is navigable to this point, is usually closed from 
the middle of December to the middle of March. 

The city covers an area of 17-7 sq. m.; it is well laid out and 
compactly built, and streets, parks, &c, arc under a city-plan 
commission authorized in 1907. It is intersected by the sluggish 
Park river, which is spanned by ten bridges. A stone arch 
bridge, with nine arches, built of granite at a cost of $1,700,000 
and dedicated in 1908, spans the Connecticut (replacing the old 
Connecticut river bridge built in 1818 and burned in 1895), and 
connects Hartford with the village of East Hartford in the town- 
ship of East Hartford (pop. igoo, 6406), which has important, 
paper-manufacturing and tobacco-growing interests. The park 
system of Hartford is the largest in any city of the United States 
in proportion to the city's population. In 1908 there were 21 
public parks, aggregating more than 1335 acres. In the extreme 

S. of the city is Goodwin Park (about 200 acres) ; in the S.E. is 
Colt Park (106 acres), the gift of Mrs Elizabeth Colt, the widow 
of Samuel Colt, inventor of the Colt revolver; in the S.W. is 
Pope Park (about 90 acres); in the W. is Elizabeth (100 acres); 
in the E., along the Connecticut river front, is Riverside (about 
80 acres); and in the extreme N. is Keney Park (680 acres), the 
gift of Henry Keney, and, next to the Metropolitan Reservations 
near Boston, the largest park in the New England states. Near 
the centre of the city are the Capitol Grounds (27 acres; until 
1872 the campus of Trinity College) and Bushnell Park (41 acres), 
adjoining Capitol Park. Bushnell Park, named in honour of 
Horace Bushnell, contains the Corning Memorial Fountain, 
erected in 1899 and designed by J. Massey Rhind, and three 
bronze statues, one, by J. Q. A. Ward, of General Israel Putnam; 
one, by Truman H. Bartlett, of Dr Horace Wells (1815-1848), the 
discoverer of anaesthesia; and one, by E. S. Woods, of Colonel 
Thomas Knowlton (1749-1776), a patriot soldier of the War of 
Independence, killed at the battle of Harlem Heights. On the 
Capitol Grounds is the state capitol (Richard M. Upjohn, archi- 
tect) , a magnificent white marble building, which was completed in 
1880 at a cost of $2,534,000. Its exterior is adorned with statues 
and busts of Connecticut statesmen and carvings of scenes in 
the history of the state. Within the building are regimental 
flags of the Civil War, a bronze statue by Olin L. Warner of 
Governor William A. Buckingham, a bronze statue by Karl 
Gerhardt of Nathan Hale, a bronze tablet (also by Karl Ger- 
hardt) in memory of John Fitch (1 743-1 798), the inventor; a 
portrait of Washington, purchased by the state in 1800 from the 
artist, Gilbert Stuart ; and a series of oil portraits of the colonial 
and state governors. The elaborately carved chair of the 
lieutenant-governor in the senate chamber, made of wood from 
the historic Charter Oak, and the original charter of 1662 (or 
its duplicate of the same date) are preserved in a special vault 
in the Connecticut state library. A new state library and 
supreme court building and a new state armoury and arsenal, 
both of granite, have been (1910) erected upon lands recently 
added to the Capitol Grounds, thus forming a group of state 
buildings with the Capitol as the centre. Near the Capitol, at 
the approach of the memorial bridge across the Park river, is 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' memorial arch, designed by George 
Keller and erected by the city in 1885 in memory of the Hartford 
soldiers and sailors who served in the American Civil War. 

Near the centre of the city is the old town square (now known 
as the City Hall Square), laid off in 1637. Here, facing Main 
Street, stands the city hall, a beautiful example of Colonial 
architecture, which was designed by Charles Bulfinch, completed 
in 1796, and until 1879 used as a state capitol; it has subse- 
quently been restored. In Main Street is the present edifice 
of the First Church of Christ, known as the Centre Congregational 
Church, which was organized in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
in 1632, and removed to Hartford, under the leadership of Thomas 
Hooker and Samuel Stone, in 1636. In the adjoining cemetery 
are the graves of Thomas Hooker, Governor William Leete 
(1603-1683), and Governor John Haynes, and a monument 
in memory of 100 early residents of Hartford. In the same 
thoroughfare is the Wadsworth Atheneum (built in 1842; 
enlarged in 1892-1893 and 1907) and its companion buildings, 
the Colt memorial (built in 1908 to accommodate the Elizabeth 
Colt art collection) and the Morgan art gallery (built in 1908 by 
J. Pierpont Morgan in memory of his father, Junius Morgan, 
a native of Hartford) . In this group of buildings are the 
public library (containing 90,000 volumes in 1908), the Watkinson 
library of reference (70,000 volumes in 1908), the library of the 
Connecticut historical society (25,000 volumes in 1908) and a 
public art gallery. Other institutions of importance in Hartford 
are the American school for the deaf (formerly the American 
asylum for the deaf and dumb), founded in 1816 by Thomas 
H. Gallaudet; the retreat for the insane (opened for patients 
in 1824); the Hartford hospital; St Francis hospital; St 
Thomas's seminary (Roman Catholic) ; La Salette Missionary 
college (R.C.; 1898); Trinity college (founded by members of the 
Protestant Episcopal church, and now non-sectarian), which was 



chartered as Washington College in 1823, opened in 1824, 
renamed Trinity College in 1845, and in 1907-1908 had 27 in- 
structors and 208 students; the Hartford Theological seminary, 
a Congregational institution, which was founded at East Windsor 
Hill in 1834 as the Theological Institute of Connecticut, was 
removed to Hartford in 1865, and adopted its present name 
in 1885; and, affiliated with the last mentioned institution, 
the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy. The Hartford 
grammar school, founded in 1638, long managed by the town 
and in 1847 merged with the classical department of the Hartford 
public high school, is the oldest educational institution in the 
state. In Farmington Avenue is St Joseph's cathedral (Roman 
Catholic) , the city being the seat of the diocese of Hartford. 

During the 18th century Hartford enjoyed a large and lucrative 
commerce, but the railway development of the 19th century 
centralized commerce in New York and Boston, and consequently 
the principal source of the city's wealth has come to be manu- 
facturing and insurance. In 1905 the total value of the "factory" 
product was $25,975,651. The principal industries are the 
manufacture of small arms (by the Colt's Patent Fire-Arms 
Manufacturing Co., makers of the Colt revolver and the Catling 
gun) , typewriters (Royal and Underwood) , automobiles, bicycles, 
cyclometers, carriages and wagons, belting, cigars, harness, 
machinists' tools and instruments of precision, coil-piping, 
church organs, horse-shoe nails, electric equipment, machine 
screws, drop forgings, hydrants and valves, and engines and 
boilers. In 1788 the first woollen mill in New England was 
opened in Hartfcrd; and here, too, about 1846, the Rogers 
process of electro-silver plating was invented. The city is one 
of the most important insurance centres in the United States. 
As early as 1794 policies were issued by the Hartford Fire 
Insurance Company (chartered in 1810). In 1909 Hartford 
was the home city of six fire insurance and six life insurance 
companies, the principal ones being the Aetna (fire), Aetna 
Life, Phoenix Mutual Life, Phoenix Fire, Travelers (Life and 
Accident), Hartford Fire, Hartford Life, National Fire, Connecti- 
cut Fire, Connecticut General Life and Connecticut Mutual 
Life. In 1906 the six fire insurance companies had an aggregate 
capital of more than $10,000,000; on the 1st January 1906 
they reported assets of about $59,000,000 and an aggregate 
surplus of $30,000,000. In the San Francisco disaster of that 
year they paid more than $15,000,000 of losses. Since the fire 
insurance business began in Hartford, the companies of that 
city now doing business there have paid about $340,000,000 in 
losses. Several large and successful foreign companies have 
made Hartford their American headquarters. The life insurance 
companies have assets to the value of about $225,000,000. 
The Aetna (fire), Aetna Life, Connecticut Fire, Connecticut 
Mutual Life, Connecticut General Life, Hartford Fire, Hartford 
Life, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., 
National Fire. Orient Fire, Phoenix Mutual Life and Travelers 
companies have their own homes, some of these being among 
the finest buildings in Hartford. The city has also large banking 

The first settlement on the site of Hartford was made by the 
Dutch from New Amsterdam, who in 1633 established on the 
bank of the Connecticut river, at the mouth of the Park river, 
a fort which they held until 1654. The township of Hartford 
was one of the first three original townships of Connecticut. 
The first English settlement was made in 1635 by sixty immi- 
grants, mostly from New Town (now Cambridge), Massachusetts; 
but the main immigration was in 1636, when practically all the 
New Town congregation led by Thomas Hooker and Samuel 
Stone joined those who had preceded them. Their settlement 
was called Newtown until 1637, when the present name was 
adopted from Hertford, England, the birthplace of Stone. In 
1636 Hartford was the meeting-place of the first general court 
of the Connecticut colony; the Fundamental Orders, the first 
written constitution, were adopted at Hartford in 1639; and 
after the union of the colonies of New Haven and Connecticut, 
accomplished by the charter of 1662, Hartford became the sole 
capital: but from 1701 until 1873 tnat honour was shared with 

New Haven. At Hartford occurred in 1687 the meeting of 
Edmund Andros and the Connecticut officials (see Connecticut). 
Hartford was first chartered in 1784, was rechartered in 1856 
(the charter of that date has been subsequently revised) , and in 
1 88 1 was made coterminous with the township of Hartford. 
The city was the literary centre of Federalist ideas in the latter 
part of the 18th century, being the home of Lemuel Hopkins, 
John Trumbull, Joel Barlow and David Humphreys, the leading 
members of a group of authors known as the " Hartford Wits "; 
and in 1814-1815 the city was the meeting-place of the famous 
Hartford Convention, an event of great importance in the history 
of the Federalist party. The War of 181 2, with the Embargo 
Acts (1807-1813), which were so destructive of New England's 
commerce, thoroughly aroused the Federalist leaders in this 
part of the country against the National government as ad- 
ministered by the Democrats, and in 1814, when the British 
were not only threatening a general invasion of their territory 
but had actually occupied a part of the Maine coast, and the 
National government promised no protection, the legislature 
of Massachusetts invited the other New England states to join 
with her in sending delegates to a convention which should 
meet at Hartford to consider their grievances, means of preserv- 
ing their resources, measures of protection against the British, 
and the advisability of taking measures to bring about a con- 
vention of delegates from all the United States for the purpose 
of revising the Federal constitution. The legislatures of Connecti- 
cut and Rhode Island, and town meetings in Cheshire and Grafton 
counties (New Hampshire) and in Windham county (Vermont) 
accepted the invitation, and the convention, composed of 12 
delegates from Massachusetts, 7 from Connecticut, 4 from Rhode 
Island, 2 from New Hampshire and 1 from Vermont, all 
Federalists, met on the 15th of December 1814, chose George 
Cabot of Massachusetts president and Theodore Dwight of 
Connecticut secretary, and remained in secret session until the 
5th of January 181 5, when it adjourned sine die. At the con- 
clusion of its work it recommended greater military control for 
each of the several states and that the Federal constitution 
be so amended that representatives and direct taxes should be 
apportioned among the several states " according to their 
respective numbers of free persons," that no new state should 
be admitted to the Union without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of both Houses of Congress, that Congress should not have the 
power to lay an embargo for more than sixty days, that the 
concurrence of two-thirds of the members of both Houses of 
Congress should be necessary to pass an act " to interdict the 
commercial intercourse between the United States and any 
foreign nation or the dependencies thereof " or to declare war 
against any foreign nation except in case of actual invasion, that 
" no person who shall hereafter be naturalized shall be eligible 
as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives of the 
United States, nor capable of holding any civil office under the 
authority of the United States," and that " the same person 
shall not be elected president of the United States a second time; 
nor shall the president be elected from the same state two terms 
in succession." After making these recommendations concerning 
amendments the Convention resolved: " That if the application 
of these states to the government of the United States, recom- 
mended in a foregoing resolution, should be unsuccessful, and 
peace should not be concluded, and the defence of these states 
should be neglected, as it has been since the commencement 
of the war, it will, in the opinion of this convention, be expedient 
for the legislatures of the several states to appoint delegates 
to another convention, to meet at Boston in the state of 
Massachusetts on the third Thursday of June next, with such 
powers and instructions as the exigency of a crisis so momentous 
may require." The legislatures of Massachusetts and Connecticut 
approved of these proposed amendments and sent commissioners 
to Washington to urge their adoption, but before their arrival 
the war had closed, and not only did the amendments fail to 
receive the approval of any other state, but the legislatures of 
nine states expressed their disapproval of the Hartford Convention 
itself, some charging it with sowing "seeds of dissension and 



disunion." The cessationof the war brought increased popularity 
to the Democratic administration, and the Hartford Convention 
was vigorously attacked throughout the country. 

Hartford was the birthplace of Noah Webster, who here 
published his Grammatical Institute of the English Language 
(1783-1785), and of Henry Barnard, John Fiske and Frederick 
Law Olmsted, and has been the home of Samuel P. Goodrich 
(Peter Parley), George D. Prentice, Harriet Beecher Stowe, 
Charles Dudley Warner, Samuel L. Clemens (Mark Twain) 
and Horace Bushnell. More than 100 periodicals have been 
established in Hartford, of which the oldest is the Hartford 
Courant ( 1 764) , the oldest newspaper in the United States. This 
paper was very influential in shaping public opinion in the 
years preceding the War of Independence; after the war it 
was successively Federalist, Whig and Republican. The Times 
(semi-weekly 181 7; daily 1841) was one of the most powerful 
Democratic organs in the period before the middle of the 19th 
century, and had Gideon Wells for editor 1826-1836. The 
Congregationalist (afterwards published in Boston) and the 
Churchman (afterwards published in New York) were also 
founded at Hartford. 

See Scaeva, Hartford in the Olden Times: Its First Thirty Years 
(Hartford, 1853), edited by VV. M. B. Hartley; and J. H. Trumbull, 
Memorial History of Hartford County (Boston, 1886). For the 
Hartford Convention see History of the Hartford Convention (Boston, 
1833), published by its secretary, Theodore Dwight; H. C. Lodge 
Life and Letters of George Cabot (Boston, 1877); and Henry Adams, 
Documents Relating to New England Federalism (Boston, 1877). 

HARTFORD CITY, a city and the county-seat of Blackford 
county, Indiana, U.S.A., 62 m. N.E. of Indianapolis. Pop. 
(1890) 2287; (1900) 5912 (572 foreign-born); (1910) 6187. The 
city is served by the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville, and 
the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railways, and the 
Indiana Union Traction line (electric) . There are oil and natural 
gas wells in the vicinity, and the city has pulp and paper mills, 
glass and tile works, and manufactories of woodenware, and 
nitro-glycerine and powder. The municipality owns and operates 
its water-works system. The first settlement in the vicinity was 
made in 1832. Hartford City became the county-seat of Black- 
ford county when that county was erected in 1837; it was laid 
out in 1839 and was first incorporated as a town in 1S67 

HARTIG, GEORG LUDWIG (1 764-1837), German agricul- 
turist and writer on forestry, was born at Gladenbach near 
Marburg, on the 2nd of September 1764. After obtaining a 
practical knowledge of forestry at Harzburg, he studied from 
1 781 to 1783 at the university of Giessen. In 1786 he became 
manager of forests to the prince of Solms-Braunfels at Hungen in 
the Wetterau, where he founded a school for the teaching of 
forestry. After obtaining in 1797 the appointment of inspector 
of forests to the prince of Orange-Nassau, he continued his school 
of forestry at Dillenburg, where the attendance thereat increased 
considerably. On the dissolution of the principality by Napoleon 
I. in 1805 he lost his position, but in 1806 he went as chief inspector 
of forests to Stuttgart, whence in 181 1 he was called to Berlin in 
a like capacity. There he continued his school of forestry, and 
succeeded in connecting it with the university of Berlin, where in 
1 830 he was appointed an honorary professor. He died at Berlin 
on the 2nd of February 1S37. His son Theodor 0805-1880) and 
grandson Robert (1839-1901), were also distinguished for their 
contributions to the study of forestry. 

t ?V L 'w art r? wa f c the author of a number of valuable works: 
Lehrbuch fur Jager (Stuttgart, 1810) ; Lehrbuch fur Fbrster (3 vols., 
^} S % 7 l8 fV Kubl l tab f™ f*r geschnittene, beschlagene, und 
rundeHoher (18,5 ,oth cd Berlin, 1871); and Lexikon fur Jager 
und Jagdfreunde (1836, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1859-1861). Thkxfor 
Hartig and his son Robert also published numerous works dealing 
with forestry, one of the latter's books being translated into English 
by W. Somerv.Ue and H. Marshall Ward as Diseases of Trees (1894). 
HARTLEPOOL, a parliamentary borough of Durham, England 
embracing the municipal borough of Hartlepool or East Hartle- 
pool and the municipal and county borough of West Hartlepool 
Pop. (1901) of Hartlepool, 22,723; of West Hartlepool, 62,627 
I he towns are on the coast of the North Sea separated by Hartle- 
pool Bay, with a harbour, and both have stations on branches of 

the North Eastern railway, 247 m. N. by W. from London The 
surrounding country is bleak, and the coast is low. Caves occur 
in the slight cliffs, and protection against the attacks of the waves 
has been found necessary. The ancient market town of Hartle- 
pool lies on a peninsula which forms the termination of a south- 
eastward sweep of the coast and embraces the bay. Its naturally 
strong position was formerly fortified, and part of the walls 
serving as a promenade, remain. The parish church of St Hilda' 
standing on an eminence above the sea, is late Norman and Early 
English, with a massive tower, heavily buttressed. There is a 
handsome borough hall in Italian style. West Hartlepool, a 
wholly modern town, has several handsome modern churches 
municipal buildings, exchange, market hall, Athenaeum and 
public library. The municipal area embraces the three town- 
ships of Seaton Carew, a seaside resort with good bathing, 
and golf links; Stranton, with its church of All Saints, of the 
14th century, on a very early site; and Throston. 

The two Hartlepools are officially considered as one port. The 
harbour, which embraces two tidal basins and six docks aggregat- 
ing 83I acres, in addition to timber docks of 57 acres, covers 
altogether 350 acres. There are five graving docks, admitting 
vessels of 550 ft. length and 10 to 21 ft. draught. The depth of 
water on the dock sills varies from i 7 | ft. at neap tides to 25 ft. at 
spring tides. A breakwater three-quarters of a mile long protects 
the entrance to the harbour. An important trade is carried on 
in the export of coal, ships, machinery, iron and other metallic 
ores, woollens and cottons, and in the import of timber, sugar iron 
and copper ores, and eggs. Timber makes up 59 % of the 
imports, and coal and ships each about 30 % of the exports. The 
principal industries are shipbuilding (iron), boiler and engineer- 
ing works, iron and brass foundries, steam saw and planing mills, 
flour-mills, paper and paint factories, and soapworks. 

The parliamentary borough (falling within the south-east 
county division) returns one member. The municipal borough 
of Hartlepool is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors 
and has an area of 972 acres. The municipal borough of West 
Hartlepool is under a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors, and 
has an area of 2684 acres. 

Built on the horns of a sheltered bay, Hartlepool (Hertepull, 
Hertipol), grew up round the monastery founded there in 640 
but was destroyed by the Danes in 800 and rebuilt by Ecgred' 
bishop of Lindisfarne. In n 73 Bishop Hugh de Puiset allowed 
1-rench and Flemish troops to land at Hartlepool to aid the Scots 
It is not mentioned in Boldon Book as, being part of the royal 
manor of Sadberg held at this time by the family of Bruce it did 
not become the property of the see of Durham until the purchase 
of that manor in 1189. The bishops did not obtain possession 
until the reign of John, who during the interval in 1201 gave 
Hartlepool a charter granting the burgesses the same privileges 
that the burgesses of Newcastle enjoyed; in 1230 Bishop 
Richard Poor granted further liberties, including a gild merchant. 
Jidward II. seized the borough as a possession of Robert Bruce 
but he could control it very slightly owing to the bishop's powers! 
In 1328 Edward III. granted the borough 100 marks towards the 
town-wall and Richard II. granted murage for seven years, the 
term being extended in 1400. In 1383 Bishop Fordham gave 
the burgesses licence to receive tolls within the borough for the 
maintenance of the walls, while Bishop Neville granted a com- 
mission for the construction of a pier or mole. In the 16th 
century Hartlepool was less prosperous; in 1523 the haven was 
said to be ruined, the fortifications decayed. An act of 1535 
declared Hartlepool to be in Yorkshire, but in 1554 it was re- 
instated in the county of Durham. It fell into the hands of the 
northern earls in 1563, and a garrison was maintained there after 
the rebellion was crushed. In 1593 Elizabeth incorporated it 
and gave the burgesses a town hall and court of pie powder. 
During the civil wars Hartlepool, which a few years before was 
said to be the only port town in the country, was taken by the 
Scots, who maintained a garrison there until 1647. As a borough 
of the Palatinate Hartlepool was not represented in parliament 
until the 19th century, though strong arguments in its favour 
were advanced in the Commons in 1614. The markets of 



Hartlepool were important throughout the middle ages. In 1216 
John confirmed toRobertBruce the marketon Wednesday granted 
to his father and the fair on the feast of St Lawrence ; this fair was 
extended to fifteen days by the grant of 1230, while the charter 
of 1595 also granted a fair and market. During the 14th century 
trade was carried on with Germany, Spain and Holland, «.nd in 
1346 Hartlepool provided five ships for the French war, being 
considered one of the chief seaports in the kingdom. The 
markets were still considerable in Camden's day, but declined 
during the 18th century, when Hartlepool became fashionable as 
a watering-place. 

engineer, was born in 1825 at Heworth, Durham. Like most 
engineers of his generation he was engaged in railway work in 
the early part of his career, but subsequently he devoted himself 
to hydraulic engineering and the improvement of estuaries and 
harbours for the purposes of navigation. He was employed in 
connexion with some of the largest and most important water- 
ways of the world. After serving in the Crimea as a captain of 
engineers in the Anglo-Turkish contingent, he was in 1856 
appointed engineer-in-chief for the works carried out by the 
European Commission of the Danube for improving the naviga- 
tion at the mouths of that river, and that position he retained 
till 1872, when he became consulting engineer to the Commission 
(see Danube). In 1875 he was one of the committee appointed 
by the authority of the U.S.A. Congress to report on the works 
necessary to form and maintain a deep channel through the south 
pass of the Mississippi delta; and in 1884 the British government 
nominated him a member of the international technical commission 
for widening the Suez Canal. In addition he was consulted by 
the British and other governments in connexion with many other 
river and harbour works, including the improvement of the 
navigation of the Scheldt, Hugh, Don and Dnieper, and of the 
ports of Odessa, Trieste, Kustendjie, Burgas, Varna and Durban. 
He was knighted in 1862, and became K.C.M.G. in 1884. 

HARTLEY, DAVID (1705-1757), English philosopher, and 
founder of the Associationist school of psychologists, was born 
on the 30th of August 1705. He was educated at Bradford 
grammar school and Jesus College, Cambridge, of which society 
he became a fellow in 1727. Originally intended forthe Church, 
he was deterred from taking orders by certain scruples as to 
signing the Thirty-nine Articles, and took up the study of 
medicine. Nevertheless, he remained in the communion of the 
English Church, living on intimate terms with the most dis- 
tinguished churchmen of his day. Indeed he asserted it to be a 
duty to obey ecclesiastical as well as civil authorities. The 
doctrine to which he most strongly objected was that of eternal 
punishment. Hartley practised as a physician at Newark, 
Bury St Edmunds, London, and lastly at Bath, where he died on 
the 28th of August 1757. His Observations on Man was pub- 
lished in 1749, three years after Condillac's Essai sur I'origine des 
connaissances humaines, in which theories essentially similar 
to his were expounded. It is in two parts — the first dealing 
with the frame of the human body and mind, and their mutual 
connexions and influences, the second with the duty and expecta- 
tions of mankind. His two main theories are the doctrine of 
vibrations and the doctrine of associations. His physical 
theory, he tells us, was drawn from certain speculations as to 
nervous action which Newton had published in his Principia. 
His psychological theory was suggested by the Dissertation con- 
cerning the Fundamental Principles of Virtue or Morality, which 
was written by a clergyman named John Gay (1699-1745), and 
prefixed by Bishop Law to his translation ' of Archbishop King's 
Latin work on the Origin of Evil, its chief object being to show 
that sympathy and conscience are developments by means of 
association from the selfish feelings. 

The outlines of Hartley's theory are as follows. With Locke he 
asserted that, prior to sensation, the human mind is a blank. By 
a growth from simple sensations those states of consciousness which 
appear most remote from sensation come into being. And the one 

'Anonymously in the 1 731 ed., with acknowledgment in the 
1758 ed. 

law of growth of which Hartley took account was the law of con- 
tiguity, synchronous and successive. By this law he sought to 
explain, not only the phenomena of memory, which others had 
similarly explained before him, but also the phenomena of emotion, 
of reasoning, and of voluntary and involuntary action (see Associa- 
tion of Ideas). 

By his physical theory Hartley gave the first strong impulse to 
the modern study of the intimate connexion of 'physiological and 
psychical facts which has proved so fruitful, though his physical 
theory in itself is inadequate, and has not been largely adopted. 
He held that sensation is the result of a vibration of the minute 
particles of the medullary substance of the nerves, to account for 
which he postulated, with Newton, a subtle elastic ether, rare in 
the interstices of solid bodies and in their close neighbourhood, and 
denser as it recedes from them. Pleasure is the result of moderate 
vibrations, pain of vibrations so violent as to break the continuity 
of the nerves. These vibrations leave behind them in the brain 
a tendency to fainter vibrations or " vibratiuncles " of a similar 
kind, which correspond to " ideas of sensation." Thus memory is 
accounted for. The course of reminiscence and of the thoughts 
generally, when not immediately dependent upon external sensation, 
is accounted for on the ground that there are always vibrations in 
the brain on account of its heat and the pulsation of its arteries. 
What these vibrations shall be is determined by the nature of each 
man's past experience, and by the influence of the circumstances of 
the moment, which causes now one now another tendency to prevail 
over the rest. Sensations which are often associated together 
become each associated with the ideas corresponding to the others; 
and the ideas corresponding to the associated sensations become 
associated together, sometimes so intimately that they form what 
appears to be a new simple idea, not without careful analysis resolv- 
able into its component parts. 

Starting, like the modern Associationists, from a detailed account 
of the phenomena of the senses, Hartley tries to show how, by the 
above laws, all the emotions, which he analyses with considerable 
skill, may be explained. Locke's phrase " association of ideas " is 
employed throughout, " idea " being taken as including every 
mental state but sensation. He emphatically asserts the existence 
of pure disinterested sentiment, while declaring it to be a growth 
from the self-regarding feelings. Voluntary action is explained as 
the result of a firm connexion between a motion and a sensation or 
" idea," and, on the physical side, between an " ideal " and a 
motory vibration. Therefore in the Freewill controversy Hartley 
took his place as a determinist. It is singular that, as he tells us, 
it was only with reluctance, and when his speculations were nearly 
complete, that he came to a conclusion on this subject in accordance 
with his theory. 

See life of Hartley by his son in the 1801 edition of the Observations, 
which also contains notes and additions translated from the German 
of H. A. Pistorius; Sir Leslie Stephen, History of English Thought 
in the Eighteenth Century (3rd ed., 1902), and article in the Dictionary 
of National Biography; G. S. Bower, Hartley and James Mill (1881); 
B. Schonlank, Hartley und Priestley die Begriinder des Assoziatio- 
nismus in England (1882). See also the histories of philosophy and 
bibliography in J. M. Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and 
Psychology (1905), vol. iii. 

HARTLEY, JONATHAN SCOTT (1845- ), American 
sculptor, was born at Albany, New York, on the 23rd of 
September 1845. He was a pupil of E. D. Palmer, New York, 
and of the schools of the Royal Academy, London; he later 
studied for a year in Berlin and for a year in Paris. His first 
important work (1882) was a statue of Miles Morgan, the Puritan, 
for Springfield, Mass. Among his other works are the Daguerre 
monument in Washington; " Thomas K. Beecher," Elmira, 
New York, and "Alfred the Great," Appellate Court House, 
New York. He devoted himself particularly to the making of 
portrait busts, in which he attained high rank. In 1891 he 
became a member of the National Academy of Design. 

HARTLIB, SAMUEL (c. 1599-c. 1670), English writer on 
education and agriculturist, was born towards the close of the 
16th century at Elbing in Prussia, his father being a refugee 
merchant from Poland. His mother was the daughter of a rich- 
English merchant at Danzig. About 1628 Hartlib went to 
England, where he carried on a mercantile agency, and at the 
same time found leisure to enter with interest into the public 
questions of the day. An enthusiastic admirer of Comenius, he 
published in 1637 his Conatuum Comenianorum praeludia, and 
in 1639 Comenii pansophiae prodromus et didaciica dissertatio. 
In 1641 appeared his Relation of that which hath been lately 
attempted to procure Ecclesiastical Peace among Protestants, and 
A Description of Macaria, containing his ideas of what a model 
I state should be. During the civil war Hartlib occupied himself 



with the peaceful study of agriculture, publishing various works 
by himself, and printing at his own expense several treatises 
by others on the subject. In 1652 he issued a second edition of 
the Discourse of Flanders Husbandry by Sir Richard Weston 
(1645); and in 1651 Samuel Hartlib, his Legacy, or an Enlarge- 
ment of the Discourse of Husbandry used in Brabant and Flanders, 
by Robert Child. For his various labours Hartlib received from 
Cromwell a pension of /ioo, afterwards increased to £300, as he 
had spent all his fortune on his experiments. He planned a school 
for the sons of gentlemen, to be conducted on new principles, 
and this probably was the occasion of his friend Milton's Tractate 
on Education, addressed to him in 1644, and of Sir William Petty's 
Two Letters on the same subject, in 1647 and 1648. At the 
Restoration Hartlib lost his pension, which had already fallen 
into arrears; he petitioned parliament for a new grant of it, 
but what success he met with is unknown, as his latter years and 
death are wrapped in obscurity. A letter from him is known to 
have been written in February 1661-1662, and apparently he 
is referred to by Andrew Marvell as alive in 1670 and fleeing to 
Holland from his creditors. 

A Biographical Memoir of Samuel Hartlib, by H. Dircks, appeared 
in 1865. 

German philosopher, was born in Berlin on the 23rd of February 
1842. He was educated for the army, and entered the artillery 
of the Guards as an officer in i860, but a malady of the knee, 
which' crippled him, forced him to quit the service in 1865. 
After some hesitation between music and philosophy, he decided 
to make the latter the serious work of his life, and in 1867 the 
university of Rostock conferred on him the degree of doctor of 
philosophy. He subsequently returned to Berlin, and died at 
Grosslichterfelde on the 5th of June 1906. His reputation 
as a philosopher was established by his first book, The Philosophy 
of the Unconscious (1869; 10th ed. 1890). This success was 
largely due to the originality of its title, the diversity of its 
contents (von Hartmann professing to obtain his speculative 
results by the methods of inductive science, and making plentiful 
use of concrete illustrations), the fashionableness of its pessimism 
and the vigour and lucidity of its style. The conception of the 
Unconscious, by which von Hartmann describes his ultimate 
metaphysical principle, is not at bottom as paradoxical as it 
sounds, being merely a new and mysterious designation for the 
Absolute of German metaphysicians. The Unconscious appears 
as a combination of the mctaphysic of Hegel with that of Schopen- 
hauer. The Unconscious is both Will and Reason and the 
absolute all-embracing ground of all existence. Von Hartmann 
thus combines " pantheism " with " panlogism " in a manner 
adumbrated by Schelling in his " positive philosophy." Never- 
theless Wiil and not Reason is the primary aspect of the Un- 
conscious, whose melancholy career is determined by the primacy 
of the Will and the subservience of the Reason. Precosmically 
the Will is potential and the Reason latent, and the Will is void 
of reason when it passes from potentiality to actual willing. 
This latter is absolute misery, and to cure it the Unconscious 
evokes its Reason and with its aid creates the best of all possible 
worlds, which contains' the promise of its redemption from 
actual existence by the emancipation of the Reason from its 
subjugation to the Will in the conscious reason of the enlightened 
pessimist. When the greater part of the Will in existence is so 
far enlightened by reason as to perceive the inevitable misery 
of existence, a collective effort to will non-existence will be made, 
and the world will relapse into nothingness, the Unconscious into 
quiescence. Although von Hartmann is a pessimist, his pessim- 
ism is by no means unmitigated. The individual's happiness 
is indeed unattainable either here and now or hereafter and in 
the future, but he does not despair of ultimately releasing the 
Unconscious from its sufferings. He differs from Schopenhauer 
in making salvation by the " negation of the Will-to-live " 
depend on a collective social effort and not on individualistic 
asceticism. The conception of a redemption of the Unconscious 
also supplies the ultimate basis of von Hartmann's ethics. We 
must provisionally affirm life and devote ourselves to social 

evolution, instead of striving after a happiness which is 
impossible; in so doing we shall find that morality renders life 
less unhappy than it would otherwise be. Suicide, and all other 
forms of selfishness, are highly reprehensible. Epistemologically 
von Hartmann is a transcendental realist, who ably defends his 
views and acutely criticizes those of his opponents. His realism 
enables him to maintain the reality of Time, and so of the process 
of the world's redemption. 

Von Hartmann's numerous works extend to more than 12,000 
pages. They may be classified into — A. Systematical, including 
Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie ; Kategorienlehre; Das sittliche 
Bewusstsein ; Die Philosophic des Schbnen ; Die Religion des Geistes ; 
Die Philosophic des Unbewusstett (3 vols., which now include his, 
originally anonymous, self-criticism, Das Unbewusste vom Stand- 
punkte der Physiologie und Descendenztheorie, and its refutation, Eng. 
trs. by W. C. Coupland, 1884) ; System der Philosophic im Grundriss, 
i. ; Grundriss der Erke?mtnislehre. B. Historical and critical — Das 
religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik 
(2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des 
transcendentalen Realismus ; Uber die dialektische Mcthode ; studies of 
Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; 
Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus , Hegelianismus ; Geschichte 
der deutschen Aslhetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in 
der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; 
Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologic; Das Christentum des 
neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik, 
C. Popular — Soziale Kernfragen; Moderne Probleme; Tagesfragen; 
Zwei jahrzehnte deutscher Politik ; Das Judentum in Gegenwart und 
Zukunft; Die Selbstzersetzung des Christentums; Gesammette 
Studien; Der Spiritismus and Die Geisterhypothese des Spiritismus; 
Zur Zeitgeschichle. His select works have been published in 10 
volumes (2nd ed., 1885-1896). On his philosophy see R. Kober, 
Das philosophische System Eduard von Hartmanns (1884); O. 
Pllimacher, Der Kampf urns Unbewusste (2nd ed., 1890), with a 
chronological table of the Hartmann literature from 1868 to 1890; 
A. Drews, E. von Hartmanns Philosophic und der Materialismus in 
der modernen Kullur (1890) and E. von Hartmanns philosophisches 
System im Grundriss (1902), with biographical introduction; and 
for further authorities, J. M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and 
Psychology (1901-1905). 

HARTMANN, MORITZ (1S21-1872), German poet and 
author, was born of Jewish parentage at Duschnik in Bohemia 
on the 15th of October 1821. Having studied philosophy at 
Prague and Vienna, he travelled in south Germany, Switzerland 
and Italy, and became tutor in a family at Vienna. In 1845 ne 
proceeded to Leipzig and there published a volume of patriotic 
poems, Kelch und Schwert (1845). Fearing in consequence 
prosecution at the hands of the authorities, he abided events in 
France and Belgium,, and after issuing in Leipzig Nenere Gedichte 
(1846) returned home, suffered a short term of imprisonment, 
and in 1848 was elected member for Leitmeritz in the short-lived 
German parliament at Frankfort-on^Main, in which he sided 
with the extreme Radical party. He took part with Robert 
Blum (1807-1848) in the revolution of that year in Vienna, but 
contrived to escape to London and Paris. In 1849 he published 
Reimchronik des Pfaffen Mauritius, a satirical political poem in 
the style of Heine. During the Crimean War (1854-56) Hart- 
mann was correspondent of the Kblnische Zeitung, settled in 
i860 in Geneva as a teacher of German literature and history, 
became in 1865 editor of the Freya in Stuttgart and in 1868 a 
member of the staff of the Ncue Freie Presse in Vienna. He 
died at Oberdobling near Vienna on the 13th of May 1872. 

Among Hartmann's numerous works may be especially 
mentioned Der Krieg um den Wald (1850), a novel, the scene of 
which is laid in Bohemia; Tagebuch aus Languedoc und Provence 
(1852); Erzahlungen eincs Unsteten (1858); and Die lelzten Tage 
eines Kbnigs (1867). His idyll, Adam und Eva (1851), and his 
collection of poetical tales, Schatten (1851), show that the author 
possessed but little talent for epic narrative. Hartmann's 
poems are often lacking in genuine poetical feeling, but the love 
of liberty which inspired them, and the fervour, ease and clear- 
ness of their style compensated for these shortcomings and 
gained for him a wide circle of admirers. 

His Gesammelte Werke were published in 10 vols, in 1873-1874, 
and a selection of his Gedichte in the latter year. The first two 
volumes of a new edition of his works contain a biography of Hart- 
mann bv O. Wittner. See also E. Ziel, " Moritz Hartmann " (in 
Unsere Zeit, 1872); A. Marchand, Les Poetes lyriques de V Autriche 
(1892) ; Brandes, Dasjunge Deutschland (Charlottenburg, 1899). 



HARTMANN VON AUE (c. nyo-c. 1210), one of the chief 
Middle High German poets. He belonged to the lower nobility 
of Swabia, where he was born about n 70. After receiving a 
monastic education, he became retainer (dienstman) of a noble- 
man whose domain, Aue, has been identified with Obernau 
on the Neckar. He also took part in the Crusade of 1196-97. 
The date of his death is as uncertain as that of his birth; he 
is mentioned by Gottfried von Strassburg (c. 1210) as still alive, 
and in the Krone of Heinrich von dem Turlin, written about 1220, 
he is mourned for as dead. Hartmann was the author of four 
narrative poems which are of importance for the evolution of 
the Middle High German court epic. The oldest of these, Erec, 
which may have been written as early as 1191 or 1192, and the 
latest and ripest, Iwein, belong to the Arthurian cycle and are 
based on epics by Chretien de Troyes (q.v.); between them lie 
the romance, Grcgorius, also an adaptation of a French epic, and 
Der arme Heinrich, one of the most charming specimens of 
medieval German poetry. The theme of the latter — the cure 
of the leper, Heinrich, by a young girl who is willing to sacrifice 
her life tor him — Hartmann had evidently found in the annals of 
the family in whose service he stood. Hartmann's most con- 
spicuous merit as a poet lies in his style; his language is care- 
fully chosen, his narrative lucid, flowing and characterized by a 
sense of balance and proportion which is rarely to be found in 
German medieval poetry. Gregorius, Der arme Heinrich and his 
lyrics, which are all fervidly religious in tone, imply a tendency 
towards asceticism, but, on the whole, Hartmann's striving 
seems rather to have been to reconcile the extremes of life; to 
establish a middle way of human conduct between the worldly 
pursuits of knighthood and the ascetic ideals of medieval religion. 

Erec has been edited'by M. Haupt (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1871); 
Gregorius, by H. Paul (2nd ed., Halle, 1900); Der arme Heinrich, 
by W. Wackernagel and W. Toischer (Basel, 1885) and by H. 
Paul (2nd ed., Halle, 1893); by J. G. Robertson (London, 1895), 
with English notes; Iwein, by G. F. Benecke and K. Lach- 
mann (4th ed., Berlin, 1877) and E. Henrici (Halle, 1891-1893). 
A convenient edition of all Hartmann's poems by F. Bech, 
3 vols. (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1891-1893, vol. 3 in 4th ed., 1902). 

The literature on Hartmann is extensive. See especially L. 
Schmid, Des Minnesingers Hartmann von Aue Stand, Heimat und 
Geschlecht (Tubingen, 1874); H. Rotteken, Die epische Kunst 
Heinrichs von Veldeke und Ilartmanns von Aue (Halle, 1887); F. 
Saran, Hartmann von Aueals Lyriker (Halle, 1889) ; A., E. Schonbach, 
Uber Hartmann von Aue (Graz, 1894); F. Piquet, Etude sur Hart- 
mann d'Ave (Paris, 1898). Translations have been made into 
modern German of all Hartmann's poems, while Der arme Heinrich 
has repeatedly attracted the attention of modern poets, both English 
(Longfellow, Rossetti) and German (notably, Gerhart Hauptmann). 
See H. Tardel, Der arme Heinrich in der neueren Dichtung (Berlin, 

HARTSHORN, SPIRITS OF, a name signifying originally the 
ammoniacal liquor obtained by the distillation of horn shavings, 
afterwards applied to the partially purified similar products of the 
action of heat on nitrogenous animal matter generally, and now 
popularly used to designate the aqueous solution of ammonia (q.v). 

HARTZENBUSCH, JUAN EUGENIO (1806-1880), Spanish 
dramatist, was born at Madrid on the 6th of September 1806. 
The son of a German carpenter, he was educated for the priest- 
hood, but he had no religious vocation and, on leaving school, 
followed his father's trade till 1830, when he learned shorthand 
and joined the staff of the Gaceta. His earliest dramatic essays 
were translations from Moliere, Voltaire and the elder Dumas; 
he next recast old Spanish plays, and in 1837 produced his first 
original play, Los Amantes de Teritel, the subject of which had 
been used by Rey de Artieda, Tirso de Molina and Perez de 
Montal'oan. Los Amantes de Teruel at once made the author's 
reputation, which was scarcely maintained by Dona Mencia 
(1S30) and Alfonso el Casto (1841); it was not till 1845 that he 
approached his former success with La Jura en Santa Gadea. 
Hartzenbusch was chief of the National Library from 1862 to 
1875, and was an indefatigable — though not very judicious — 
editor of many national classics. Inferior in inspiration to other 
contemporary Spanish dramatists, Hartzenbusch excels his 
rivals in versatility and in conscientious workmanship. 

HARUN AL-RASHID (763 or 766-809), i.e. "Harun the 
Orthodox," the fifth of the 'Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad, and the 
second son of the third caliph Mahdi. His full name was Harun 
ibn Muhammad ibn "Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn 
'Abdallah ibn "Abbas. He was born at Rai (Rhagae) on the 20th 
of March a.d. 763, according to some accounts, and according 
to others on the 15th of February a.d. 766. Harun al-Rashld 
was twenty-two years old when he ascended the throne. His 
father Mahdi just before his death conceived the idea of 
superseding his elder son Musa (afterwards known as Hadl, 
the fourth caliph) by Harun. But on Mahdi's death Harun 
gave way to his brother. For the campaigns in which he 
took part prior to his accession see Caliphate, section C, 
The Abbasids, §§3 and 4. 

Rashld owed his succession to the throne to the prudence and 
sagacity of Yahya. b. Khalid the Barmecide, his secretary, 
whom on his accession he appointed his lieutenant and grand 
vizier (see Barmecides). Under his guidance the empire 
flourished on the whole, in spite of several revolts in the provinces 
by members of the old Alid family. Successful wars were waged 
with the rulers of Byzantium and the Khazars. In 803, however, 
Harun became suspicious of the Barmecides, whom with only 
a single exception he caused to be executed. Henceforward 
the chief power was exercised by Fadl b. Rabi", who had 
been chamberlain not only under Harun himself but under his 
predecessors, Mansur, Madhi and Hadl. In the later years of 
Hariin's reign troubles arose in the eastern parts of the empire. 
These troubles assumed proportions so serious that Harun 
himself decided to go to Khorasan. He died, however, at Tus 
in March 809. 

The reign of Harun (see Caliphate, section C, § 5) was one of 
the most brilliant in the annals of the caliphate, in spite of 
losses in north-west Africa and Transoxiana. His fame spread 
to the West, and Charlemagne and he exchanged gifts and com- 
pliments as masters respectively of the West and the East. No 
caliph ever gathered round him so great a number of learned men, 
poets, jurists, grammarians, cadis and scribes, to say nothing of 
the wits and musicians who enjoyed his patronage. Harun 
himself was a scholar and poet, and was well versed in history, 
tradition and poetry. He possessed taste and discernment, 
and his dignified demeanour is extolled by the historians. In 
religion. he was extremely strict; he prostrated himself a hundred 
times daily, and nine or ten times made the pilgrimage to Mecca. 
At the same time he cannot be regarded as a great administrator. 
He seems to have left everything to his viziers Yahya and Fadl, 
to the former of whom especially was due the prosperous con- 
dition of the empire. Harun is best known to Western readers 
as the hero of many of the stories in the Arabian Nights; and in 
Arabic literature he is the central figure of numberless anecdotes 
and humorous stories. Of his incognito walks through Bagdad, 
however, the authentic histories say nothing. His Arabic 
biographers are unanimous in describing him as noble and 
generous, but there is little doubt that he was in fact a man of 
little force of character, suspicious, untrustworthy and on 
occasions cruel. 

See the Arabic histories of Ibn al-Athir and Ibn Khaldun. Among 
modern works see Sir W. Muir, The Caliphate (London, 1891); 
R. D. Osborn, Islam under the Khalifs of Bagdad (London, 1878); 
Gustav Weil, Geschichte der Chalifen (Mannheim and Stuttgart, 
1846-1862); G. le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate 
(Oxford, 1900) ; A. Mtiller, Der Islam, vol. i. (Berlin, 1885) ; E. H. 
Palmer, The Caliph Haroun Alraschid (London, 1880); J. B. Bury's 
edition of Gibbon's Decline and Fall (London, 1898), vol. vi. pp. 
34 foil. 

HARUSPICES, or Aruspices (perhaps " entrail observers," 
cf. Skt. hira, Gr. xopSrf), a class of soothsayers in Rome. Their 
art (disciplina) consisted especially in deducing the will of the 
gods from the appearance presented by the entrails of the slain 
victim . They also interpreted all portents or unusual phenomena 
of nature, especially thunder and lightning, and prescribed the 
expiatory ceremonies after such events. To please the god, the 
victim must be without spot or blemish, and the practice of ob- 
serving whether the entrails presented any abnormal appearance, 



and thence deducing the will of heaven, was also very im- 
portant in Greek religion. This art, however, appears not to 
have been, as some other modes of ascertaining the will of the 
gods undoubtedly were, of genuine Aryan growth. It is foreign 
to the Homeric poems, and must have been introduced into 
Greece after their composition. In like manner, as the Romans 
themselves believed, the art was not indigenous in Rome, but 
derived from Etruria. 1 The Etruscans were said to have learned 
it from a being named Tages, grandson of Jupiter, who had 
suddenly sprung from the ground near Tarquinii. Instructions 
were contained in certain books called libri haruspicini, fulgurates, 
rituales. The art was practised in Rome chiefly by Etruscans, 
occasionally by native-born Romans who had studied in the 
priestly schools of Etruria. From the regal period to the end 
of the republic, haruspices were summoned from Etruria to deal 
with prodigies not mentioned in the pontifical and Sibylline 
books, and the Roman priests carried out their instructions as to 
the offering necessary to appease the anger of the deity con- 
cerned. Though the art was of great importance under the early 
republic, it never became a part of the state religion. In this 
respect the haruspices ranked lower than the augurs, as is shown 
by the fact that they received a salary; the augurs were a more 
ancient and purely Roman institution, and were a most important 
element in the political organization of the city. In later times 
the art fell into disrepute, and the saying of Cato the Censoriswell 
known, that he wondered how one haruspex could look another 
in the face without laughing (Cic. De div. ii. 24). Under the 
empire, however, we hear of a regular collegium of sixty haru- 
spices; and Claudius is said to have tried to restore the art and 
put it under the control of the pontifices. This collegium con- 
tinued to exist till the time of Alaric. 

See A. Bouch6-Leclercq, Histoire de la divination dans I'antiquite 
(1879-1881); Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, iii. (1885), 
pp. 410-415; G. Schmeisser, Die etruskiscke Disciplin vom Bundes- 
genossenkriege bis zum Unlergang des Heidentums (1881), and 
Quaestionum de Etrusca disciplina particula (1872); P. Clairin, De 
haruspicibus apud Romanos (1880). Also Omen. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY, the oldest of American educational 
institutions, established at Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1636 
the General Court of the colony voted £400 towards " a schoale 
or colledge," which in the next year was ordered to be at " New 
Towne." In memory of the English university where many 
(probably some seventy) of the leading men of the colony had 
been educated, the township was named Cambridge in 1638. 
In the same year John Harvard (1607-1638), a Puritan minister 
lately come to America, a bachelor and master of Emmanuel 
college, Cambridge, dying in Charlestown (Mass.), bequeathed 
to the wilderness seminary half his estate (£780) and some three 
hundred books; and the college, until then unorganized, was 
named Harvard College (1639) in his honour. Its history is 
unbroken from 1640, and its first commencement was held in 
1642. The spirit of the founders is beautifully expressed in the 
words of a contemporary letter which are carved on the college 
gates: " After God had carried us safe to New-England, and wee 
had builded our houses, provided necessaries for our liveli-hood, 
rear'd convenient places for Gods worship, and setled the Civill 
Government; One of the next things we longed for, and looked 
after was to advance Learning, and perpetuate it to Posterity; 
dreading to leave an illiterate Ministry to the Churches, when our 
present Ministers shall lie in the Dust." The college charter of 
1650 dedicated it to " the advancement of all good literature, 
arts, and sciences," and " the education of the English and Indian 
youth ... in knowledge and godlynes." The second building 
(1654) on the college grounds was called " the Indian College." 
In it was set up the College press, which since 1638 had been in the 
president's house, and here, it is believed, was printed the trans- 
lation of the Bible (1661-1663) by John Eliot into the language 
of the natives, with primer, catechisms, grammars, tracts, &c. 
A fair number of Indians were students, but only one, Caleb 
Cheeshahteaumuck, took a bachelor's degree(i66s). By generous 

1 The statement of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (ii. 22) that the 
haruspices were instituted by Romulus is due to his confusing them 
with the augurs. 

aid received from abroad for this special object, the college was 
greatly helped in its infancy. 

The charter of 1650 has been in the main, and uninterruptedly 
since 1 707, the fundamental source of authority in the administra- 
tion of the university. It created a co-optating corporation 
consisting of the president, treasurer and five fellows, who 
formally initiate administrative measures, control the college 
funds, and appoint officers of instruction and government; 
subject, however, to confirmation by the Board of Overseers 
(established in 1642), which has a revisory power over all acts 
of the corporation. Circumstances gradually necessitated 
ordinary government by the resident teachers; and to-day the 
various faculties, elaborately organized, exercise immediate 
government and discipline over all the students, and individually 
or in the general university council consider questions of policy. 
The Board of Overseers was at first jointly representative of 
state and church. The former, as founder and patron, long 
regarded Harvard as a state institution, controlling or aiding 
it through the legislature and the overseers; but the contro- 
versies and embarrassments incident to legislative action proved 
prejudicial to the best interests of the college, and its organic 
connexion with the state was wholly severed in 1866. Financial 
aid and practical dependence had ceased some time earlier; 
indeed, from the very beginning, and with steadily increasing 
preponderance, Harvard has been sustained and fostered by 
private munificence rather than by public money. The last 
direct subsidy from the state determined in 1824, although 
state aid was afterwards given to the Agassiz museum, later 
united with the university. The church was naturally sponsor 
for the early college. The changing composition of its Board 
of Overseers marked its liberation first from clerical and later 
from political control; since 1865 the board has been chosen 
by the alumni (non-residents of Massachusetts being eligible 
since 1880), who therefore really control the university. When 
the state ceased to repress effectually the rife speculation 
characteristic of the first half of the seventeenth century, in 
religion as in politics, and in America as in England, the unity 
of Puritanism gave way to a variety of intense sectarianisms, 
and this, as also the incoming of Anglican churchmen, made 
the old faith of the college insecure. President Henry Dunster 
(c. 1612-1659), the first president, was censured by the 
magistrates and removed from office for questioning infant 
baptism. The conservatives, who clung to pristine and undiluted 
Calvinism, sought to intrench themselves in Harvard, especially 
in the Board of Overseers. The history of the college from about 
1673 to 1725 was exceedingly troubled. Increase and Cotton 
Mather, forceful but bigoted, were the bulwarks of reaction 
and fomenters of discord. One episode in the struggle was the 
foundation and encouragement of Yale College by the reaction- 
aries of New England as a truer " school of the prophets " 
(Cotton Mather being particularly zealous in its interests), after 
they had failed to secure control of the government of Harvard. 
It represented conservative secession. In 1792 the first layman 
was chosen to the corporation; in 1805 a Unitarian became 
professor of theology; in 1843 the board of overseers was 
opened to clergymen of all denominations; in 1886 attendance 
on prayers by the students .ceased to be compulsory. Thus 
Harvard, in response to changing ideas and conditions, grew 
away from the ideas of its founders. 

Harvard, her alumni, and her faculty have been very closely 
connected with American letters, not only in the colonial period, 
when the Mathers, Samuel Sewall and Thomas Prince were 
important names, or in the revolutionary and early national 
epoch with the Adamses, Fisher Ames, Joseph Dennie and 
Robert Treat Paine, but especially in the second third of the 
19th century, when the great New England movements of 
Unitarianism and Transcendentalism were led by Harvard 
graduates. In 1805 Henry Ware (1764-1845) was elected the 
first anti-Trinitarian to be Hollis professor of divinity, and this 
marked Harvard's close connexion with Unitarianism, in the 
later history of which Ware, his son Henry (1794-1843), and 
Andrews Norton (1786-1852), all Harvard alumni and professors, 



and Joseph Buckminster (1751-1812) and William Ellery 
Channing were leaders of the conservative Unitarians, and 
Joseph Stevens Buckminster (1784-1812), James Freeman 
Clarke, and Theodore Parker were liberal leaders. Of the 
" Transcendentalists," Emerson, Francis Henry Hedge (1805- 
1890), Clarke, Convers Francis (1 795-1863), Parker, Thoreau 
and Christopher Pearse Cranch (1813-1892) were Harvard 
graduates. Longfellow's professorship at Harvard identified 
him with it rather than with Bowdoin; Oliver Wendell Holmes 
was professor of anatomy and physiology at Harvard in 1847- 
1882; and Lowell, a Harvard alumnus, was Longfellow's 
successor in 1855-1886 as Smith Professor of the French and 
Spanish languages and literatures. Ticknor and Charles Eliot 
Norton are other important names in American literary criticism. 
The historians Sparks, Bancroft, Hildreth, Palfrey, Prescott, 
Motley and Parkman were graduates of Harvard, as were 
Edward Everett, Charles Sumner and Wendell Phillips. 

In organization and scope of effort Harvard has grown, 
especially after 1869, under the direction of President Charles 
W. Eliot, to be in the. highest sense a university; but the 
" college " proper, whose end is the liberal culture of under- 
graduates, continues to be in many ways the centre of university 
life, as it is the embodiment of university traditions. The 
medical school (in Boston) dates from 1782, the law school from 
181 7, the divinity school 1 (though instruction in theology was of 
course given from the foundation of the college) from 1819, and 
the dental school (in Boston) from 1867. The Bussey Institution 
at Jamaica Plain was established in 1871 as an undergraduate 
school of agriculture, and reorganized in 1908 for advanced 
instruction and research in subjects relating to agriculture and 
horticulture. The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences dates 
from 1872, the Graduate School of Applied Science (growing 
out of the Lawrence Scientific School) from 1906, and the 
Graduate School of Business Administration (which applies to 
commerce the professional methods used in post-graduate 
schools of medicine, law, &c.) from 1908. The Lawrence 
Scientific School, established in 1847, was practically abolished 
in 1907-1908, when its courses were divided between the College 
(which thereafter granted a degree of S.B.) and the Graduate 
School of Applied Science, which was established in 1906 and 
gives professional degrees in civil, mechanical and electrical 
engineering, mining, metallurgy, architecture, landscape archi- 
tecture, forestry, applied physics, applied chemistry, applied 
zoology and applied geology. A school of veterinary medicine, 
established in 1882, was discontinued in 1901. The university 
institutions comprise the botanic garden (1807) and the (Asa) 
Gray herbarium (1864); the Arnold arboretum (1872), at 
Jamaica Plain, for the study of arboriculture, forestry and 
dendrology; the university museum of natural history, founded 
in 1859 by Louis Agassiz as a museum of comparative zoology, 
enormously developed by his son, Alexander Agassiz, and 
transferred to the university in 1876, though under an inde- 
pendent faculty; the Peabody museum of American archaeology 
and ethnology, founded in 1866 by George Peabody; the 
William Hayes Fogg art museum (1895); the Semitic museum 
(1889); the Germanic Museum (1902), containing rich gifts 
from Kaiser Wilhelm II., the Swiss government, and individuals 
and societies of Germanic lands; the social museum (1906); 
and the astronomical observatory (1843; location 42 22' 48" N. 
lat., 71 8' W. long.), which since 1891 has maintained a station 
near Arequipa, Peru. A permanent summer engineering camp is 
maintained at Squam Lake, New Hampshire. In Petersham, 
Massachusetts, is the Harvard Forest, about 2000 acres of hilly 
wooded country with a stand in 1908 of 10,000,000 ft. B.M. of 
merchantable timber (mostly white pine); this forest was given 
to the university in 1907, and is an important part of the equip- 
ment of the division of forestry. The university library is the 
largest college library in the country, and from its slow and 
competent selection is of exceptional value. In 1 908 it numbered, 

1 Affiliated with the university, but autonomous and independent, 
is the Andover Theological Seminary, which in 1908 removed from 
Andover to Cambridge. 

including the various special libraries, 803,800 bound volumes, 
about 496,600 pamphlets, and 27,450 maps. Some of its collec- 
tions are of great value from associations or special richness, 
such as Thomas Carlyle's collection on Cromwell and Frederick 
the Great; the collection on folk-lore and medieval romances, 
supposed to be the largest in existence and including the material 
used by Bishop Percy in preparing his Reliques; and that on the 
Ottoman empire. The law library has been described by 
Professor A. V. Dicey of Oxford as " the most perfect collection 
of the legal records of the English people to be found in any 
part of the English-speaking world." There are department 
libraries at the Arnold arboretum, the Gray herbarium, the 
Bussey Institution, the astronomical observatory, the dental 
school, the medical school, the law school, the divinity school, 
the Peabody museum, and the museum of comparative zoology. 
In 1878 the library published the first of a valuable series of 
Bibliographical Contributions. Other publications of the univer- 
sity (apart from annual reports of various departments) are: 
the Harvard Oriental Series (started 1891), Harvard Studies in 
Classical Philology (1890), Harvard Theological Review (1907), 
the Harvard Law Review (1889), Harvard Historical Studies 
(1897), Harvard Economic Studies (1906), Harvard Psychological 
Studies (1903), the Harvard Engineering Journal (1902), the 
Bulletin (1874) of the Bussey Institution, the Archaeological 
and Ethnological Papers (1888) of the Peabody museum, and the 
Bulletin (1863), Contributions and Memoirs (1865) of the museum 
of comparative zoology. The students' publications include the 
Crimson (1873), a daily newspaper; the Advocate (1831), a 
literary bi-weekly; the Lampoon (1876), a comic bi-weekly; 
and the Harvard Monthly (1885), a literary monthly. The 
Harvard Bulletin, a weekly, and the Harvard Graduates' Magazine 
(1892), a quarterly, are published chiefly for the alumni. 

In 1 908-1 909 there were 743 officers of instruction and ad- 
ministration (including those for Radcliffe) and 5250 students 
(1059 in 1869), the latter including 2238 in the college, 1641 in 
the graduate and professional schools, and 1332 in the summer 
school. Radcliffe College, for women, had 449 additional 
students. The whole number of degrees conferred up to 1905 
was 3 1,805 (doctors of science and of philosophy by examination, 
408; masters of arts and of science by examination, 1759). The 
conditions of the time when Harvard was a theological seminary 
for boys, governed like a higher boarding school, have left traces 
still discernible in the organization and discipline, though no 
longer in the aims of the college. The average age of students 
at entrance, only 14 years so late as 1820, had risen by 1890 to 
19 years, making possible the transition to the present regime 
of almost entire liberty of life and studies without detriment, 
but with positive improvement, to the morals of the student 
body. A strong development toward the university ideal 
marked the opening of the 19th century, especially in the widen- 
ing of courses, the betterment of instruction, and the suggestions 
of quickening ideas of university freedom, whose realization, 
along with others, has come since 1870. The elimination of the 
last vestiges of sectarianism and churchly discipline, a lessening 
of parietal oversight, a lopping off of various outgrown colonial 
customs, a complete reconstruction of professional standards 
and methods, the development of a great graduate school in 
arts and sciences based on and organically connected with the 
undergraduate college, a great improvement in the college 
standard of scholarship, the allowance of almost absolute 
freedom to students in the shaping of their college course fthe 
" elective " system), and very remarkable material prosperity 
marked the administration (1869-1909) of President Eliot. In 
the readjustment in the curricula of American colleges of the 
elements of professional training and liberal culture Harvard 
has been bold in experiment and innovation. With Johns 
Hopkins University she has led the movement that has trans- 
formed university education, and her influence upon secondary 
education in America has been incomparably greater than that 
of any other university. Her entrance requirements to the 
college and to the schools of medicine, law, dentistry and divinity 
have been higher than those of any other American university. 



A bachelor's degree is requisite for entrance to the professional 
schools (except that of dentistry), and the master's degree (since 
1872) is given to students only for graduate work in residence, 
and rarely to other persons as an honorary degree. In scholarship 
and in growth of academic freedom Germany has given the 
quickening impulse. This influence began with George Ticknor 
and Edward Everett, who were trained in Germany, and was 
continued by a number of eminent German scholars, some driven 
into exile for their liberalism, who became professors in the 
second half of the 19th century, and above all by the many 
members of the faculty still later trained in German universities. 
The ideas of recognizing special students and introducing the 
elective system were suggested in 1824, attaining establishment 
even for freshmen by 1885, the movement characterizing particu- 
larly the years 1865-1885. The basis of the elective system (as 
in force in 1010) is freedom in choice of studies within liberal 
limits; and, as regards admission to college 1 (completely 
established 1891), the idea that the admission is of minds for the 
quality of their training and not for their knowledge of particular 
subjects, and that any subject may be acceptable for such 
training if followed with requisite devotion and under proper 
methods. Except for one course in English in the Freshman 
year, and one course in French or German for those who do not 
on entrance present both of these languages, no study is pre- 
scribed, but the student is compelled to select a certain number 
of courses in some one department or field of learning, and to 
distribute the remainder among other departments, the object 
being to secure a systematic education, based on the principle of 
knowing a little of everything and something well. 

The material equipment of Harvard is very rich. In 1909 it 
included invested funds of $22,716,760 ($2,257,990 in 1869) 
and lands and buildings valued at $12,000,000 at least. In 1908- 
1909 an income of more than $130,000 was distributed in 
scholarships, fellowships, prizes and other aids to students. The 
yearly income available for immediate use from all sources in 
1899-1904 averaged $1,074,229, of which $452,760 yearly 
represented gifts. The total gifts, for funds and for current use, 
in the same years aggregated $6,152,988. The income in 1907- 
1908 was $1,846,976; $241,924 was given for immediate use, 
and $449,822 was given for capital. The medical school is well 
endowed and is housed in buildings (1906) on Longwood Avenue, 
Boston; the gifts for its buildings and endowments made in 
1901-1902 aggregate $5,000,000. Among the university buildings 
are two dining-halls accommodating some 2500 students, a 
theatre for public ceremonies, a chapel, a home for religious 
societies, a club-home (the Harvard Union) for graduates and 
undergraduates, an infirmary, gymnasium, boat houses and large 
playgrounds, with a concrete stadium capable of seating 27,000 
spectators. Massachusetts Hall (1720) is the oldest building. 
University Hall (1815), the administration building, dignified, 
of excellent proportions and simple lines, is a good example 
of the work of Charles Bulfinch. Memorial Hall (1874), an 
ambitious building of cathedral suggestion, commemorates the 
Harvard men who fell in the Civil War, and near it is an ideal 
statue (1884) of John Harvard by Daniel C. French. The 
medical and dental schools are in Boston, and the Bussey 
Institution and Arnold Arboretum are at Jamaica Plain. 

Radcliffe College, essentially a part of Harvard, dates 
from the beginning of systematic instruction of women by 
members of the Harvard faculty in 1879, the Society for the 
Collegiate Instruction of Women being formally organized in 
1882. The present name was adopted in 1894 in honour of Ann 

1 The requirements for admission as changed in 1908 are based 
on the " unit system "; satisfactory marks must be got in subjects 
aggregating 26 units, the unit being a measure of preparatory study. 
Of these 20 units, English (4 units), algebra (2), plane geometry (2), 
some science or sciences (2), history (2; either Greek and Roman, 
or American and English), a modern language (2; French and 
( .erman) are prescribed ; prospective candidates for the degree of 
A.B. are required to take examinations for 4 additional units in 
Greek or Latin, and for the other 8 [joints have large range of choice ; 
and candidates for the degree of S.B. must take additional examina- 
tions in French or German (2 units) and have a similar freedom of 
choice in making up the remaining 10 units. 

Radcliffe, Lady Mowlson (ob. c. 1661), widow of Sir Thomas 
Mowlson, alderman and (1634) lord mayor of London, who in 
1643 founded the first scholarship in Harvard College. From 
1894 also dates the present official connexion of Radcliffe with 
Harvard. The requirements for admission and for degrees are the 
same as in Harvard (whose president countersigns all diplomas), 
and the president and fellows of Harvard control absolutely the 
administration of the college, although it has for immediate ad- 
ministration a separate government. Instruction is given by 
members of the university teaching force, who repeat in Rad- 
cliffe many of the Harvard courses. Many advanced courses in 
Harvard, and to a certain extent laboratory 'facilities, are directly 
accessible to Radcliffe students, and they have unrestricted 
access to the library. 

The presidents of Harvard have been: Henry Dunster (1640- 
1654); Charles Chauncy (1654-1672); Leonard Hoar (1672- 
1675); Urian Oakes (1675-1681); John Rogers (1682-1684); 
Increase Mather (1685-1701); Charles Morton (vice-president) 
(1697-1698) ; Samuel Willard (1700-1707) ; John Leverett (1708- 
1724); Benjamin Wadsworth (1725-J737); Edward Holyoke 
(1737-1769); Samuel Locke (1770-1773); Samuel Langdon 
(1774-1780); Joseph Willard (1781-1804); Samuel Webber 
(1806-1810); John Thornton Kirkland (1810-1828); Josiah 
Quincy (1829-1845); Edward Everett (1846-1849); Jared 
Sparks (1849-1853); James Walker (1853-1860); Cornelius 
Conway Felton (1860-1862); Thomas Hill (1862-1868); Charles 
William Eliot (1 869-1 909); Abbott Lawrence Lowell (appointed 

Authorities. — Benjamin Peirce, A History of Harvard University 
i6j6-i/'/g (Boston, 1883); Josiah Quincy, A History of Harvard 
University (2 vols., Boston, 1840); Samuel A. Eliot, Harvard College 
and its Benefactors (Boston, 1848); H. C. Shelley, John Harvard 
and his Times (Boston, 1907) ; The Harvard Book (2 vols., Cambridge, 
1874) ; G. Birkbcck Hill, Harvard College, by an Oxonian (New York, 
1894); William R. Thayer, "History and Customs of Harvard 
University," in Universities and their Sons, vol. i. (Boston, 1898); 
Official Guide to Harvard, and the various other publications of the 
university; also the Harvard Graduates' Magazine (1892 sqq.). 

HARVEST (A.S. kcerfest "autumn," O.H. Ger. herbist, 
possibly through an old Teutonic root representing Lat. carpere, 
" to pluck "), the season of the ingathering of crops. Harvest has 
been a season of rejoicing from the remotest ages. The ancient 
Jews celebrated the Feast of Pentecost as their harvest festival, 
the wheat ripening earlier in Palestine. The Romans had their 
Cerealia or feasts in honour of Ceres. The Druids celebrated 
their harvest on the 1st of November. In pre-reformation 
England Lammas Day (Aug. 1st, O.S.) was observed at the be- 
ginning of the harvest festival, every member of the church 
presenting a loaf made of new wheat. Throughout the world 
harvest has always been the occasion for many queer customs 
which all have their origin in the animistic belief in the Corn- 
Spirit or Corn-Mother. This personification of the crops has left 
its impress upon the harvest customs of modern Europe. In 
west Russia, for example, the figure made out of the last sheaf of 
corn is called the Bastard, and a boy is wrapped up in it. The 
woman who binds this sheaf represents the " Cornmother," and 
an elaborate simulation of childbirth takes place, the boy in the 
sheaf squalling like a new-born child, and being, on his liberation, 
wrapped in swaddling bands. Even in England vestiges of 
sympathetic magic can be detected. In Northumberland, where 
the harvest rejoicing takes place at the close of the reaping and 
not at the ingathering, as soon as the last sheaf is set on end 
the reapers shout that they have " got the kern." An image 
formed of a wheatsheaf, and dressed in a white frock and 
coloured ribbons, is hoisted on a pole. This is the " kern-baby " 
or harvest-queen, and it is carried back in triumph with music 
and shouting and set up in a prominent place during the harvest 
supper. In Scotland the last sheaf if cut before Hallowmas is 
called the " maiden," and the youngest girl in the harvest-field 
is given the privilege of cutting it. If the reaping finishes after 
Hallowmas the last corn cut is called the Cailleach (old woman). 
In some parts of Scotland this last sheaf is kept till Christmas, 
morning and then divided among the cattle " to make them 


4 1 

thrive all the year round," or is kept till the first mare foals and 
is then given to her as her first food. Throughout the world, as 
J. G. Frazer shows, the semi-worship of the last sheaf is or has 
been the great feature of the harvest-home. Among harvest 
customs none is more interesting than harvest cries. The cry 
of the Egyptian reapers announcing the death of the corn-spirit, 
the rustic prototype of Osiris, has found its echo on the world's 
harvest-fields, and to this day, to take an English example, the 
Devonshire reapers utter cries of the same sort and go through 
a ceremony which in its main features is an exact counterpart of 
pagan worship. " After the wheat is cut they ' cry the neck.' 
... An old man goes round to the shocks and picks out a bundle 
of the best ears he can find. . . this bundle is called ' the neck ' ; 
the harvest hands then stand round in a ring, the old man holding 
' the neck ' in the centre. At a signal from him they take off 
their hats, stooping and holding them with both hands towards 
the ground. Then all together they utter in a prolonged cry ' the 
neck! ' three times, raising themselves upright with their hats 
held above their heads. Then they change their cry to ' Wee 
yen! way yen! ' or, as some report, ' we haven!' " On a fine still 
autumn evening " crying the neck " has a wonderful effect at 
a distance. In East Anglia there still survives the custom known 
as " Hallering Largess." The harvesters beg largess from 
passers, and when they have received money they shout thrice 
" Halloo, largess," having first formed a circle, bowed their heads 
low crying '' Hoo-Hoo-Hoo," and then jerked their heads back- 
wards and uttered a shrill shriek of " Ah ! Ah ! " 

For a very full discussion of harvest customs sec J. G. Frazer, 
The Golden Bough, and Brand's Antiquities of Great Britain (Hazlitt's 
edit., 1905). 

HARVEST-BUG, the familiar name for mites of the family 
Trombidiidae, belonging to the order Acari of the class Arachnida. 
Although at one time regarded as constituting a distinct species, 
described as Leptus autumnalis, harvest-bugs are now known to 
be the six-legged larval forms of several British species of mites 
of the genus Trombidium. They are minute, rusty-brown 
organisms, barely visible to the naked eye, which swarm in grass 
and low herbage in the summer and early autumn, and cause 
considerable, sometimes intense, irritation by piercing and 
adhering to the skin of the leg, usually lodging themselves in 
some part where the clothing is tight, such as the knee when 
covered with gartered stockings. They may be readily destroyed, 
and the irritation allayed, by rubbing the affected area with some 
insecticide like turpentine or benzine. They are not permanently 
parasitic, and if left alone will leave their temporary host to 
resume the active life characteristic of the adult mite, which is 
predatory in habits, preying upon minute living animal 

HARVESTER, Harvest-Spider, or Harvest-Man, names 
given to Arachnids of the order Opiliones, referable to various 
species of the family Phalangiidae. Harvest-spiders or harvest- 
men, so-called on account of their abundance in the late summer 
and early autumn, may be at once distinguished from all true 
spiders by the extreme length and thinness of their legs, and by 
the small size and spherical or oval shape of the body, which is not 
divided by a waist or constriction into an anterior and a posterior 
region. They may be met with in houses, back yards, fields, 
woods and heaths; either climbing on walls, running over the 
grass, or lurking under stones and fallen tree trunks. They are 
predaceous, feeding upon small insects, mites and spiders. The 
males are smaller than the females, and often differ from them in 
certain well-marked secondary sexual characters, such as the 
mandibular protuberance from which one of the common English 
spiders, Phalangium cornutum, takes its scientific name. The 
male is also furnished with a long and protrusible penis, and the 
female with an equally long and protrusible ovipositor. The 
sexes pair in the autumn, and the female, by means of her 
ovipositor, lays her eggs in some cleft or hoie in the soil and 
leaves them to their fate. After breeding, the parents die with 
the autumn cold; but the eggs retain their vitality through the 
winter and hatch with the warmth of spring and early summer, 
the young gradually attaining maturity as the latter season 

progresses. Hence the prevalence of adult individuals in the late 
summer and autumn, and at no other time of the year. They 
are provided with a pair of glands, situated one on each side of 
the carapace, which secrete an evil-smelling fluid believed to be 
protective in nature. Harvest-men are very widely distributed 
and are especially abundant in temperate countries of the 

Fig. I. — Harvest-man (Phalangium cornutum, Linn.); profile of 
male, with legs and palpi truncated. 

a, Ocular tubercle. d, Sheath of penis protruded. 

b, Mandible e, Penis. 

c, Labrum (upper lip). /, The glans. 

northern hemisphere. They are also, however, common in India, 
where they are well known for their habit of adhering together 
in great masses, comparable to a swarm of bees, and of swaying 
gently backwards and forwards. The long legs of harvest-men 
serve them not only as organs of rapid locomotion, but also as 
props to raise the body well off the ground, thus enabling the 
animals to stalk unmolested from the midst of an army of raiding 
ants. (R. I. P.) 

HARVEY, GABRIEL (c. 1545-1630), English writer, eldest son 
of a ropemaker of Saffron-Walden, Essex, was born about 1545. 
He matriculated at Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1 566, and in 
1570 was elected fellow of Pembroke Hall. Here he formed a 
lasting friendship with Edmund Spenser, and it has been sug- 
gested (A then. Cantab, ii. 258) that he may have been the poet's 
tutor. Harvey was a scholar of considerable weight, who has 
perhaps been judged too exclusively from the brilliant invectives 
directed against him by Thomas Nashe. Henry Morley, writing 
in the Fortnightly Review (March 1869), brought evidence from 
Harvey's Latin writings which shows that he was distinguished 
by quite other qualities than the pedantry and conceit usually 
associated with his name. He desired to be " epitaphed as the 
Inventour of the English Hexameter," and was the prime mover 
in the literary clique that desired to impose on English verse the 
Latin rules of quantity. In a " gallant, familiar letter " to M. 
Immerito (Edmund Spenser) he says that Sir Edward Dyer and 
Sir Philip Sidney were helping forward " our new famous enter- 
prise for the exchanging of Barbarous and Balductum Rymes 
with Artificial Verses." The document includes a tepid apprecia- 
tion of the Faerie Queene which had been sent to him for his 
opinion, and he gives examples of English hexameters illustrative 
of the principles enunciated in the correspondence. The opening 
lines — 
" What might I call this Tree ? A Laurell ? O bonny Laurell 

Needes to thy bowes will I bow this knee, and vayle my bonetto " — 

afford a fair sample of the success of Harvey's metrical experf- 
ments, which presented a fair mark for the wit of Thomas Nashe. 
" He (Harvey) goes twitching and hopping in our language like 
a man running upon quagmires, up the hill in one syllable, and 
down the dale in another," says Nashe in Strange Newes, and he 
mimics him in the mocking couplet: 

" But eh ! what news do you hear of that good Gabriel Huffe-Snuffe, 
Known to the world for a foole, and clapt in the Fleete for a 
Runner ? " 

Harvey exercised great influence over Spenser for a short time, 
and the friendship lasted even though Spenser's genius refused 



to be bound by the laws of the new prosody. Harvey is the 
Hobbinoll of his friend's Shepheards Calender, and into his mouth 
is put the beautiful song in the fourth eclogue in praise of Eliza. 
If he was really the author of the verses " To the Learned 
Shepheard " signed " Hobynoll " and prefixed to the Faerie 
Queene, he was a good poet spoiled. But Harvey's genuine 
friendship for Spenser shows the best side of a disposition un- 
compromising and quarrelsome towards the world in general. 
In 1573 ill-will against him in his college was so strong that there 
was a delay of three months before the fellows would agree to 
grant him the necessary grace for his M.A. degree. He be- 
came reader in rhetoric aboat 1576, and in 1578, on the occasion 
of Queen Elizabeth's visit to Sir Thomas Smith at Audley End, 
he was appointed to dispute publicly before her. In the next 
year he wrote to Spenser complaining of the unauthorized publi- 
cation of satirical verses of his which were supposed to reflect on 
high personages, and threatened seriously to injure Harvey's 
career. In 1583 he became junior proctor of the university, and 
in 1585 he was elected master of Trinity Hall, of which he had 
been a fellow from 1578, but the appointment appears to have 
been quashed at court. He was a protege of the Earl of Leicester, 
to whom he introduced Spenser, and this connexion may account 
for his friendship with Sir Philip Sidney. But in spite of patron- 
age, a second application for the mastership of Trinity Hall 
failed in 1598. In 1585 he received the degree of D.C.L. from 
the university of Oxford, and is found practising at the bar in 
London. Gabriel's brother, Richard, had taken part in the 
Marprelate controversy, and had given offence to Robert Greene 
by contemptuous references to him and his fellow wits. Greene 
retorted in his Quip for an Upstart Courtier with some scathing 
remarks on the Harveys, the worst of which were expunged in 
later editions, drawing attention among other things to Harvey's 
modest parentage. In 1 599 Archbishop Whitgift made a raid on 
contemporary satire in general, and among other books the tracts 
of Harvey and Nashe were destroyed, and it was forbidden to 
reprint them. Harvey spent the last years of his life in retire- 
ment at his native place, dying in 1630. 

His extant Latin works are: Ciceronianus (1577); G. Harveii 
rhetor, sive 2 dierum oratio de natura, arte et exercitatione rhetorica 
('577); Smithus, vel Musarum lachrymae (157S), in honour of Sir 
Thomas Smith ; and G. Harveii gratulationum Valdensium lib'ri 
quatuour (sic), written on the occasion of the queen's visit to Audley 
End (1578). The Letter-Book of Gabriel Harvey, A.D. 1573-80 (1884, 
ed. E. J. L. Scott, Camden Society), contains rough drafts of the 
correspondence between Spenser and Harvey, letters relative to the 
disputes at Pembroke Hall, and an extraordinary correspondence 
dealing with the pursuit of his sister Mercy by a young nobleman. 
A copy of Quintilian (1542), in the British Museum, is extensively 
annotated by Gabriel Harvey. After Greene's death Harvey pub- 
lished Foure Letters and certaine Sonnets (1592), in which in a spirit 
of righteous superiority he laid bare with spiteful fulness the miser- 
able details of Greene's later years. Thomas Nashe, who in power of 
invective and merciless wit was far superior to Harvey, took upon 
himself to avenge Greene's memory, and at the same time settle his 
personal account with the Harveys, in Strange Newes (1593). Harvey 
refuted the personal charges made by Nashe in Pierce's Superero- 
gation, or a New Prayse of the Old Asse . . . (1593). In Christes Teares 
over Jerusalem (1593) Nashe made a full apology to Harvey, who 
refused to be appeased, and resumed what had become a very scur- 
rilous controversy in a New Letter of Notable Contents (1593). Nashe 
thereupon withdrew his apology in a new edition (1594) of Christes 
Teares, and hearing that Harvey had boasted of victory he produced 
the most biting satire of the series in Have with you to Saffron Walden 
(1596). Harvey retorted in The Trimming of Thomas Nashe Gentle- 
man, by the high-tituled patron Don RicharUo de Medico campo 

■ ■ ■ (1597)- 

His complete works were edited by Dr A. B. Grosart with a 
" Memorial Introduction " for the Huth Library (1884-1885). See 
also Isaac Disraeli, on " Literary Ridicule," in Calamities of Authors 
(ed. 1840) ; T. Warton's History of English Poetry (ed. W. C. Hazlitt, 
1871); J. P. Collier's Bibliographical and Critical. Account of the 
Rarest Books in the English Language (1865), and the Works of Thomas 

HARVEY, SIR GEORGE (1806-1876), Scottish painter, the 
son of a watchmaker, was born at St Ninians, near Stirling, in 
February 1806. Soon after his birth his parents removed to 
Stirling, where George was apprenticed to a bookseller. His 
love for art having, however, become very decided, in his 

eighteenth year he entered the Trustees' Academy at Edinburgh. 
Here he so distinguished himself that in 1826 he was invited 
by the Scottish artists, who had resolved to found a Scottish 
academy, to join it as an associate. Harvey's first picture, 
" A Village School," was exhibited in 1826 at the Edinburgh 
Institution; and from the time of the opening of the Academy 
in the following year he continued annually to exhibit. His 
best-known pictures are those depicting historical episodes 
in religious history from a puritan or evangelical point of view, 
such as " Covenanters Preaching," " Covenanters' Communion," 
" John Bunyan and his Blind Daughter," " Sabbath Evening," 
and the " Quitting of the Manse." He was, however, equally 
popular in Scotland for subjects not directly religious; and 
" The Bowlers," " A Highland Funeral," " The Curlers," "A 
Schule Skailin'," and " Children Blowing Bubbles in the Church- 
yard of Greyfriars', Edinburgh," manifest the same close observa- 
tion of character, artistic conception and conscientious elabora- 
tion of details. In " The Night Mail" and " Dawn Revealing 
the New World to Columbus " the aspects of nature are made 
use of in different ways, but with equal happiness, to lend 
impressiveness and solemnity to human concerns. He also 
painted landscapes and portraits. In 1829 he was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Scottish Academy; in 1864 he succeeded 
Sir J. W. Gordon as president; and he was knighted in 1867. 
He died at Edinburgh on the 22nd of January 1876. 

Sir George Harvey was the author of a paper on the " Colour of 
the Atmosphere," read before the Edinburgh Royal Society, and 
afterwards published with illustrations in Good Words; and in 
1870 he published a small volume entitled Notes of the Early History 
of the Royal Scottish Academy. Selections from the Works of Sir 
George Harvey, P.R.S.A., described by the Rev. A. L. Simpson, 
F.S.A. Scot., and photographed by Thomas Annan, appeared at 
Edinburgh in 1869. 

HARVEY, WILLIAM (1578-1657), English physician, the 
discoverer of the circulation of the blood, was the eldest son of 
Thomas Harvey, a prosperous Kentish yeoman, and was born 
at Folkestone on the 1st of April 1578. After passing through 
the grammar school of Canterbury, on the 31st of May 1593, 
having just entered his sixteenth year, he became a pensioner 
of Caius College, Cambridge, at nineteen he took his B.A. degree, 
and soon after, having chosen the profession of medicine, he 
went to study at Padua under H. Fabricius and Julius Casserius. 
At the age of twenty-four Harvey became doctor of medicine, in 
April 1602. Returning to England in the first year of James I., 
he settled in London; and two years later he married the 
daughter of Dr Lancelot Browne, who had been physician to 
Queen Elizabeth. In the same year he became a candidate 
of the Royal College of Physicians, and was duly admitted a 
fellow (June 1607). In 1609 he obtained the reversion of the 
post of physician to St Bartholomew's hospital. His application 
was supported by the king himself and by Dr Henry Atkins 
(1558-1635), the president of the college, and on the death of 
Dr Wilkinson in the course of the same year he succeeded to the 
post. He was thrice censor of the college, and in 161 5 was 
appointed Lumleian lecturer. 

In 16 1 6 he began his course of lectures, and first brought 
forward his views upon the movements of the heart and blood. 
Meantime his practice increased, and he had the lord chancellor, 
Francis Bacon, and the earl of Arundel among his patients. 
In 1618 he was appointed physician extraordinary to James I., 
and on the next vacancy physician in ordinary to his successor. 
In 1628, the year of the publication of the Exercitatio anatomica 
de motu cordis et sanguinis, he was elected treasurer of the 
College of Physicians, but at the end of the following year he 
resigned the office, in order, by command of Charles I., to accom- 
pany the young duke of Lennox (James Stuart, afterwards duke 
of Richmond) on his travels. He appears to have visited 
Italy, and returned in 1632. Four years later he accompanied 
the earl of Arundel on his embassy to the emperor Ferdinand II. 
He was eager in collecting objects of natural history, sometimes 
causing the earl anxiety for his safety by his excursions in a 
country infested by robbers in consequence of the Thirty Years' 
War. In a letter written on this journey, he says: " By the 



way we could scarce see a dogg, crow, kite, raven, or any bird, 
or anything to anatomise; only sum few miserable people, the 
reliques of the war and the plague, whom famine had made 
anatomies before I came." Having returned to his practice 
in London at the close of the year 1636, he accompanied Charles I. 
in one of his journeys to Scotland (1639 or 1641). While at 
Edinburgh he visited the Bass Rock; he minutely describes 
its abundant population of sea-fowl in his treatise De generatione, 
and incidentally speaks of the account then credited of the solan 
goose growing on trees as a fable. He was in attendance on the 
king at the battle of Edgehill (October 1642), where he withdrew 
under a hedge with the prince of Wales and the duke of York 
(then boys of twelve and ten years old), " and took out of his 
pocket a book and read. But he had not read very long before 
a bullet of a great gun grazed on the ground near him, which 
made him remove his station," as he afterwards told John 
Aubrey. After the indecisive battle, Harvey followed Charles"!, 
to Oxford, " where," writes the same gossiping narrator, " I 
first saw him, but was then too young to be acquainted with so 
great a doctor. I remember he came several times to our college 
(Trinity) to George Bathurst, B.D. who had a hen to hatch eggs 
in his chamber, which they opened daily to see the progress and 
way of generation. " In Oxford he remained three years, and 
there was some chance of his being superseded in his office at 
St Bartholomew's hospital, " because he hath withdrawn himself 
from his charge, and is retired to the party in arms against the 
Parliament." It was no doubt at this time that his lodgings 
at Whitehall were searched, and not only the furniture seized 
but also invaluable manuscripts and anatomical preparations. 1 

While with the king at Oxford he was made warden of Merton 
College, but a year later, in 1646, that city surrendered to Fairfax, 
and Harvey returned to London. He was now sixty-eight years 
old, and, having resigned his appointments and relinquished 
the cares of practice, lived in learned retirement with one or 
other of his brothers. It was in his brother Daniel's house at 
Combe that Dr (afterwards Sir George) Ent, a faithful friend and 
disciple (1604-1689), visited him in 1650. "I found him," he 
says. " with a cheeerful and sprightly countenance investigating, 
like Democritus, the nature of things. Asking if all were well 
with him — 'How can that be,' he replied, 'when the state is so 
agitated with storms and I myself am yet in the open sea? And 
indeed, were not my mind solaced by my studies and the recollec- 
tion of the observations I have formerly made, there is nothing 
which should make me desirous of a longer continuance. But 
thus employed, this obscure life and vacation from public cares 
which would disgust other minds is the medicine of mine.' " 
The work on which he had been chiefly engaged at Oxford, and 
indeed since the publication of his treatise on the circulation 
in 1628, was an investigation into the recondite but deeply 
interesting subject of generation. Charles I. had been an 
enlightened patron of Harvey's studies, had put the royal deer 
parks at Windsor and Hampton Court at his disposal, and had 
watched his demonstration of the growth of the chick with no 
less interest than the movements of the living heart. Harvey 
had now collected a large number of observations, though he 
would probably have delayed their publication. But Ent 
succeeded in obtaining the manuscripts, with authority to print 
them or not as he should find them. " I went from him," he says, 
" like another Jason in possession of the golden fleece, and when 

1 " Ignoscant mihi niveae animae, si, summarum injuriarum memor, 
levem gemitum effudero. Doloris mihi haec causa est : cum, inter 
nuperos nostros tumultus et bella plusquam civilia, serenissimum 
regem (idque non solum senatus permissione sed et jussu) sequor, 
rapaces quaedam manus non modo aedium mearum supellectilem 
omnem expilarunt, sed etiam, quae mihi causa gravior querimoniae, 
adversaria mea, multorum annorum laboribus parta, e museo meo 
summoverunt. Quo factum est ut observationes plurimae, prae- 
sertim de generatione insectorum, cum republicae literariae (ausim 
dicere) detrimento, perierint." — De gen., Ex. lxviii. To this loss 
Co\v!ey refers — 

" O cursed war! who can forgive thee this? 
Houses and towns may rise again, 
And ten times easier 'tis 
To rebuild Paul's than any work of his." 

I came home and perused the pieces singly, I was amazed that 
so vast a treasure should have been so long hidden." The result 
was the publication of the Exercitationes de generatione (1651). 

This was the last of Harvey's labours. He had now reached 
his seventy-third year. His theory of the circulation had been 
opposed and defended, and was now generally accepted by the 
most eminent anatomists both in his own country and abroad. 
He was known and honoured throughout Europe, and his own 
college (Caius) voted a statue in his honour (1652) viro monu- 
mentis suis immortali. In 1654 he was elected to the highest post 
in his profession, that of president of the college; but the follow- 
ing day he met the assembled fellows, and, declining the honour 
for himself on account of the infirmities of age, recommended 
the re-election of the late president Dr Francis Prujean (1593- 
1666). He accepted, however, the office of consiliarius, which 
he again held in the two following years. He had already 
enriched the college with other gifts besides the honour of his 
name. He had raised for them " a noble building of Roman 
architecture (rustic work with Corinthian pilasters) , comprising 
a great parlour or conversation room below and a library above"; 
he had furnished the library with books, and filled the museum 
with " simples and rarities," as well as with specimens of instru- 
ments used in the surgical and obstetric branches of medicine. 
At last he determined to give to his beloved college his paternal 
estate at Burmarsh in Kent. His wife had died some years before, 
his brothers were wealthy men, and he was childless, so that he 
was defrauding no heir when, in July 1656, he made the transfer 
of this property, then valued at £56 per annum, with provision 
for a salary to the college librarian and for the endowment of an 
annual oration, which is still given on the anniversary of the day. 
The orator, so Harvey orders in his deed of gift, is to exhort 
the fellows of the college " to search out and study the secrets 
of nature by way of experiment, and also for the honour of 
the profession to continue mutual love and affection among 

Harvey, like his contemporary and great successor Thomas 
Sydenham, was long afflicted with gout, but he preserved his 
activity of mind to an advanced age. In his eightieth year, on 
the 3rd of June 1657, he was attacked by paralysis, and though 
deprived of speech was able to send for his nephews and distribute 
his watch, ring, and other personal trinkets among them. He 
died the same evening, " the palsy giving him an easy passport," 
and was buried with great honour in his brother Eliab's vault at 
Hempstead in Essex, annorum etfamae satur. In 1883 the lead 
coffin containing his remains was enclosed in a marble sarcophagus 
and moved to the Harvey chapel within the church. 

John Aubrey, to whom we owe most of the minor particulars 
about Harvey which have been preserved, says: " In person he 
was not tall, but of the lowest stature; round faced, olivaster 
complexion, little eyes, round, very black, full of spirits; his 
hair black as a raven, but quite white twenty years before he 
died." The best portrait of him extant is by Cornelius Jansen 
in the library of the College of Physicians, one of those rescued 
from the great fire, which destroyed their original hall in 1666. 
It has been often engraved, and is prefixed to the fine edition of 
his works published in 1766. 

Harvey's Work on the Circulation. — In estimating the character 
and value of the discovery announced in the Exereitatio de molu 
cordis et sanguinis, it is necessary to bear in mind the previous 
state of knowledge on the subject. Aristotle taught that in man 
and the higher animals the blood was elaborated from the food 
in the liver, thence carried to the heart, and sent by it through- 
the veins over the body. His successors of the Alexandrian 
school of medicine, Erasistratus and Herophilus, further elabor- 
ated his system, and taught that, while the veins carried blood 
from the heart to the members, the arteries carried a subtle kind 
of air or spirit. For the practical physician only two changes had 
been made in this theory of the circulation between the Christian 
era and the 16th century. Galen had discovered that the 
arteries were not, as their name implies, merely air-pipes, but 
that they contained blood as well as vital air or spirit. And it 
had been gradually ascertained that the nerves (vtvpa) which 



arose from the brain and conveyed " animal spirits " to the 
body were different from the tendons or sinews (vevpa) which 
attach muscles to bones. First, then, the physicians of the 
time of Thomas Linacre knew that the blood is not stagnant in 
the body. So did Shakespeare and Homer, and every augur who 
inspected the entrails of a victim, and every village barber who 
breathed a vein. Plato even uses the expression to alfia Kara 
wavTa ra /AXr/ otyodpCx ■Kipu&tptoQa.i. But no one had a con- 
ception of a continuous stream returning to its source (a circula- 
tion in the true sense of the word) either in the system or in the 
lungs. If they used the word circulatio, as did Caesalpinus, 1 it 
was as vaguely as the French policeman cries " Circulez." The 
movements of the blood were in fact thought to be slow and 
irregular in direction as well as in speed, like the " circulation " 
of air in a house, or the circulation of a crowd in the streets of a 
city. Secondly, they supposed that one kind of blood flowed 
from the liver to the right ventricle of the heart, and thence to 
the lungs and the general system by the veins, and that another 
kind flowed from the left ventricle to the lungs and general 
system by the arteries. Thirdly, they supposed that the septum 
of the heart was pervious and allowed blood to pass directly 
from the right to the left side. Fourthly, they had no conception 
of the functions of the heart as the motor power of the movement 
of the blood. They doubted whether its substance was muscular; 
they supposed its pulsation to be due to expansion of the spirits 
it contained; they believed the only dynamic effect which it 
had on the blood to be sucking it in during its active diastole, 
and they supposed the chief use of its constant movements to be 
the due mixture of blood and spirits. 

Of the great anatomists of the 16th century, Sylvius {In Hipp. 
et Gal. phys. partem analom. isagoge) described the valves of 
the veins; Vesalius (De humani corporis fabrica, 1542) ascer- 
tained that the septum between the right and left ventricles is 
complete, though he could not bring himself to deny the invisible 
pores which Galen's system demanded. Servetus, in his Chris- 
tianismi restitutio (1553), goes somewhat farther than his fellow- 
student Vesalius, and says: " Paries ille medius non est aptus ad 
communicationem et elaborationem illam; licet aliquid resudare 
possit "; and, from this anatomical fact and the large size of the 
pulmonary arteries he concludes that there is a communication 
in the lungs by which blood passes from the pulmonary artery to 
the pulmonary vein: " Eodem artificio quo in hepate fit trans- 
fusio a vena porta ad venam cavam propter sanguinem, fit etiam in 
pulmone transfusio a vena arteriosa ad arteriam venosam propter 
spiritum." The natural spirit of the left side and the vital spirit 
of the right side of the heart were therefore, he concluded, 
practically the same, and hence two instead of three distinct 
spiritus should be admitted. It seems doubtful whether even 
Servetus rightly conceived of the entire mass of the blood passing 
through the pulmonary artery and the lungs. The transference 
of the spiritus naturalis to the lungs, and its return to the left 
ventricle as spiritus vitalis, was the function which he regarded 
as important. Indeed a true conception of the lesser circulation 
as a transference of the whole blood of the right side to the left 
was impossible until the corresponding transference in the 
greater or systematic circulation was discovered. Servetus, 
however, was the true predecessor of Harvey in physiology, and 
his claims to that honour are perfectly authentic and universally 
admitted. 2 

1 Indeed the same word, -irepioSos ai/uaros, occurs in the Hippo- 
cratic writings, and was held by Van der Linden to prove that to 
the father of medicine himself, and not to Columbus or Caesalpinus, 
belonged the laurels of Harvey. 

2 Realdo Columbus (De re anatomica, 1559) formally denies the 
muscularity of the heart, yet correctly teaches that blood and spirits 
pass from the right to the left ventricle, not through the septum 
but through the lungs, " quod nemo hactenus aut animadvertit aut 
scriptum reliquit." The fact that Harvey quotes Columbus and not 
Servetus is explained by the almost entire destruction of the writings 
of the latter, which are now among the rarest curiosities. The great 
anatomist Fabricius, Harvey's teacher at Padua, described the valves 
of the veins more perfectly than had Sylvius. Carlo Ruini, in his 
treatise on the Anatomy and Diseases of the Horse (1590), taught that 
the left ventricle sends blood and vital spirits to all parts of the body 
except the lungs — the ordinary Galenical doctrine. Yet on the 

The way then to Harvey's great work had been paved by th< 
discovery of the valves in the veins, and by that of the lessei 
circulation — the former due to Sylvius and Fabricius, the latte: 
to Servetus — but the significance of the valves was unsuspected 
and the fact of even the pulmonary circulation was not generally 
admitted in its full meaning. 

In his treatise Harveyproves (1) that it is the contraction, not 
the dilatation, of the heart which coincides with the pulse, and 
that the ventricles as true muscular sacs squeeze the blood which 
they contain into the aorta and pulmonary artery; (2) that the 
pulse is not produced by the arteries enlarging and so filling, but 
by the arteries being filled with blood and so enlarging; (3) that 
there are no pores in the septum of the heart, so that the whole 
blood in the right ventricle is sent to the lungs and round by the 
pulmonary veins to the left ventricle, and also that the whole 
blood in the left ventricle is again sent into the arteries, round by 
the smaller veins into the venae cavae, and by them to the right 
ventricle again — thus making a complete "circulation" ; (4) 
that the blood in the arteries and that in the veins is the same 
blood; (5) that the action of the right and left sides of the heart, 
auricles, ventricles and valves, is the same, the mechanism in 
both being for reception and propulsion of liquid and not of air, 
since the blood on the right side, though mixed with air, is still 
blood; (6) that the blood sent through tlie arteries to the tissues 
is not all used, but that most of it runs through into the veins; 
(7) that there is no to and fro undulation in the veins, but a con- 
stant stream from the distant parts towards the heart; (8) that 
the dynamical starting-point of the blood is the heart and not 
the liver. 

The method by which Harvey arrived at his complete and 
almost faultless solution of the most fundamental and difficult 
problem in physiology has been often discussed, and is well 
worthy of attention. He begins his treatise by pointing out the 
many inconsistencies and defects in the Galenical theory, quoting 
the writings of Galen himself, of Fabricius, Columbus and others, 
with great respect, but with unflinching criticism. For, in his 
own noble language, wise men must learn anatomy, not from the 
decrees of philosophers, but from the fabric of nature herself, 
" nee ita in verba jurare antiquitatis magistrae, ut veritatem 
amicam in apertis relinquant, et in conspectu omnium deserant." 
He had, as we know, not only furnished himself with all the 
knowledge that books and the instructions of the best anatomists 
of Italy could give, but, by a long series of dissections, had 
gained a far more complete knowledge of the comparative 
anatomy of the heart and vessels than any contemporary — we 
may almost say than any successor — until the times of John 
Hunter and J. F. Meckel. Thus equipped, he tells us that he 
began his investigations into the movements of the heart and 
blood by looking at them — i.e. by seeing their action in living 
animals. After a modest preface, he heads his first chapter 

strength of this phrase Professor J. B. Ercolani actually put up a 
tablet in the veterinary school at Bologna to Ruini as the discoverer 
of the circulation of the blood! The claims of Caesalpinus, a more 
plausible claimant to Harvey's laurels, are scarcely better founded. 
In his Quaestiones peripateticae (1571) he followed Servetus and 
Columbus in describing what we now know as the pulmonary 
" circulation " under that name, and this is the only foundation 
for the assertion (first made in Bayle's dictionary) that Caesalpinus 
knew " the circulation of the blood." He is even behind Servetus, 
for he only allows part of the blood of the right ventricle to go round 
by this "circuit "; some, he conceives, passes through the hypo- 
thetical pores in the septum, and the rest by the superior cava to 
the head and arms, by the inferior to the rest of the body: " Hanc 
esse venarum utilitatem ut omnes partes corporis sanguinem pro 
nutrimento deferant. Ex dextro ventr° cordis vena cava sanguinem 
crassiorem, in quo calor intensus est magis, ex altera autem ventr°, 
sanguinem temperatissimum ac sincerissimum habente, egreditur 
aorta." Caesalpinus seems to have had no original views on the 
subject; all that he writes is copied from Galen or from Servetus 
except some erroneous observations df his own. His greatest merit 
was as a botanist ; and no claim to the " discovery of the circulation " 
was made by him or by his contemporaries. When it was made, 
Haller decided conclusively against it. The fact that an inscription 
has been placed on the bust of Caesalpinus at Rome, which states 
that he preceded others in recognizing and demonstrating " the 
general circulation of the blood," is only a proof of the blindness of 
misplaced national vanity. 


" Ex vivorum dissectione, qualis sit cordis motus." He minutely 
describes what he saw and handled in dogs, pigs, serpents, frogs 
and fishes, and even in slugs, oysters, lobsters and insects, in the 
transparent minima squilla, " quae Anglice dicitur a shrimp," 
and lastly in the chick while still in the shell. In these investiga- 
tions he used a perspicillum or simple lens. He particularly 
describes his observations and experiments on the ventricles, 
the auricles, the arteries and the veins. He shows how the 
arrangement of the vessels in the foetus supports his theory. 
He adduces facts observed in disease as well as in health to prove 
the rapidity of the circulation. He explains how the mechanism 
of the valves in the veins is adapted, not, as Fabricius believed, 
to moderate the flow of blood from the heart, but to favour its 
flow to the heart. He estimates the capacity of each ventricle, 
and reckons the rate at which the whole mass of blood passes 
through it. He elaborately and clearly demonstrates the effect 
of obstruction of the blood-stream in arteries or in veins, by the 
forceps in the case of a snake, by a ligature on the arm of a man, 
and illustrates his argument by figures. He then sums up his 
conclusion thus: " Circulari quodam motu, in circuitu, agitari 
in animalibus sanguinem, et esse in perpetuo motu; et hanc esse 
actionem sive functionem cordis quam pulsu peragit; et omnino 
motus et pulsus cordis causam unam esse." Lastly, in the 15th, 
16th and 17th chapters, he adds certain confirmatory evidence, 
as the effect of position on the circulation, the absorption of 
animal poisons and of medicines applied externally, the muscular 
structure of the heart and the necessary working of its valves. 
The whole treatise, which occupies only 67 pages of large print 
in the quarto edition of 1766, is a model of accurate observation, 
patient accumulation of facts, ingenious experimentation, bold 
yet cautious hypothesis and logical deduction. 

In one point only was the demonstration of the circulation 
incomplete. Harvey could not discover the capillary channels 
by which the blood passes from the arteries to the veins. This 
gap in the circulation was supplied several years later by the great 
anatomist Marcello Malpighi, who in 1661 saw in the lungs of 
a frog, by the newly invented microscope, how the blood passes 
from the one set of vessels to the other. Harvey saw all that 
could be seen by the unaided eye in his observations on living 
animals; Malpighi, four years after Harvey's death, by another 
observation on a living animal, completed the splendid chain of 
evidence. If this detracts from Harvey's merit it leaves Servetus 
no merit at all. But in fact the existence of the channels first 
seen by Malpighi was as clearly pointed to by Harvey's reasoning 
as the existence of Neptune by the calculations of Leverrier and 
of Adams. 

Harvey himself and all his contemporaries were well aware of the 
novelty and importance of his theory. He says in the admirable 
letter to Dr Argent, president of the College of Physicians, which 
follows the dedication of his treatise to Charles I., that he should 
not have ventured to publish " a book which alone asserts that 
the blood pursues its course and flows back again by a new path, 
contrary to the received doctrine taught so many ages by innumerable 
learned and illustrious men," if he had not set forth his theory for 
more than nine years in his college lectures, gradually brought it to 
perfection, and convinced his colleagues by actual demonstrations 
of the truth of what he advanced. He anticipates opposition, and 
even obloquy or loss, from the novelty of his views. These antici- 
pations, however, the event proved to have been groundless. If we 
are to credit Aubrey indeed, he found that after the publication 
of the Dz motu " he fell mightily in his practice; 'twas believed by 
the vulgar that he was crackbrained, and all the physicians were 
against him." But the last assertion is demonstrably untrue; 
and if apothecaries and patients ever forsook him, they must soon 
have returned, for Harvey left a handsome fortune. By his own 
profession the book was received as it deserved. So novel a doctrine 
was not to be accepted without due inquiry, but his colleagues had 
heard his lectures and seen his demonstrations for years; they were 
already convinced of the truth of his theory, urged its publication, 
continued him in his lectureship, and paid him every honour in 
their power. In other countries the book was widely read and 
much canvassed. Few accepted the new theory; but no one 
dreamt of claiming the honour of it for himself, nor for several years 
did any one pretend that it could be found in the works of previous 
authors. The first attack on it was a feeble tract by one James 
Primerose, a pupil of Jean Riolan (Exerc, et animadv. in libr. 
Hariri de motu cord, et sang., 1630). Five years later Parisanus, 
an Italian physician, published his Lapis Lydius de motu cord. 


et sang. (Venice, 1635), a still more bulky and futile performance. 
Primerose's attacks were " imbellia pleraque " and "sine ictu"; 
that of Parisanus " in quamplurimis turpius," according to the con- 
temporary judgment of Johann Vessling. Their dulness has pro- 
tected them from further censure. Caspar Hoffmann, professor at 
Nuremberg, while admitting the truth of the lesser circulation in 
the full Harveian sense, denied the rest of the new doctrine. To 
him the English anatomist replied in a short letter, still extant, 
with great consideration yet with modest dignity, beseeching him 
to convince himself by actual inspection of the truth of the facts in 
question. He concludes: " I accept your censure in the candid 
and friendly spirit in which you say you wrote it; do you also the 
same to me, now that I have answered you in the same spirit." 
This letter is dated May 1636, and in that year Harvey passed 
through Nuremberg with the earl of Arundel, and visited Hoffmann. 
But he failed to convince him; " nee tamen valuit Harveius vel 
^.oram," writes P. M. Schlegel, who, however, afterwards succeeded 
in persuading the obstinate old Galenist to soften his opposition to 
the new doctrine, and thinks that his complete conversion might have 
been effected if he had but lived a little longer — " nee dubito quin 
concessisset tandem in nostra castra." While in Italy the following 
year Harvey visited his old university of Padua, and demonstrated 
his views to Professor Vessling. A few months later this excellent 
anatomist wrote him a courteous and sensible letter, with certain 
objections to the new theory. The answer to this has not been 
preserved, but it convinced his candid opponent, who admitted 
the truth of the circulation in a second letter (both were published 
in 1640), and afterwards told a friend, " Harveium nostrum si audis, 
agnosces coelestem sanguinis et spiritus ingressum ex arteriis per 
venas in dextrum cordis sinum." Meanwhile a greater convert, 
R. Descartes, in his Discours sur la mcthode (1637) had announced 
his adhesion to the new doctrine, and refers to " the English physician 
to whom belongs, the honour of having first shown that the course 
of the blood in the body is nothing less than a kind of perpetual 
movement in a circle." J. Walaeus of Leyden, H. Regius of Utrecht 
and Schlegel of Hamburg successively adopted the new physiology. 
Of these professors, Regius was mauled by the pertinacious Prime- 
rose and mauled him in return {Spongia qua eluuntur sordes quae Jac. 
Primirosius, &c, and Anlidotum adv. Spongiam venenatam Henr. 
Regit). Descartes afterwards repeated Harvey's vivisections, and, 
more convinced than ever, demolished Professor V. F. Plempius of 
Louvain, who had written on the other side. George Ent also 
published an Apologia pro circulatione sanguinis in answer to 

At last Jean Riolan ventured to publish his Enchiridium ana- 
tomicum (1648), in which he attacks Harvey's theory, and proposes 
one of his own. Riolan had accompanied the queen dowager of 
France (Maria de' Medici) on a visit to her daughter at Whitehall, 
and had there met Harvey and discussed his theory. He was, in the 
opinion of the judicious Haller, " vir asper et in nuperos suosque 
coaevos immitis ac nemini parcens, nimis avidus suarum laudum 
praeco, et se ipso fatente anatomicorum princeps." Harvey replied 
to the Enchiridium with perfectly courteous language and perfectly 
conclusive arguments, in two letters De circulatione sanguinis, 
which were published at Cambridge in 1649, and are still well worth 
reading. He speaks here of the " circuitus sanguinis a me in- 
ventus." Riolan was unconvinced, but lived to see another pro- 
fessor of anatomy appointed in his own university who taught 
Harvey's doctrines. Even in Italy, Trullius, professor of anatomy 
at Rome, expounded the new doctrine in 1651. But the most 
illustrious converts were Jean Pecquet of Dieppe, the discoverer of 
the thoracic duct, and of the true course of the lacteal vessels, and 
Thomas Bartholinus of Copenhagen, in his Anatome ex omnium 
veterum recentiorumque observationibus, imprimis institutionibus 
beati mei parentis Caspari Bartholini, ad circulationem Harveianam 
et vasa lymphatica renovata (Leiden, 1651). At last Plempius also 
retracted all his objections; for, as he candidly stated, " having 
opened the bodies of a few living dogs, I find that all Harvey's state- 
ments are perfectly true." Hobbes of Malmesbury could thus say in 
the preface to his Elementa philosophise that his friend Harvey, 
" solus quod sciam, doctrinam novam superata invidia vivens 

It has been made a reproach to Harvey that he failed to appreciate 
the importance of the discoveries of the lacteal and lymphatic vessels 
by G. Aselli, J. Pecquet and C. Bartholinus. In three letters on the 
subject, one to Dr R. Morison of Paris (1652)' and two to Dr Horst of 
Darmstadt (1655), a correspondent of Bartholin's, he discusses 
these observations, and shows himself unconvinced of their accuracy. 
He writes, however, with great moderation and reasonableness, and 
excuses himself from investigating the subject further on the score 
of the infirmities of age; he was then above seventy-four. The 
following quotation shows the spirit of these letters: " Laudo 
equidem summopere Pecqueti aliorumque in indaganda veritate 
industriam singularem, nee dubito quin multa adhuc in Democriti 
puteo abscondita sint, a venturi saeculi indefatigabili diligentia 
expromenda." Bartholin, though reasonably disappointed in not 
having Harvey's concurrence, speaks of him with the utmost respect, 
and generously says that the glory of discovering the movements of 
the heart and of the blood was enough for one man. 

4 6 


Harvey's Work on Generation. — We have seen how Dr. Ent per- 
suaded his friend to publish this book in 165 1. It is between 
five and six times as long as the Exerc. de motu cord, el sang., 
and is followed by excursus De partu, De uteri membranis, De 
conceptione; but, though the fruit of as patient and extensive 
observations, its value is far inferior. The subject was far more 
abstruse, and in fact inaccessible to proper investigation without 
the aid of the microscope. And the field was almost untrodden 
since the days of Aristotle. Fabricius, Harvey's master, in his 
work De formatione ovi et pulli (1621), had alone preceded him 
in modern times. Moreover, the seventy-two chapters which 
form the book lack the co-ordination so conspicuous in the earlier 
treatise, and some of them seem almost like detached chapters of 
a system which was never completed or finally revised. 

Aristotle had believed that the male parent furnished the body of 
the future embryo, while the female only nourished and formed the 
seed; this is in fact the theory on which, in the Eumenides of 
Aeschylus, Apollo obtains the acquittal of Orestes. Galen taught 
almost as erroneously that each parent contributes seeds, the union 
of which produced the young animal. Harvey, after speaking with 
due honour of Aristotle and Fabricius, begins rightly " ab ovo "; 
for, as he remarks, '' eggs cost little and are always and everywhere 
to be had," and moreover " almost all animals, even those which 
bring forth their young alive, and man himself, are produced from 
eggs " (" omnia omnino animalia, ctiam vivipara, atque hominem 
adeo ipsum, ex ovo progigni "). This dictum, usually quoted as 
" omne vivum ex ovo," would alone stamp this work as worthy of 
the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, but it was a prevision 
of genius, and was not proved to be a fact until K. E. von Baer 
discovered the mammalian ovum in 1827. Harvey proceeds with 
a careful anatomical description of the ovary and oviduct of the hen, 
describes the new-laid egg, and then gives an account of the appear- 
ance seen on the successive days of incubation, from the 1st to the 
6th, the 10th and the 14th, and lastly describes the process of 
hatching. He then comments upon and corrects the opinions of 
Aristotle and Fabricius, declares against spontaneous generation 
(though in one passage he seems to admit the current doctrine of 
production of worms by putrefaction as an exception), proves that 
there is no semen foemineum, that the chalazae of the hen's eggs are 
not the semen galli, and that both parents contribute -to the forma- 
tion of the egg. He describes accurately the first appearance of the 
ovarian ova as mere specks, their assumption of yelk and after- 
wards of albumen. In chapter xlv. he describes two methods of 
production of the embryo from the ovum : one is metamorphosis, or 
the direct transformation of pre-existing material, as a worm from 
an egg, or a butterfly from an aurelia (chrysalis) ; the other is 
epigenesis, or development with addition of parts, the true genera- 
tion observed in all higher animals. Chapters xlvi.-l. are devoted 
to the abstruse question of the efficient cause of generation, which, 
after much discussion of the opinions of Aristotle and of Sennertius, 
Harvey refers to the action of both parents as the efficient instru- 
ments of the first great cause. 1 He then goes on to describe the 
order in which the several parts appear in the chick. He states that 
the punctum saliens or foetal heart is the first organ to be seen, and 
explains that the nutrition of the chick is not only effected by yelk 
conveyed directly into the midgut, as Aristotle taught, but also by 
absorption from yelk and white by the umbilical (omphalomeseraic) 
veins ; on the fourth day of incubation appear two masses (which he 
oddly names vermiculus), one of which develops into three vesicles, 
to form the cerebrum, cerebellum and eyes, the other into the 
breastbone and thorax; on the sixth or seventh day come the 
viscera, and lastly, the feathers and other external parts. Harvey 
points out how nearly this order of development in the chick agrees 
with what he had observed in mammalian and particularly in human 
embryos. He notes the bifid apex of the foetal heart in man and 
the equal thickness of the ventricles, the soft cartilages which 
represent the future bones, the large amount of liquor amnii and 
absence of placenta which characterize the foetus in the third month ; 
in the fourth the position of the testes in the abdomen, and the uterus 
with its Fallopian tubes resembling the uterus bicornis of the sheep; 
the large thymus; the caecum, small as in the adult, not forming a 

1 So in Exerc. liv. : "Superior itaque et divinior opifex, quam 
est homo, videtur hominem fabricare et conservare, et nobilior 
artifex, quam gallus, pullum ex ovo producere. Nempe agnoscimus 
Deum, creatorem summum atque omnipotentem, in cunctorum 
animalium fabrica ubique praesentem esse, et in operibus suis quasi 
digito monstrari : cujus in procreatione pulli instruments sint gallus 
et gallina. . . . Nee cuiquam sane haec attributa conveniunt nisi 
omnipotenti rerum Principio, quocunque demum nomine idipsum 
appellare Hbuerit: sive Mentem divinam cum Aristotele, sive cum 
Platone Animam Mundi, aut'eum aliis Naturam naturantem, vel 
cum ethnicis Saturnum aut Iovem; vel potius (ut nos decet) Crea- 
torem ac Patrem omnium quae in coelis et terris, a quo animalia 
eorumque origines dependent, cujusque nutu sive effatu fiunt et 
generantur omnia. 

second stomach as in the pig, the horse and the hare; the lobulated 
kidneys, like those of the seal (" vitulo," sc. marino) and porpoise, 
and the large suprarenal veins, not much smaller than those of the 
kidneys (li.-lvi). He failed, however, to trace the connexion of 
the urachus with the bladder. In the following chapters (lxiii.- 
lxxii.) he describes the process of generation in the fallow deer or 
the roe. After again insisting that all animals arise from ova, 
that a " conception " is an internal egg and an egg an extruded 
conception, he goes on to describe the uterus of the doe, the process 
of impregnation, and the subsequent development of the foetus and 
its membranes, the punctum saliens, the cotyledons of the placenta, 
and the " uterine milk," to which Sir William Turner recalled 
attention in later years. The treatise concludes with detached 
notes on the placenta, parturition and allied subjects. 

Harvey's other Writings and Medical Practice. — The remaining 
writings of Harvey which are extant are unimportant. A com- 
plete list of them will be found below, together with the titles of 
those which we know to be lost. Of these the most important 
were probably that on respiration, and the records of post- 
mortem examinations. From the following passage {De partu, 
p. 550) it seems that he had a notion of respiration being con- 
nected rather with the production of animal heat than, as then 
generally supposed, with the cooling of the blood. " Haec qui 
diligenter perpenderit, naturamque aeris diligenter introspexerit, 
facile opinor fatebitur eundem nee refrigerationis gratia nee in 
pabulum animalibus concedi. Haec autem obiter duntaxat de 
respiratione diximus, proprio loco de eadeni forsitan copiosius 

Of Harvey as a practising physician we know very little. 
Aubrey tells us that " he paid his visits on horseback with a foot- 
cloth, his man following on foot, as the fashion then was." He 
adds — " Though all of his profession would allow him to be an 
excellent anatomist, I never heard any that admired his thera- 
peutic way. I knew several practitioners that would not have 
given threepence for one of his bills " (the apothecaries used to 
collect physicians' prescriptions and sell or publish them to their 
own profit), " and that a man could hardly tell by his bill what 
he did aim at." However this may have been, — and rational 
therapeutics was impossible when the foundation stone of physio- 
logy had only just been laid, — we know that Harvey was an active 
practitioner, performing such important surgical operations as 
the removal of a breast, and he turned his obstetric experience 
to account in his book on generation. Some good practical 
precepts as to the conduct of labour are quoted by Percivall 
Willughby (1596-1685). He also took notes of the anatomy of 
disease ; these unfortunately perished with his other manuscripts. 
Otherwise we might regard him as a forerunner of G. B. Mor- 
gagni; for Harvey saw that pathology is but a branch of physio- 
logy, and like it must depend first on accurate anatomy. He 
speaks strongly to this purpose in his first epistle to Riolan: 
"Sicut enim sanorum et boni habitus corporum dissectio pluri- 
mum ad philosophiam et rectam physiologiam facit, ita corporum 
morbosorum et cachecticorum inspectio potissimum ad patho- 
logiam philosophicam." The only specimen we have of his 
observations in morbid anatomy is his account of the post- 
mortem examination made by order of the king on the body of 
the famous Thomas Parr, who died in 1635, at the reputed age 
of 152. Harvey insists on the value of physiological truths for 
their own sake, independently of their immediate utility; but 
he himself gives us an interesting example of the practical 
application of his theory of the circulation in the cure of a large 
tumour by tying the arteries which supplied it with blood {De 
generat. Exerc. xix.). 

The following is believed to be a complete list of all the known 
writings of Harvey, published and unpublished : — 

Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis, 4to (Frankfort- 
on-the-Main, 1628); Exercitationes duae anatomicae de circulatione 
sanguinis, ad Johannem Riolanum, filium, Parisiensem (Cambridge, 
1649); Exercitationes de generatione animalium, quibus accedunt 
quaedam de partu, de membranis ac humoribus uteri, et de concep- ' 
tione, 4to (London, 1651); Anatomia Thomae Parr, first published 
in the treatise of Dr John Betts, De ortu et natura sanguinis, 8vo 
(London, 1669). Letters: (l) to Caspar Hoffmann of Nuremberg, 
May 1636; (2) to Schlegel of Hamburg, April 1651; (3) three to 
Giovanni Nardi of Florence, July 1651, Dec. 1653 a °d Nov. 1655; 
(4) two to Dr Morison of Paris, May 1652; (5) two to Dr Horst of 



Darmstadt, Feb. 1654-1655 and July 1655; (6) to Dr Vlackveld of 
Haarlem, May 1657. His letters to Hoffmann and Schlegel are on 
the circulation; those to Morison, Horst and Vlackveld refer to 
the discovery of the lacteals ; the two to Nardi are short letters of 
friendship. All these letters were published by Sir George Ent in 
his collected works (Leiden, 1687). Of two MS. letters, one on 
official business to the secretary Dorchester was printed by Dr 
Aveling, with a facsimile of the crabbed handwriting (Memorials of 
Harvey, 1875), and the other, about a patient, appears in Dr Robert 
Willis's Life of Harvey (1878). Praelectiones anatomiae universalis 
per me Gul. Harveium medicum Londinensem, anat. et chir. professorem, 
an. dom. (1616), aetat. 37, — MS. notes of his Lumleian lectures in 
Latin, — are in the British Museum library ; an autotype reproduction 
was issued by the College of Physicians in 1886. An account of a 
second MS. in the British Museum, entitled Gulielmus Harveius de 
musculis, motu locali, &c, was published by Sir G. E. Paget (Notice 
of an unpublished MS. of Harvey, London, 1850). The following 
treatises, or notes towards them, were lost either in the pillaging 
of Harvey's house, or perhaps in the fire of London, which destroyed 
the old College of Physicians : A Treatise on Respiration, promised 
and probably at least in part completed (pp. 82, 550, ed. 1766); 
Observationes de usu Lienis; Observationes de motu locali, perhaps 
identical with the above-mentioned manuscript ; Tractatum physio- 
logicum; Anatomia medicalis (apparently notes of morbid anatomy) ; 
De generatione insectorum. The fine 4to edition of Harvey's Works, 
published by the Royal College of Physicians in 1766, was super- 
intended by Dr Mark Akenside; it contains the two treatises, 
the account of the post-mortem examination of old Parr, and the 
six letters enumerated above. A translation of this volume by Dr 
Willis, with Harvey's will, was published by the Sydenham Society, 
8vo (London, 1849). 

The following are the principal biographies of Harvey : in Aubrey's 
Letters of Eminent Persons, &c, vol. ii. (London, 1813), first pub- 
lished in 1685, the only contemporary account", in Bayle's Diction- 
naire historique et critique (1698 and 1720; Eng. ed., 1738); 
in the Biographia Britannica, and in Aitken's Biographical Memoirs; 
the Latin Life by Dr Thomas Lawrence, prefixed to the college 
edition of Harvey's Works in 1766; memoir in Lives of British 
Physicians (London, 1830); a Life by Dr Robert Willis, founded on 
that by Lawrence, and prefixed to his English edition of Harvey 
in 1847; the much enlarged Life by the same author, published in 
1878; the biography by Dr William Munk in the Roll of the College 
of Physicians, vol. i. (2nd ed., 1879). 

The literature which has arisen on the great discovery of Harvey, 
on his methods and his merits, would fill a library. The most im- 
portant contemporary writings have been mentioned above. The 
following list gives some of the most remarkable in modern times: 
the article in Bayle's dictionary quoted above; Anatomical Lectures, 
by Wm. Hunter, M.D. (1784) ; Sprengell, Geschichte der Arzneikunde 
(Halle, 1800), vol. iv.; Flourens, Histoire de la circulation (1854); 
Lewes, Physiology of Common Life (1859), vol. i. pp. 291-345; 
Ceradini, La Scoperta delta circolazione del sangue (Milan, 1876); 
Tollin, Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs durch Michael Servet 
(Jena, 1876); Kirchner, Die Entdeckung des Blutkreislaufs (Berlin, 
1878); Willis, in his Life of Harvey; Wharton Jones, " Lecture on 
the Circulation of the Blood," Lancet for Oct. 25 and Nov. I, 1879; 
and the various Harveian Orations, especially those by Sir E. Sieve- 
king, Dr Guy and Professor George Rolleston. (P. H. P.-S.) 

HARVEY, a city of Cook county, Illinois, U.S.A., about 18 m. 
S. of the Chicago Court House. Pop. (1900) 5395 (982 foreign- 
born); (1910) 7227. It is served by the Chicago Terminal Transfer, 
the Grand Trunk and the Illinois Central railways. Harvey is 
a manufacturing and residence suburb of Chicago. Among its 
manufactures are railway, foundry and machine-shop supplies, 
mining and ditching machinery, stone crushers, street-making 
and street-cleaning machinery, stoves and motor-vehicles. It 
was named in honour of Turlington W. Harvey, a Chicago 
capitalist, founded in 1890, incorporated as a village in 1891 
and chartered as a city in 1895. 

HARWICH, a municipal borough and seaport in the Harwich 
parliamentary division of Essex, England, on the extremity of 
a small peninsula projecting into the estuary of the Stour and 
Orwell, 70 m. N.E. by E. of London by the Great Eastern 
railway. Pop. (1901), 10,070. It occupies an elevated situation, 
and a wide view is obtained from Beacon Hill at the southern 
end of the esplanade. The church of St Nicholas was built of 
brick in 1821; and there are a town hall and a custom-house. 
The harbour is one of the best on the east coast of England, and 
in stormy weather is largely used for shelter. A breakwater 
and sea-wall prevent the blocking of the harbour entrance and 
encroachments of the sea; and there is another breakwater at 
Landguard Point on the opposite (Suffolk) shore of the estuary. 
The principal imports are grain and agricultural produce, timber 

and coal, and the exports cement and fish. Harwich is one of 
the principal English ports for continental passenger traffic, 
steamers regularly serving the Hook of Holland, Amsterdam, 
Rotterdam, Antwerp, Esbjerg, Copenhagen and Hamburg. The 
continental trains of the Great Eastern railway run to Parkeston 
Quay, 1 m. from Harwich up the Stour, where the passenger 
steamers start. The fisheries are important, principally those 
for shrimps and lobsters. There are cement and shipbuilding 
works The port is the headquarters of the Royal Harwich 
Yacht Club. There are batteries at and opposite Harwich, and 
modern works on Shotley Point, at the fork of the two estuaries, 
There are also several of the Martello towers of the Napoleonic 
era. At Landguard Fort there are important defence works with 
heavy modern guns commanding the main channel. This has 
been a point of coast defence since the time of James I. Between 
the Parkeston Quay and Town railway stations is that of Dover- 
court, an adjoining parish and popular watering-place. Harwich 
is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 1541 

Harwich (Herewica, Herewyck) cannot be shown to have been 
inhabited very early, although in the 18th century remains of a 
camp, possibly Roman, existed there. Harwich formed part of 
the manor of Dovercourt. It became a borough in 1319 by a 
charter of Edward II., which was confirmed in 1342 and 1378, 
and by each of the Lancastrian kings. The exact nature and 
degree of its self-government is not clear. Harwich' received 
charters in 1547, 1553 and 1560. In 1604 James I. gave it a charter 
which amounted to a new constitution, and from this charter 
begins the regular parliamentary representation. Two burgesses 
had attended parliament in 1343, but none had been summoned 
since. Until 1867 Harwich returned two members; it then lost 
one, and in 1885 it was merged in the county. Included in the 
manor of Dovercourt, Harwich from 1086 was for long held by 
the de Vere family. In 1252 Henry III. granted to Roger Bigod 
a market here every Tuesday, and a fair on Ascension day, and 
eight days after. In 1320 a grant occurs of a Tuesday market, 
but no fair is mentioned. James I. granted a Friday market, 
and two fairs, at the feast of St Philip and St James, and on 
St Luke's day. The fair has died out, but markets are still 
held on Tuesday and Friday. Harwich has always had a 
considerable trade; in the 14th century merchants came 
even from Spain, and there was much trade in wheat and 
wool with Flanders. But the passenger traffic appears to have 
been as important at Harwich in the 14th century as it is now. 
Shipbuilding was a considerable industry at Harwich in the 
17th century. 

HARZBURG, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Brunswick, 
beautifully situated in a deep and well-wooded vale at the north 
foot of the Harz Mountains, at the terminus of the Brunswick- 
Harzburg railway, 5 m. E.S.E. from Goslar and 18 m. S. 
from Wolfenbuttel. Pop. (1905), 4396. The Radau, a mountain 
stream, descending from the Brocken, waters the valley and adds 
much to its picturesque charm. The town is much frequented 
as a summer residence. It possesses brine and carbonated springs, 
the Juliushall saline baths being about a mile to the south of 
the town, and a hydropathic establishment. A mile and a half 
south from ;he town lies the Burgbcrg, 1500 ft. above sea-level, 
on whose summit, according to tradition, was once an altar to 
the heathen idol Krodo, still to be seen in the Ulrich chapel at 
Goslar. There are on the summit of the hill the remains of an 
old castle, and a monument erected in 1875 to Prince Bismarck, 
with an inscription taken from one of his speeches against 
the Ultramontane claims of Rome — " Nach Canossa gehen 
wir nicht." 

The castle on the Burgberg called the Harzburg is famous in 
German history. It was built between 1065 and 1069, but was 
laid in ruins by the Saxons in 1074; again it was built and 
again destroyed during the struggle between the emperor 
Henry IV. and the Saxons. By Frederick I. it was granted to 
Henry the Lion, who caused it to be rebuilt about 11 80. It was 
a frequent residence of Otto IV., who died therein, and after 
being frequently besieged and taken, it passed to the house of 

4 8 


Brunswick. It ceased to be of importance as a fortress after the 
Thirty Years' War, and gradually fell into ruins. 

See Delius, Vntersuchungen iiber die Geschichte der Harzburg 
(Halberstadt, 1826); Dommes, Harzburg und seine Umgebung 
(Goslar, 1862); Jacobs, Die Harzburg und ihre Geschichte (1885); 
and Stolle, Fiihrer von Bad Harzburg (1899). 

HARZ MOUNTAINS (also spelt Hartz, Ger. Harzgebirge, anc. 
Silva Hercynia), the most northerly mountain-system of 
Germany, situated between the rivers Weser and Elbe, occupy 
an area of 784 sq. m., of which 455 belong to Prussia, 286 to 
Brunswick and 43 to Anhalt. Their greatest length extends in 
a S.E. and N.W. direction for 57 m., and their maximum breadth 
is about 20 m. The group is made up of an irregular series of 
terraced plateaus, rising here and there into rounded summits, 
and intersected in various directions by narrow, deep valleys. 
The north-western and higher part of the mass is called the Ober 
or Upper Harz; the south-eastern and more extensive part, 
the Unter or Lower Harz; while the N.W. and S.W. slopes of 
the Upper Harz form the Vorharz. The Brocken group, which 
divides the Upper and Lower Harz, is generally regarded as 
belonging to the first. The highest summits of the Upper Harz 
are the Brocken (3747 ft.), the Heinrichshohe (3425 ft.), the 
Konigsberg (3376 ft.) and the Wurmberg (3176 ft.); of the 
Lower Harz, the Josephshohe in the Auerberg group and the 
Viktorhohe in the Ramberg, each 1887 ft. Of these the Brocken 
(q.v.) is celebrated for the legends connected with it, immortal- 
ized in Goethe's Faust. Streams are numerous, but all small. 
While rendered extensively useful, by various skilful artifices, in 
working the numerous mines of the district, at other parts of 
their course they present the most picturesque scenery in the 
Harz. Perhaps the finest valley is the rocky Bodethal, with the 
Rosstrappe, the Hexentanzplatz, the Baumannshohle and the 

The Harz is a mass of Palaeozoic rock rising through the Mesozoic 
strata of north Germany, and bounded on all sides by faults. Slates, 
schists, quartzites and limestones form the greater part of the hills, 
but the Brocken and Victorshohe are masses of intrusive granite, 
and diabases and diabase tuffs are interstratified with the sedi- 
mentary deposits. The Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous 
systems are represented — the Silurian and Devonian forming the 
greater part of the hilis S.E. of a line drawn from Lauterberg to 
Wernigerode, while N.W. of this line the Lower Carboniferous pre- 
dominates. A few patches of Upper Carboniferous are found on the 
borders of the hills near Ilfeld, Baflenstedt, &c, lying unconformably 
upon the Devonian. The structure of the Harz is very complicated, 
but the general strike of the folds, especially in the Oberharz plateau, 
is N.E. or N.N.E. The whole mass evidently belongs to the ancient 
Hercynian chain of North Europe (which, indeed, derives its name 
from the Harz), and is the north-easterly continuation of the rocks 
of the Ardennes and the Eifel. The folding of the old rocks took 
place towards the close of the Palaeozoic era; but the faulting to 
which they owe their present position was probably Tertiary. 
Metalliferous veins are common, amongst the best-known being the 
silver-bearing lead veins of Klausthal, which occur in the Culm or 
Lower Carboniferous. 

Owing to its position as the first range which the northerly 
winds strike after crossing the north German plain, the climate 
on the summit of the Harz is generally raw and damp, even in 
summer. In 1895 an observatory was opened on the top of the 
Brocken, and the results of the first five years (1896-1900) showed 
a July mean of 50 Fahr., a February mean of 24-7°, and a yearly 
mean of 36-6°. During the same five years the rainfall averaged 
64$ ins. annually. But while the summer is thus relatively un- 
genial on the top of the Harz, the usual summer heat of the 
lower-lying valleys is greatly tempered and cooled; so that, 
adding this to the natural attractions of the scenery, the deep 
forests, and the legendary and romantic associations attaching 
to every fantastic rock and ruined castle, the Harz is a favourite 
summer resort of the German people. Among the more popular 
places of resort are Harzburg, Thale and the Bodethal; Blanken- 
burg, with the Teufelsmauer and the Hermannshohle; Werni- 
gerode, Ilsenburg, Grund, Lauterberg, Hubertusbad, Alexisbad 
and Suderode. Somecf these, and other places not named, add 
to their natural attractions the advantage of mineral springs and 
baths, pine-needle baths, whey cures, &c. The Harz is pene- 
trated by several railways, among them a rack-railway up the 

Brocken, opened in 1898. The district is traversed by excellent 
roads in all directions. 

The northern summits are destitute of trees, but the lower 
slopes of the Upper Harz are heavily wooded with pines and firs. 
Between the forests of these stretch numerous peat-mosses, 
which contain in their spongy reservoirs the sources of many 
small streams. On the Brocken are found one or two arctic and 
several alpine, plants. In the Lower Harz the forests contain a 
great variety of timber. The oak, elm and birch are common, 
while the beech especially attains an unusual size and beauty. 
The walnut-tree grows in the eastern districts. 

The last bear was killed in the Harz in 1705, and the last lynx 
in 181 7, and since that time the wolf too has become extinct; 
but deer, foxes, wild cats and badgers are still found in the 

The Harz is one of the richest mineral storehouses in Germany, 
and the chief industry is mining, which has been carried on since 
the middle of the 10th century. The most important mineral is 
a peculiarly rich argentiferous lead, but gold in small quantities, 
copper, iron, sulphur, alum and arsenic are also found. Mining 
is carried on principally at Klausthal and St Andreasberg in the 
Upper Harz. Near the latter is one of the deepest mining shafts 
in Europe, namely the Samson, which goes down 2790 ft. or 720 
ft. below sea-level. For the purpose of getting rid of the water, 
and obviating the flooding of such deep workings, it has been 
found necessary to construct drainage works of some magnitude. 
As far back as 1777-1799 the Georgsstollen was cut through the 
mountains from the east of Klausthal westward to Grund, a 
distance of 4 m.; but this proving insufficient, another sewer, 
the Ernst-Auguststollen, no less than 14 m. in length, was made 
from the same neighbourhood to Gittelde, at the west side of the 
Harz, in 1851-1864. Marble, granite and gypsum are worked; 
and large quantities of vitriol are manufactured. The vast 
forests that cover the mountain slopes supply the materials 
for a considerable trade in timber. Much wood is exported for 
building and other purposes, and in the Harz itself is used as 
fuel. The sawdust of the numerous mills is collected for use 
in the manufacture of paper. Turf-cutting, coarse lace-making 
and the breeding of canaries and native song-birds also occupy 
many of the people. Agriculture is carried on chiefly on the 
plateaus of the Lower Harz; but there is excellent pasturage 
both in the north and in the south. In the Lower Harz, as in 
Switzerland, the cows, which carry bells harmoniously tuned, 
are driven up into the heights in early summer, returning to the 
sheltered regions in late autumn. 

The inhabitants are descended from various stocks. The 
Upper and Lower Saxon, the Thuringian and the Frankish 
races have all contributed to form the present people, and their 
respective influences are still to be traced in the varieties of 
dialect. The boundary line between High and Low German 
passes through the Harz. The Harz was the last stronghold of 
paganism in Germany, and to that fact are due the legends, in 
which no district is richer, and the fanciful names given by the 
people to peculiar objects and appearances of nature. 

See Zeitschrift des Harzvereins (Wernigerode, annually since 1868) ; 
Gunther, Der Harz in Geschichts- Kultur- und Landschaftsbildern 
(Hanover, 1885), and " Der Harz " in Scobel's Monographien zur 
Erdkunde (Bielefeld, 1901); H. Hoffmann and others, Der Harz 
(Leipzig, 1899), Harzwanderungen (Leipzig, 1902) ; Hampe, Flora 
Hercynica (Halle, 1873); von Groddeck, Abriss der Geognosie des 
Harzes (2nd ed., Klausthal, 1883); Prohle, Harzsagen (2nd ed., 
Leipzig, 1886); Hautzinger, Der Kupfer- und Silbersegen des Harzes 
(Berlin, 1877) ; Hoppe, Die Bergwerke im Ober- und Vnterharz 
(Klausthal, 1883); Schulze, Lithia Hercynica (Leipzig, 1895); 
Ludecke, Die Minerale des Harzes (Berlin, 1896). 

HASA, EL {Ahsa, Al Hasa), a district in the east of Arabia 
stretching along the shore of the Persian Gulf from Kuw6t in 29° 
20' N. to the south point of the Gulf of Bahrein in 25 10' N., a 
length of about 360 m. On the W. it is bounded by Nejd, and 
on the S.E. by the peninsula of El Katr which forms part of 
Oman. The coast is low and flat and has no deep-water port 
along its whole length with the exception of Kuwet; from that 
place to El Katif the country is barren and without villages 



Or permanent settlements, and is only occupied by nomad tribes, 
of which the principal are the Bani Hajar, Ajman and Khalid. 
The interior consists of low stony ridges rising gradually to the 
inner plateau. The oases of Hofuf and Katif, however, form a 
strong contrast to the barren wastes that cover the greater part 
of the district. Here an inexhaustible supply of underground 
water (to which the province owes its nameHasa) issues in strong 
springs, marking, according to Arab geographers, the course of a 
great subterranean river draining the Nejd highlands. Hofuf the 
capital, a town of 15.000 to 20,000 inhabitants, with its neighbour 
Mubariz scarcely less populous, forms the centre of a thriving 
district 50 m. long by 15 m. in breadth, containing numerous 
villages each with richly cultivated fields and gardens. The town 
walls enclose a space of r§ by 1 m., at the north-west angle 
of which is a remarkable citadel attributed to the Carmathian 
princes. Mubariz is celebrated for its hot spring, known as Urn 
Saba or " mother of seven," from the seven channels by which 
its water is distributed. Beyond the present limits of the oasis 
much of the country is well supplied with water, and ruined 
sites and half-obliterated canals show that it has only relapse.d 
into waste in recent times. Cultivation reappears at Katif, a 
town situated on a small bay some 35 m. north-west of Bahrein. 
Date groves extend for several miles along the coast, which is 
low and muddy. The district is fertile but the climate is hot and 
unhealthy; still, owing to its convenient position, the town has 
a considerable trade with Bahrein and the gulf ports on one side 
and the interior of Nejd on the other. The fort is a strongly built 
enclosure attributed, like that at Hofuf, to the Carmathian prince 
Abu Tahir. 

'Uker or 'Ujer is the nearest port to Hofuf, from which it is 
distant about 40 m.; large quantities of rice and piece goods 
transhipped at Bahrein are landed here and sent on by caravan 
to Hofuf, the great entrepot for the trade between southern Nejd 
and the coast. It also shares in the valuable pearl fishery of 
Bahrein and the adjacent coast. 

Politically El Hasa is a dependency of Turkey, and its capital 
Hofuf is the headquarters of the sanjak'or district of Nejd. 
Hofuf, Katif and El Katr were occupied by Turkish garrisons in 
187 1, and the occupation has been continued in spite of British 
protest as to El Katr, which according to the agreement made in 
1867, when Bahrein was taken under British protection, was 
tributary to the latter. Turkish claims to Kuwet have not been 
admitted by Great Britain. 

Authorities. — W. G. Palgrave, Central and Eastern Arabia 
(London, 1865); L. Pelly, Journal R.G.S. (1866); S. M. Zwemer, 
Geog. Journal (1902) : G. F. Sadlier, Diary of a Journey across Arabia 
(Bombav, 1866); V. Chirol, The Middle East (London, 1904). 

(R. A. W.) 

HASAN and HOSAIN (or Husein), sons of the fourth 
Mahommedan caliph Ali by his wife Fatima, daughter of 
Mahomet. On Ali's death Hasan was proclaimed caliph, but 
the strength of Moawiya who had rebelled against Ali was such 
that he resigned his claim on condition that he should have the 
disposal of the treasure stored at Kufa, with the revenues of 
Darabjird. This secret negotiation came to the ears of Hasan's 
supporters, a mutiny broke out and Hasan was wounded. He 
retired to Medina where he died about 669. The story that he 
was poisoned at Moawiya's instigation is generally discredited 
(see Caliphate, sect. B, § 1). Subsequently his brother Hosain 
was invited by partisans in Kufa to revolt against Moawiya's 
successor Yazid. He was, however, defeated and killed at 
Kerbela on the 10th of October (Muharram) 680 (see Caliphate, 
sect. B, § 2 ad init.). Hosain is the hero of the Passion Play 
which is performed annually {e.g. at Kerbela) on the anniversary 
of his death by the Shi'itcs of Persia and India, to whom from 
the earliest times the family of Ali are the only true descendants of 
Mahomet. The play lasts for several days and concludes with 
the carrying out of the coffins (tabiif) of the martyrs to an open 
place in the neighbourhood. 

See Sir Wm. Muir, The Caliphate (1883); Sir Lewis Pelly, The 
Miracle Play of Hasan and Hosein (1879). 

HASAN UL-BASRI [Aba Sa'ud ul-Hasan ibn Abi-1-Hasan 
Vassar ul-Basri], (642-728 or 737), Arabian theologian, was 

born at Medina. His father was a freedman of Zaid ibn Thabit, 
one of the Ansar (Helpers of the Prophet), his mother a client of 
Umm Salama, a wife of Mahomet. Tradition says that Umm 
Salama often nursed Hasan in his infancy. He was thus one 
of the Tdbi'un (i.e. of the generation that succeeded the Helpers). 
He became a teacher of Basra and founded a school there. 
Among his pupils was Wasil ibn 'Ata, the founder of the 
Mo'tazilites. He himself was a great supporter of orthodoxy 
and the most important representative of asceticism in the time 
of its first development. With him fear is the basis of morality, 
and sadness the characteristic of his religion. Life is only a 
pilgrimage, and comfort must be denied to subdue the passions. 
Many writers testify to the purity of his life and to his excelling 
in the virtues of Mahomet's own companions. He was " as if 
he were in the other world." In politics, too, he adhered to the 
earliest principles of Islam, being strictly opposed to the in- 
herited caliphate of the Omayyads and a believer in the election 
of the caliph. 

His life is given in Nawjiwi's Biographical Dictionary (ed. F. 
Wustenfeld, Gottingen, 1842-1847). Cf. R. Dozy, Essai sur I'his- 
toire de Vislamisme, pp. 201 sqq. (Leiden and Paris, 1879); A. von 
Kremer, Ctuturgeschichtliche Streifziige, p. 5 seq. ; R. A. Nicholson, A 
Literary History of the Arabs, pp. 225-227 (London, 1907). (G. W. T.) 
HASBEYA, or Hasbeiya, a town of the Druses, about 36 m. 
W. of Damascus, situated at the foot of Mt. Hermon in Syria, 
overlooking a deep amphitheatre from which a brook flows to 
the Hasbani. The population is about 5000 (4000 Christians). 
Both sides of the valley are planted in terraces with olives, vines 
and other fruit trees. The grapes are either dried or made 
into a kind of syrup. In 1846 an American Protestant mission 
was established in the town. This little community suffered 
much persecution at first from the Greek Church, and afterwards 
from the Druses, by whom in i860 nearly 1000 Christians were 
massacred, while others escaped to Tyre or Sidon. The castle 
in Hasbeya was held by the crusaders under Count Oran; but 
in 1 1 71 the Druse emirs of the great Shehab family (see Druses) 
recaptured it. In 1205 this family was confirmed in the lordship 
of the town and district, which they held till the Turkish 
authorities took possession of the castle in the 19th century. 
Near Hasbeya are bitumen pits let by the government; and to 
the north, at the source of the Hasbani, the ground is volcanic. 
Some travellers have attempted to identify Hasbeya with the 
biblical Baal-Gad or Baal-Hermon. 

HASDAI IBN SHAPRUT, the founder of the new culture of 
the Jews in Moorish Spain in the 10th century. He was both 
physician and minister to Caliph Abd ar-Rahman III. in Cordova. 
A man of wide learning and culture, he encouraged the settlement 
of Jewish scholars in Andalusia, and his patronage of literature, 
science and art promoted the Jewish renaissance in Europe. 
Poetry, philology, philosophy all flourished under his encourage- 
ment, and his name was handed down to posterity as the first 
of the many Spanish Jews who combined diplomatic skill with 
artistic culture. This type was the creation of the Moors in 
Andalusia, and the Jews ably seconded the Mahommedans 
in the effort to make life at once broad and deep. (I. A.) 

HASDEU, or Hajdeu, BOGDAN PETRICEICU (1836-1907), 
Rumanian philologist, was born at Khotin in Bessarabia in 
1836, and studied at the university of Kharkov. In 1858 he 
first settled in Jassy as professor of the high school and librarian. 
He may be considered as the pioneer in many branches of 
Rumanian philology and history. At Jassy he started his Archiva 
historica a Romaniei (1865-1867), in which a large number of 
old documents in Slavonic and Rumanian were published for 
the first time. In 1870 he inaugurated Columna lui Traian, 
the best philological review of the time in Rumania. In his 
Cuvente den Batrdni (2 vols., 1878-1881) he was the first to 
contribute to the history of apocryphal literature in Rumania. 
His Historia crilica a Romanilor (1875), though incomplete, 
marks the beginning of critical investigation into the history 
of Rumania. Hasdeu edited the ancient Psalter of Coresi of 
1577 (Psaltirea lui Coresi, 1881). His Etymologicum magnum 
Romaniae (1886, &c.) is the beginning of an encyclopaedic 
I dictionary of the Rumanian language, though never finished 


beyond the fetter B. In 1876 he was appointed director of the 
state archives in Bucharest and in 1878 professor of philology 
at the university of Bucharest. His works, which include one 
iirama, Rasvan si Vidra, bear the impress of great originality 
of thought, and the author is often carried away by his profound 
erudition and vast imagination. Hasdeu was a keen politician. 
After the death of his only child Julia in 1888 he became a 
mystic and a strong believer in spiritism. He died at Campina 
on the 7th of September 1907. (M. G.) 

HASDRUBAL, the name of several Carthaginian generals, 
among whom the following are the most important: — 

1. The son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca (q.v.), who followed 
the latter in his campaign against the governing aristocracy 
at Carthage at the close of the First Punic War, and in his 
subsequent career of conquest in Spain. After Hamilcar's 
death (228) Hasdrubal, who succeeded him in the command, 
extended the newly acquired empire by skilful diplomacy, and 
consolidated it by the foundation of New Carthage (Cartagena) 
as the capital of the new province, and by a treaty with Rome 
which fixed the Ebro as the boundary between the two powers. 
In 221 he was killed by an assassin. 

Polybius ii. 1 ; Livy xxi. 1 ; Appian, Hispanica, 4-8. 

2. The second son of Hamilcar Barca, and younger brother 
of Hannibal. Left in command of Spain when Hannibal departed 
to Italy (218), he fought for six years against the brothers 
Gnaeus and Publius Scipio. He had on the whole the worst 
of the conflict, and a defeat in 216 prevented him from joining 
Hannibal in Italy at a critical moment; but in 212 he com- 
pletely routed his opponents, both the Scipios being killed. He 
was subsequently outgeneralled by Publius Scipio the Younger, 
who in 209 captured New Carthage and gained other advantages. 
In the same year he was summoned to join his brother in Italy. 
He eluded Scipio by crossing the Pyrenees at their western 
extremity, and, making his way thence through Gaul and the 
Alps in safety, penetrated far into Central Italy (207). He was 
ultimately checked by two Roman armies, and being forced to 
give battle was decisively defeated on the banks of the Metaurus. 
Hasdrubal himself fell in the fight; his head was cut off and 
thrown into Hannibal's camp as a sign of his utter defeat. 

Polybius x. 34-xi. 3; Livy xxvii. 1-51 ; Appian, Bellum Hanni- 
balicum, ch. Hi. sqq. ; R. Oehler, Der letzte Feldzug des Barkiden 
Hasdrubals (Berlin, 1897); C. Lehmann, Die Angriffe der drei 
Barkiden auf Italien (Leipzig, 1905). See also Punic Wars. 

HASE, CARL BENEDICT (1780-1864), French Hellenist, of 
German extraction, was born at Suiza near Naumburg on the 
nth of May 1780. Having studied at Jena and Helmstedt, in 
1801 he made his way on foot to Paris, where he was commis- 
sioned by the comte de Choiseul-GoufBer, late ambassador to 
Constantinople, to edit the works of Johannes Lydus from a 
MS. given to Choiseul by Prince Mourousi. Hase thereupon 
decided to devote himself to Byzantine history and literature, 
on which he became the acknowledged authority. In 1805 he 
obtained an appointment in the MSS. department of the royal 
library; in 18 16 became professor of palaeography and modern 
Greek at the Ecole Royale, and in 1852 professor of compara- 
tive grammar in the university. In 181 2 he was selected to 
superintend the studies of Louis Napoleon (afterwards Napoleon 
III.) and his brother. He died on the 21st of March 1864. His 
most important works are the editions of Leo Diaconus and 
other Byzantine writers (1819), and of Johannes Lydus, De 
ostenlis (1823), a masterpiece of textual restoration, the diffi- 
culties of which were aggravated by the fact that the MS. had 
for a long time been stowed away in a wine-barrel in a monastery. 
He also edited part of the Greek authors in the collection of the 
Historians of the Crusades and contributed many additions 
(from the fathers, medical and technical writers, scholiasts and 
other sources) to the new edition of Stephanus's Thesaurus. 
__ See J. D. Guigniaut, Notice historique sur la vie et les travaux de 
Cart Benedict Hase (Paris, 1867); articles in Nouvelle Biographie 
generate and Allgemeine deutsche Biographie; and a collection of 
autobiographical letters, Briefe von der Wanderung und aus Paris, 
edited by O. Heine (1894), containing a vivid account of Hase's 
journey, his enthusiastic impressions of Paris and the hardships of 
his early life. 

HASE, KARL AUGUST VON (1800-1890), German Protestant 
theologian and Church historian , was born at Steinbach in Saxony 
on the 25th of August 1800. He studied at Leipzig and Erlangen, 
and in 1829 was called to Jena as professor of theology. He 
retired in 1883 and was made a baron. He died at Jena on the 
3rd of January 1890. Hase's aim was to reconcile modern culture 
with historical Christianity in a scientific way. But though a 
liberal theologian, he was no dry rationalist. Indeed, he vigor- 
ously attacked rationalism, as distinguished from the rational 
principle, charging it with being unscientific inasmuch as it 
ignored the historical significance of Christianity, shut its eyes 
to individuality and failed to give religious feeling its due. His 
views are presented scientifically in his Evangelisch-protestan- 
tische Dogmatik (1826; 6th ed., 1870), the value of which " lies 
partly in the full and judiciously chosen historical materials 
prefixed to each dogma, and partly in the skill, caution and tact 
with which the permanent religious significance of various 
dogmas is discussed " (Otto Pfleiderer) . More popular in style is 
his Gnosis oder prot.-evang. Glaubenslehre (3 vols., 1827-1829; 2nd 
ed. in 2 vols., 1869-1870). But his reputation rests chiefly on his 
treatment of Church history in his Kirchengeschichte, Lehrbuch 
zunachst fur akademische Vorlesungen (1834, 12th ed., 1900). 

His biographical studies, Franz von Assist (1856; 2nd ed., 1892), 
Katerina von Siena (1864; 2nd ed., 1892), Neue Propheten (Die 
Jungfrau von Orleans, Savonarola, Thomas Miinzer) are judicious 
and sympathetic. Other works are: Hutterus redivivus oder Dog- 
matik der evang.-luth. Kirche (1827; 12th ed., 1883), in which he 
sought to present the teaching of the Protestant church in such a 
way as H utter would have reconstructed it, had he still been alive; 
Leben Jesu (1829; 5th ed., 1865; Eng. trans., i860); in an enlarged 
form, Geschichte Jesu (2nd ed., 1891); and Handbuch der prot. 
Polemik gegen die rom.-kath. Kirche (1862; 7th ed., 1900; Eng. 
trans., 1906). 

For his life see his Ideate und Irrtiimer (1872; 5th ed., 1894) and 
Annalen meines Lebens (1891); and cf. generally Otto Pfleiderer, 
Development of Theology (1890); F. Lichtenberger, Hist, of German 
Theology (1889). 

HASHISH, or Hasheesh, the Arabic name, meaning literally 
" dried herb," for the various preparations of the Indian hemp 
plant {Cannabis indica), used as a narcotic or intoxicant in the 
East, and either smoked, chewed or drunk (see Hemp and Bhang). 
From the Arabic hashlskin, i.e. "hemp-eaters," comes the English 
" assassin " (see Assassin). 

HASLEMERE, a market-town in the Guildford parliamentary 
division of Surrey, England, 43 m. S.W. from London by the 
London & South-Western railway. It is situated in an elevated 
valley between the bold ridges of Hindhead (895 ft.) and Black- 
down (918 ft.). Their summits are open and covered with heath, 
but their flanks and the lower ground are magnificently wooded. 
The hills are deeply scored by steep and picturesque valleys, of 
which the most remarkable is the Devil's Punch Bowl, a hollow 
of regular form om the west flank of Hindhead . The invigorating 
air has combined with scenic attraction to make the district a 
favourite place of residence. Professor Tyndall built a house on 
the top of Hindhead, setting an example followed by many 
others. On Blackdown, closely screened by plantations, is 
Aldworth, built for Alfred, Lord Tennyson, who died here in 
1892. George Eliot stayed for a considerable period at Shotter- 
mill, a neighbouring village. Pop. of Haslemere (1901), 2614; 
of Hindhead, 666. 

HASLINGDEN, a market-town and municipal borough in the 
Rossendale and Heywood parliamentary divisions of Lancashire, 
England, 19 m. N. by W. from Manchester by the Lancashire & 
Yorkshire railway. Pop. (1901), 18,543. It lies in a hilly district 
on the borders of the forest of Rossendale, and is supposed by 
some to derive its name from the hazel trees which formerly 
abounded in its neighbourhood. The old town stood on the 
slope of a hill, but the modern part has extended about its base. 
The parish church of St James was rebuilt in 1780, with the 
exception of the tower, which dates from the time of Henry VIII. 
The woollen manufacture was formerly the staple. The 
town, however, steadily increasing in importance, has cotton, 
woollen and engineering works — coal-mining, quarrying and 
( brickmaking are carried on in the neighbourhood. The borough, 


5 1 

as incorporated in 1 891 , comprised several townships and parts of 
townships, but under the Local Government Act of 1894 these 
were united into one civil parish. The corporation consists of a 
mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 8196 acres. 

HASPE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
Westphalia, in the valley of the Ennepe, at the confluence of the 
Hasper, and on the railway from Diisseldorf to Dortmund, 10 m. 
N.E. of Barmen by rail. Pop. (1905), 19,813. Its industries 
include iron foundries, rolling mills, puddling furnaces, and 
manufactures of iron, steel and brass wares and of machines. 
Haspe was raised to the rank of a town in 1873. 

HASSAM, CHILDE (1859- ), American figure and land- 
scape painter, born in Boston, Massachusetts, was a pupil of 
Boulanger and Lef ebvre in Paris. He soon fell under the influence 
of the Impressionists, and took to painting in a style of his own, 
in brilliant colour, with effective touches of pure pigment. He 
won a bronze medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1889; medals at 
the World's Fair, Chicago, 1893; Boston Art Club, 1896; 
Philadelphia Art Club, 1892; Carnegie Institute, Pittsburg, 
1898; Buffalo Pan-American, 1901; Temple gold medal, 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1899; and 
silver medal, Paris Exhibition, 1900. ' He became a member of 
the National Academy of Design, the Society of American 
Artists, the Ten Americans, the American Water Colour Society, 
the Societe Nationale des Beaux Arts, Paris, and the Secession 
Society, Munich. 

HASSAN, a town and district of Mysore, India. The town 
dates from the nth century and had in 190 1 a population of 8241. 
The district naturally divides into two portions, the Malnad, 
or hill country, which includes some of the highest ranges of 
the Western Ghats, and the Maidan or plain country, sloping 
towards the south. The Hemavati, which flows into the Cauvery 
in the extreme south, is the most important river of the district. 
The upper slopes of the Western Ghats are abundantly clothed 
with magnificent forests, and wild animals abound. Among 
the mineral products are kaolin, felspar and quartz. The soil 
of the valleys is a rich red alluvial loam. The area is 2547 sq. m. 
Population (1901), 568,919, showing an increase of 11% in the 
decade. The district contains some of the most remarkable 
archaeological monuments in India, such as the colossal Jain 
image at Sravana Belgola (a monolith 57 ft. high on the summit 
of a hill) and the great temple at Halebid. Coffee cultivation 
has been on the increase of late years. The first plantation was 
opened in 1843, and now there are many coffee estates owned 
by Europeans and also native holdings. The exports are large, 
consisting chiefly of food-grains and coffee. The imports are 
European piece-goods, hardware of all sorts and spices. The 
largest weekly fair is held at Alur. A great annual religious 
gathering and fair, attended by about 10,000 persons, takes 
place every year at Melukot. The Southern Mahratta railway 
traverses the north-east of the district. 

The real history of Hassan does not begin until the epoch of 
the Hoysala dynasty, which lasted from the nth till the 14th 
century. Their capital was at D warasamundra (Dwaravati-pura) , 
the ruins of which are still to be seen scattered round the village 
of Halebid. The earlier kings professed the Jain faith, but the 
finest temples were erected to Siva by the later monarchs of the 
line. While they were at the zenith of their power the whole 
of southern India acknowledged their sway. 

HASSANIA, an African tribe of Semitic stock. They inhabit 
the desert between Merawi and the Nile at the 6th Cataract, 
and the left bank of the Blue Nile immediately south of Khartum. 
HASSAN IBN THABIT (died 674), Arabian poet, was born 
in Yathrib (Medina), a member of the tribe Khazraj. In his 
youth he travelled to Hira and Damascus, then settled in Medina, 
where, after the advent of Mahomet, he accepted Islam and 
wrote poems in defence of the prophet. His poetry is regarded 
as commonplace and lacking in distinction. 

His diwan has been published at Bombay (1864), Tunis (1864) and 
Lahore (1878). See H. Hirschfeld's " Prolegomena to an edition 
of the Diwan of Hassan " in Transactions of Oriental Congress 
(London, 1892). (G. W. T.) 

HASSE, JOHANN ADOLPH (1699-1783), German musical 
composer, was born at Bergedorf near Hamburg, on the 25th 
of March 1699, an d received his first musical education from 
his father. Being possessed of a fine tenor voice, he chose the 
theatrical career, and joined the operatic troupe conducted by 
Reinhard Keiser, in whose orchestra Handel had played the 
second violin some years before. Hasse's success led to an 
engagement at the court theatre of Brunswick, and it was there 
that, in 1723, he made his debut as a composer with the opera 
Anligonus. The success of this first work induced the duke to 
send Hasse to Italy for the completion of his studies, and in 
1724 he went to Naples and placed himself under Porpora, with 
whom, however, he seems to have disagreed both as a man and 
as an artist. On the other hand he gained the friendship of 
Alessandro Scarlatti, to whom he owed his first commission for 
a serenade for two voices, sung at a family celebration of a 
wealthy merchant by two of the greatest singers of Italy, Farinelli 
and Signora Tesi. This event established Hasse's fame; he 
soon became very popular, and his opera Sesostrato, written for 
the Royal Opera at Naples in 1726, made his name known all 
over Italy. At Venice, where he went in 1727, he became 
acquainted with the celebrated singer Faustina Bordogni (born 
at Venice in 1700), who became the composer's wife in 1730. 
The two artists soon afterwards went to Dresden, in compliance 
with a brilliant offer made to them by the splendour-loving 
elector of Saxony, Augustus II. There Hasse remained for two 
years, after which he again journeyed to Italy, and also in 1733 
to London, in which latter city he was tempted by the aristocratic 
clique inimical to Handel to become the rival and antagonist 
of that great master. But this he modestly and wisely declined, 
remaining in London only long enough to superintend the 
rehearsals for his opera Artaserse (first produced at Venice, 
1730). All this while Faustina had remained at Dresden, the 
declared favourite of the public and unfortunately also of the 
elector, nor was her husband, who remained attached to her, 
allowed to see her except at long intervals. In 1739, after the 
death of Augustus II., Hasse settled permanently at Dresden 
till 1763, when he and his wife retired from court service with 
considerable pensions. But Hasse was still too young to rest 
on his laurels. He went with his family to Vienna, and added 
several operas to the great number of his works already in 
existence. His last work for the stage was the opera Ruggiero 
(17 71), written for the wedding of Archduke Ferdinand at Milan. 
On the same occasion a work by Mozart, then fourteen years 
old, was performed, and Hasse observed " this youngster will 
surpass us all." By desire of his wife Hasse settled at her 
birthplace Venice, and there he died on the 23rd of December 
1783. His compositions include as many as 120 operas, besides 
oratorios, cantatas, masses, and almost every variety of instru- 
mental music. During the siege of Dresden by the Prussians 
in 1760, most of his manuscripts, collected for a complete edition 
to be brought out at the expense of the elector, were burnt. 
Some of his works, amongst them an opera Alcide al Bivio (1760), 
have been published, and the libraries of Vienna and Dresden 
possess the autographs of others. Hasse's instrumentation is 
certainly not above the low level attained by the average 
musicians of his time, and his ensembles do not present any 
features of interest. In dramatic fire also he was wanting, but 
he had a fund of gentle and genuine melody, and by this fact 
his enormous popularity during his life must be accounted for. 
The two airs which Farinelli had to repeat every day for ten 
years to the melancholy king of Spain, Philip V., were both from 
Hasse's works. Of Faustina Hasse it will be sufficient to add 
that she was, according to the unanimous verdict of the critics 
(including Dr Burney), one of the greatest singers of a time rich 
in vocal artists. The year of her death is not exactly known. 
Most probably it shortly preceded that of her husband. 

HASSELQUIST, FREDERIK (1722-1752), Swedish traveller 
and naturalist, was born at Tornevalla, East Gothland, on the 
3rd of January 1722. On account of the frequently expressed 
regrets of Linnaeus, under whom he studied at Upsala, at the 
lack of information regarding the natural history of Palestine, 



Hasselquist resolved to undertake a journey to that country, 
and a sufficient subscription having been obtained to defray 
expenses, he reached Smyrna towards the end of 1749. He 
visited parts of Asia Minor, Egypt, Cyprus and Palestine, 
making large natural history collections, but his constitution, 
naturally weak, gave way under the fatigues of travel, and 
he died near Smyrna on the 9th of February 1752 on his way 
hohie. His collections reached home in safety, and five years 
after his death his notes were published by Linnaeus under the 
title Resa till Heliga Landet fordttad frdn dr 174Q till 1752, which 
was translated into French and German in 1762 and into English 
in 1766. 

Belgian poet, was born at Maastricht, in Limburg, on the 5th of 
January 1806. He was educated in his native town, and at the 
university of Liege. In 1833 he left Maastricht, then blockaded 
by the Belgian forces, and made his way to Brussels, where he 
became a naturalized Belgian, and was attached to the Biblio- 
theque de Bourgogne. In 1843 he entered the education depart- 
ment, and eventually became an inspector of normal schools. 
His native language was Dutch, and as a French poet Andre van 
Hasselt had to overcome the difficulties of writing in a foreign 
language. He had published a Chant hellenique in honour of 
Canaris in the columns of La Sentinelle des Pays-Bas as early as 
1826, and other poems followed. His first volume of verse, 
Primevercs (1834), shows markedly the influence of Victor Hugo, 
which had been strengthened by a visit to Paris in 1830. His 
relations with Hugo became intimate in 1851-1852, when the 
poet was an exile in Brussels. In 1839 he became editor of the 
Renaissance, a paper founded to encourage the fine arts. His 
chief work, the epic of the Qualre Incarnations du Christ, was 
published in 1867. In the same volume were printed his Etudes 
rythmiques, a series of. metrical experiments designed to show 
that the French language could be adapted to every kind of 
musical rhythm. With the same end in view he executed trans- 
lations of many German songs, and wrote new French libretti 
for the best-known operas of Mozart, Weber and others. Hasselt 
died at Saint Josse ten Noode, a suburb of Brussels, on the 1st 
of December 1874. 

A selection from his works (10 vols., Brussels, 1876-1877) was 
edited by MM. Charles Hen and Louis Alvin. He wrote many 
books for children, chiefly under the pseudonym of Alfred Avelines; 
and studies on historical and literary subjects. The books written 
in collaboration with Charles Hen are signed Charles Andre. A 
bibliography of his writings is appended to the notice by Louis 
Alvin in the Biographic nat. de Belgique, vol. vii. Van Hasselt's 
fame has continued to increase since his death. A series of tributes 
to his memory are printed in the Poesies choisies (1901), edited by 
M. Georges Barral for the Collection des poetes francais de Vetranger. 
This book contains a biographical and critical study by Jules Guil- 
laume, and some valuable notes on the poet's theories of rhythm. 

HASSELT, the capital of the Belgian province of Limburg. 
Pop. (1904), 16,179. It derives its name from Ilazel-bosch (hazel 
wood). It stands at the junction of several important roads 
and railways from Maaseyck, Maastricht and Liege. It has many 
breweries and distilleries, and the spirit known by its name, 
which is a coarse gin, has a certain reputation throughout 
Belgium. On the 6th of August 1831 the Dutch troops obtained 
here their chief success over the Belgian nationalists during the 
War of Independence. Hasselt is best known for its great septen- 
nial fete held on the day of Assumption, August r^th. The 
curious part of this fete, which is held in honour of the Virgin 
under the name of Yirga Jesse, is the conversion of the town for 
the day into the semblance of a forest. Fir trees and branches 
from the neighbouring forest arc collected and planted in front 
of the houses, so that for a few hours Hasselt has the appearance 
of being restored to its primitive condition as a wood. The 
figure of the giant who is supposed to have once held the Plazel- 
bosch under his terror is paraded on this occasion as the " lounge 
man." Originally this celebration was held annually, but in 
the 18th century it was restricted to once in sevgn years. There 
was a celebration in 1905. 

(1794-1862), German statesman, was born at Hanau in Hesse 

on the 26th of February 1794. He studied law at Gottingen, 
graduated in 1816, and took his seat as Assessor in the judicial- 
chamber of the board of government (Regierungskollegium) at 
Cassel, of which his father Johann Hassenpiiug was also a member. 
In 182 1 he was nominated by the new elector, William II., 
Justisrat (councillor of justice) ; in 1832 he became Ministerialrat 
and reporter {Referent) to the ministry of Hesse-Cassel, and in 
May of the same year was appointed successively minister of 
justice and of the interior. It was from this moment that he 
became conspicuous in the constitutional struggles of Germany. 

The reactionary system introduced by the elector William I. 
had broken down before the revolutionary movements of 1830, 
and in 1S31 Flesse had received a constitution. This develop- 
ment was welcome neither to the elector nor to the other German 
governments, and Hassenpflug deliberately set to work to reverse 
it. In doing so he gave the lie to his own early promise; for he 
had been a conspicuous member of the revolutionary Burschcn- 
schaft at Gottingen, and had taken part as a volunteer in the War 
of Liberation. Into the causes of the change it is unnecessary to 
inquire; Hassenpflug by training and tradition was a strait-laced 
official; he was also a first-rate lawyer; and his naturally 
arbitrary temper had from the first displayed itself in an attitude 
of overbearing independence towards his colleagues and even 
towards the elector. To such a man constitutional restrictions 
were intolerable, and from the moment he came into power he 
set to work to override them, by means of press censorship, legal 
quibbles, unjustifiable use of the electoral prerogatives, or frank 
supersession of the legislative rights of the Estates by electoral 
ordinances. The story of the constitutional deadlock that 
resulted belongs to the history of Hesse-Cassel and Germany; 
so far as Hassenpflug himself was concerned, it made him, more 
even than Metternich, the Mephistopheles of the Reaction to 
the German people. In Hesse itself he was known as " Hessen's 
HassundFluch" (Hesse's hate and curse). In the end, however, 
his masterful temper became unendurable to the regent (Frederick 
William) ; in the summer of 1837 he was suddenly removed from 
his post as minister of the interior and he thereupon left the 
elector's service. 

In 1838 he was appointed head of the administration of the 
little principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, an office which 
he exchanged in the following year for that of civil governor 
of the grand-duchy of Luxemburg. Here, too, his independent 
character suffered him to remain only a year: he resented having 
to transact all business with the grand-duke (king of the Nether- 
lands) through a Dutch official at the Hague; he protested 
against the absorption of the Luxemburg surplus in the Dutch 
treasury; and, failing to obtain redress, he resigned (1840). 
From 1841 to 1850 he was in Prussian service, first as a member 
of the supreme court of justice (Oberlribunal) and then (1846) 
as president of the high court of appeal (Oberappellalionsgerichl) 
at Grcifswald. In 1850 he was tried for peculation and convicted; 
and, though this judgment was reversed on appeal, he left the 
service of Prussia. 

With somewhat indecent haste (the appeal had not been 
heard) he was now summoned by the elector of Hesse once 
more to the head of the government, and he immediately threw 
himself again with zeal into the struggle against the constitution. 
He soon found, however, that the opinion of all classes, including 
the army, was solidly against him, and he decided to risk all on 
an alliance with the reviving fortunes of Austria, which was 
steadily working for the restoration of the status quo overthrown 
by the revolution of 1848. On his advice the elector seceded, 
from the Northern Union established by Prussia and, on the 
13th of September, committed the folly of flying secretly from 
Hesse with his minister. They went to Frankfort, wdiere the 
federal diet had been re-established, and on the 21st persuaded 
the diet to decree an armed intervention in Hesse. This decree, 
carried out by Austrian troops, all but led to war with Prussia, 
but the unreadiness of the Berlin government led to the triumph 
of Austria and of Hassenpflug, who at the end of the year was 
once more installed in power at Cassel as minister of finance. 
His position was, however, not enviable; he was loathed a;-?<J 



despised by all, and disliked even by his master. The climax- 
came in November 1853, when he was publicly horse-whipped 
by the count of Isenburg-Wachtersbach, the elector's son-in-law. 
The count was pronounced insane; but Hassenpflug was con- 
scious of the method in his madness, and tendered his resignation. 
This was, however, not accepted; and it was not till the 16th 
of October 1855 that he was finally relieved of his offices. He 
retired to Marburg, where he died on the 15th of October 1862. 
He lived just long enough to hear of the restoration of the Hesse 
constitution of 1831 (June 21, 1862), which it had been his life's 
mission to destroy. Of his publications the most important is 
Actenstiicke, die landsldndischen Anklagen wider den Kurjiirst- 
lichen hessischen Staatsminister Hassenpflug. Ein Beitrag zur 
Zeitgesckichte and sum neueren deutschen Staatsrcchte, anonym. 
(Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1836). He was twice married, his 
first wife being the sister of the brothers Grimm. His son Karl 
Hassenpflug (1824-1890) was a distinguished sculptor. 

See the biography by Wippermann in Allgemeine deutsche Bio- 
graphic, with authorities. 

HASTINAPUR, an ancient city of British India, in the Meerut 
district of the United Provinces, lying on the bank of a former 
bed of the Ganges, 22 m. N.E. of Meerut. It formed the capital 
of the great Pandava kingdom, celebrated in the Mahabhdrata, 
and probably one of the earliest Aryan settlements outside the 
Punjab. Tradition points to a group of shapeless mounds as 
the residence of the Lunar princes of the house of Bharata whose 
deeds are commemorated in the great national epic. After the 
conclusion of the famous war which forms the central episode 
of that poem, Hastinapur remained for some time the metropolis 
of the descendants of Parikshit, but the town was finally swept 
away by a flood of the Ganges, and the capital was transferred 
to Kausambi. 

HASTINGS, a famous English family. John, Baron Hastings 
(c. 1262-c. 1313), was a son of Sir Henry de Hastings (d. 1268), 
who was summoned to parliament as a baron by Simon de 
Montfort in 1264. Having joined Montfort's party Sir Henry 
led the Londoners at the battle of Lewes and was taken prisoner 
it Evesham. After his release he continued his opposition 
to Henry HI.; he was among those who resisted the king at 
Kenilworth, and after the issue of the Dictum de Kenilworth 
he commanded the remnants of the baronial party when they 
made their last stand in the isle of Ely, submitting to Henry in 
July 1267. His younger son, Edmund, was specially noted for 
his military services in Scotland during the reign of Edward I. 
John Hastings married Isabella (d. 1305), daughter of William 
de Valence, earl of Pembroke, a half-brother of Henry III., 
and fought in Scotland and in Wales. Through his mother, 
Joanna de Cantilupe, he inherited the extensive lordship of 
Abergavenny, hence he is sometimes referred to as lord of 
Bergavenny, and in 1295 he was summoned to parliament as 
a baron. Before this date, however, he had come somewhat 
prominently to the front. His paternal grandmother, Ada, 
was a younger daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, and a 
niece of the Scottish king, William the Lion; and in 1290 when 
Margaret, the maid of Norway, died, Hastings came forward 
as a claimant for the vacant throne. Although unsuccessful 
in the matter he did not swerve from his loyalty to Edward I. 
He fought constantly either in France or in Scotland; he led 
the bishop of Durham's men at the celebrated siege of Carlaverock 
castle in 1300; and with his brother Edmund he signed the 
letter which in 1301 the English barons sent to Pope Boniface 
VIII. repudiating papal interference in the affairs of Scotland; 
on two occasions he represented the king in Aquitaine. Hastings 
died in 1312 or 1313. His second wife was Isabella, daughter 
af the elder Hugh le Despenser. Hastings, who was one of the 
most wealthy and powerful nobles of his time, stood high in the 
regard of the king and is lauded by the chroniclers. 

f I is eldest son John (d. 1325), who succeeded to the barony, 
was the father of Laurence Hastings, who was created earl of 
Pembroke in 1339, the earls of Pembroke retaining the barony 
of Hastings until 1389. A younger son by a second marriage, 
.Sir Hugh Hastings (c. 1307-1347), saw a good deal of military 

service in France; his portrait and also that of his wife may 
still be seen on the east window of Elsing church, which contains 
a beautiful brass to his memory. 

On the death of John, the third and last earl of Pembroke 
of the Hastings family, in 1389, Sir Hugh's son John had, 
according to a decision of the House of Lords in 1840, a title 
to the barony of Hastings, but he did not prosecute his claim 
and he died without sons in 1393. However his grand-nephew 
and heir, Hugh (d. 1396), claimed the barony, which was also 
claimed by Reginald, Lord Grey of Ruthyn. Like the earls of 
Pembroke, Grey was descended through his grandmother, 
Elizabeth Hastings, from John, Lord Hastings, by his first wife; 
Hugh, on the other hand, was descended from John's second wife. 
After Hugh's death his brother, Sir Edward Hastings (c. 1382- 
1438), claimed the barony, and the case as to who should bear 
the arms of the Hastings family came before the court of chivalry. 
In 1410 it was decided in favour of Grey, who thereupon assumed 
the arms. Both disputants still claimed the barony, but the 
view seems to have prevailed that it had fallen into abeyance 
in 1389. Sir Edward was imprisoned for refusing to pay his 
rival's costs, and he was probably still in prison when he died in 
January 1438. After his death the Hastings family, which 
became extinct during the 16th century, tacitly abandoned the 
claim to the barony. Then in 1840 the title was revived in 
favour of Sir Jacob Astley, Bart. (1 797-1859), who derived his 
claim from a daughter of Sir Hugh Hastings who died in 1540. 
Sir Jacob's descendant, Albert Edward (b. 1882), became 21st 
Baron Hastings in 1904. 

A distant relative of the same family was William, Baron 
Hastings (c. 1430-1483), a son of Sir Leonard Hastings (d. 1455). 
He became attached to Edward IV., whom he served before his 
accession to the throne, and after this event he became master of 
the mint, chamberlain of the royal household and one of the king's 
most trusted advisers. Having been made a baron in 146 1, he 
married Catherine, daughter of Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury, 
and was frequently sent on diplomatic errands to Burgundy and 
elsewhere. He was faithful to Edward IV. during the king's exile 
in the winter of 1470-1471, and after his return he fought for 
him at Barnet and at Tewkesbury ; he has been accused of taking 
part in the murder of Henry VI. 's son, prince Edw r ard, after the 
latter battle. Hastings succeeded his sovereign in the favour of 
Jane Shore. He was made captain of Calais in 147 1 , and was with 
Edward IV. when he met Louis XL of France at Picquigny in 147 5, 
on which occasion he received gifts from Louis and from Charles 
the Bold of Burgundy. After Edward IV. 's death Hastings be- 
haved in a somewhat undecided manner. He disliked the queen, 
Elizabeth Woodville, but he refused to ally himself with Richard, 
duke of Gloucester, afterwards King Richard III. Suddenly 
Richard decided to get rid of him, and during a meeting of the 
council on the 13th of June 1483 he was seized and at once put 
to death. This dramatic incident is related by Sir Thomas More 
in his History oj Richard 1 1 1., and has been worked by Shakespeare 
into his play Richard III. Hastings is highly praised by his 
friend Philippe de Commines, and also by More. He left a son, 
Edward (d. 1508), the father of George, Baron Hastings (c. 1488- 
1545), who was created earl of Huntingdon (q.v.) in 1529. 

When Francis, 10th earl of Huntingdon, died in October 1789, 
the barony of Hastings passed to his sister Elizabeth (173 1-1808) , 
wife of John Rawdon, earl of Moira, and from her it came to her 
son Francis Rawdon-Hastings (see below), who was created 
marquess of Hastings in 181 7. 

or (1754-1826), British soldier and governor-general of India, 
born on the 9th of December 1754, was the son of Sir John 
Rawdon of Moira in the county of Down, 4th baronet, who was 
created Baron Rawdon of Moira, and afterwards earl of Moira, 
in the Irish peerage. His mother was the Lady Elizabeth 
Hastings, daughter of Theophilus, 9th earl of Huntingdon. 
Lord Rawdon, as he was then called, was educated at Harrow 
and Oxford, and joined the army in 1771 as ensign in the 15th 
foot. His life henceforth was entirely spent in the service of his 
country, and may be divided into four periods: from 1775 to 



1782 he was engaged with much distinction in the American war; 
from 1783 to 1813 he held various high appointments at home, 
and took an active part in the business of the House of Lords; 
from 1813 to 1823 was the period of his labours in India; after 
retiring from which, in the last years of his life (1824-1826), he 
was governor of Malta. 

In America Rawdon served at the battles of Bunker Hill, 
Brooklyn, White Plains, Monmouth and Camden, at the attacks 
on Forts Washington and Clinton, and at the siege of Charleston. 
In fact he was engaged in many important operations of the war. 
Perhaps his most noted achievements were the raising of a 
corps at Philadelphia, called the Irish Volunteers, who under him 
became famous for their fighting qualities, and the victory of 
Hobkirk's Hill, which, in command of only a small force, he 
gained by superior military skill and determination against a 
much larger body of Americans. In 1781 he was invalided. The 
vessel in which he returned to England was captured and carried 
into Brest. He was speedily released, and on his arrival in 
England was much honoured by George III., who created him 
an English peer (Baron Rawdon) in March 1783. In 1789 his 
mother succeeded to the barony of Hastings, and Rawdon added 
the surname of Hastings to his own. 

In 1793 Rawdon succeeded his father as earl of Moira. In 
1794 he was sent with 7000 men to Ostend to reinforce the duke 
of York and the allies in Flanders. The march by which he 
effected a junction was considered extraordinary. In 1803 he 
was appointed commander-in-chief in Scotland, and in 1804 he 
married Flora Mure Campbell, countess of Loudoun in her own 
right. When Fox and Grenville came into power in 1806, Lord 
Moira, who had always voted with them, received the place of 
master-general of the ordnance. He was now enabled to carry 
a philanthropic measure, of which from his first entry into the 
House of Lords he had been a great promoter, namely, the Debtor 
and Creditor Bill for relief of poor debtors. Ireland was another 
subject to which he had given particular attention: in 1797 there 
was published a Speech by Lord Moira on the Dreadful and Alarm- 
ing State of Ireland. Lord Moira's sound judgment on public 
affairs, combined with his military reputation and the upright- 
ness of his character, won for him a high position among the 
statesmen of the day, and he gained an additional prestige from 
his intimate relations with the prince of Wales. As a mark of 
the regent's regard Lord Moira received the order of the Garter 
in 181 2, and in the same year was appointed governor-general 
of Bengal and commander-in-chief of the forces in India. He 
landed at Calcutta, and assumed office in succession to Lord 
Minto in October 1813. One of the chief questions which awaited 
him was that of relations with the Gurkha state of Nepal. The 
Gurkhas, a brave and warlike little nation, failing to extend 
their conquests in the direction of China, had begun to encroach 
on territories held or protected by the East India Company; 
especially they had seized the districts of Batwal and Seoraj, 
in the northern part of Oudh, and when called upon to relinquish 
these, they deliberately elected (April 1814) to go to war rather 
than do so. Lord Moira, having travelled through the northern 
provinces and fully studied the question, declared war against 
Nepal (November 1814). The enemy's frontier was 600 m. long, 
and Lord Moira, who directed the plan of the campaign, resolved 
to act offensively along the whole line. It was an anxious under- 
taking, because the native states of India were all watching the 
issue and waiting for any serious reverse to the English to join 
against them. At first all seemed to go badly, as the British 
officers despised the enemy, and the sepoys were unaccustomed 
to mountain warfare, and thus alternate extremes of rashness 
and despondency were exhibited. But this rectified itself in 
time, especially through the achievements of General (afterwards 
Sir David) Ochterlony, who before the end of 181 5 had taken all 
the Gurkha posts to the west, and early in 1816 was advancing 
victoriously within 50 m. of Khatmandu, the capital. The 
Gurkhas now made peace; they abandoned the disputed districts, 
ceded some territory to the British, and agreed to receive a 
British resident. For his masterly conduct of these affairs Lord 
Moira was created marquess of Hastings in February 1817. 

He had now to deal with internal dangers. A combination of 
Mahratta powers was constantly threatening the continuance 
of British rule, under the guise of plausible assurances severally 
given by the peshwa, Sindhia, Holkar and other princes. At 
the same time the existence of the Pindari state was not only 
dangerous to the British, as being a warlike power always ready 
to turn against them, but it was a scourge to India itself. In 
1-816, however, the Pindaris entered British territory in the 
Northern Circars, where they destroyed 339 villages. On this, 
permission was obtained to act for their suppression. Before 
the end of 181 7 the preparations of Lord Hastings were com- 
pleted, when the peshwa suddenly broke into war, and the 
British were opposed at once to the Mahratta and Pindari powers, 
estimated at 200,000 men and 500 guns. Both were utterly 
shattered in a brief campaign of four months (1817-18). The 
peshwa's dominions were annexed, and those of Sindhia, Holkar, 
and the raja of Berar lay at the mercy of the governor-general, 
and were saved only by his moderation. Thus, after sixty years 
from the battle of Plassey, the supremacy of British power in 
India was effectively established. The Pindaris had ceased to 
exist, and peace and security had been substituted for misery 
and terror. 

" It is a proud phrase to use," said Lord Hastings, " but it is a 
true one, that we have bestowed blessings upon millions. Nothing 
can be more delightful than the reports I receive of the sensibility 
manifested by the inhabitants to this change in their circumstances. 
The smallest detachment of our troops cannot pass through that 
district without meeting everywhere eager and exulting gratula- 
tions, the tone of which proves them to come from glowing hearts. 
Multitudes of people have, even in this short interval, come from 
the hills and fastnesses in which they had sought refuge for years, 
and have reoccupied their ancient deserted villages. The plough- 
share is again in every quarter turning up a soil which had for 
many seasons never been stirred, except by the hoofs of predatory 
cavalry." A 

While the natives of India appreciated the results of Lord 
Hastings's achievements, the court of directors grumbled at his 
having extended British territory. They also disliked and 
opposed his measures for introducing education among the 
natives and his encouraging the freedom of the press. In 1819 
he obtained the cession by purchase of the island of Singapore. 
In finance his administration was very successful, as notwith- 
standing the expenses of his wars he showed an annual surplus 
of two millions sterling. Brilliant and beneficent as his career 
had been, Lord Hastings did not escape unjust detraction. His 
last years of office were embittered by the discussions on a matter 
notorious at the time, namely, the affairs of the banking-house 
of W. Palmer and Company. The whole affair was mixed 
up with insinuations against Lord Hastings, especially charging 
him with having been actuated by favouritism towards one of 
the partners in the firm. From imputations which were incon- 
sistent with his whole character he has subsequently been 
exonerated. But while smarting under them he tendered his 
resignation in 1821, though he did not leave India till the first 
day of 1823. He was much exhausted by the arduous labours 
which for more than nine years he had sustained. Among his 
characteristics it is mentioned that " his ample fortune 
absolutely sank under the benevolence of his nature "; and, 
far from having enriched himself in the appointment of governor- 
general, he returned to England in circumstances which obliged 
him still to seek public employment. In 1824 he received the 
comparatively small post of governor of Malta, in which island 
he introduced many reforms and endeared himself to the in- 
habitants. He died on the 28th of November 1826, leaving- a 
request that his right hand should be cut off and preserved till 
the death of the marchioness of Hastings, and then be interred 
in her coffin. 

Hastings was succeeded by his son, Francis George Augustus 
(1808-1844), who in 1840 succeeded through his mother. to the 
earldom of Loudoun. When his second son, Henry Weysford, 
the 4th marquess, died childless on the 10th of November 1868 
the marquessate became extinct; the earldom of Loudoun 
devolved upon his sister, Edith Mary (d. 1874)* wife of Charles. 
Frederick Abney-Hastings, afterwards Baron Donington; the 



barony of Hastings, which fell into abeyance, was also revived 
in 187 1 in her favour. 

See Ross-of-Bladensburg, The Marquess of Hastings (" Rulers of 
India" series) (1893); and Private Journal cf the Marquess of 
Hastings, edited by his daughter, the marchioness of Bute (1858). 

HASTINGS, FRANK ABNEY (1794-1828), British naval 
officer and Philhellene, was the son of Lieut. -general Sir Charles 
Hastings, a natural son of Francis Hastings, tenth earl of 
Huntingdon. He entered the navy in 1805, and was in the 
" Neptune " (100) at the battle of Trafalgar; but in i82oaquarrel 
with his flag captain led to his leaving the service. The revolu- 
tionary troubles of the time offered chances of foreign employ- 
ment. Hastings spent a year on the continent to learn French, 
and sailed for Greece on the 12th of March 1822 from Marseilles. 
On the 3rd of April he reached Hydra. For two years he took 
part in the naval operations of the Greeks in the Gulf of Smyrna 
and elsewhere. He saw that the light squadrons of the Greeks 
must in the end be overpowered by the heavier Turkish navy, 
clumsy as it was; and in 1823 he drew up and presented to 
Lord Byron a very able memorandum which he laid before the 
Greek government in 1824. This paper is of peculiar interest 
apart from its importance in the Greek insurrection, for it 
contains the germs of the great revolution which has since 
been effected in naval gunnery and tactics. In substance the 
memorandum advocated the use of steamers in preference to 
sailing ships, and of direct fire with shells and hot shot, as a more 
trustworthy means of destroying the Turkish fleet than fire-ships. 
It will be found in Finlay's History of the Greek Revolution, 
vol. ii. appendix i. The application of Hastings's ideas led 
necessarily to the disuse of sailing ships, and the introduction 
of armour. The incompetence of the Greek government and 
the corrupt waste of its resources prevented the full application 
of Hastings's bold and far-seeing plans. But largely by the use 
of his own money, of which he is said to have spent £7000, he 
was able to some extent to carry them out. In 1824 he came 
to England to obtain a steamer, and in 1825 he had fitted out a 
small steamer named the " Karteria " (Perseverance), manned 
by Englishmen, Swedes and Greeks, and provided with apparatus 
for the discharge of shell and hot shot. He did enough to show 
that if his advice had been vigorously followed the Turks would 
have been driven off the sea long before the date of the battle 
of Navarino. The great effect produced by his shells in an 
attack on the sea-line of communication of the Turkish army, 
then besieging Athens at Oropus and Volo in March and April 
1827, was a clear proof that much more could have been done. 
Military mismanagement caused the defeat of the Greeks round 
Athens. But Hastings, in co-operation with General Sir R. 
Church (q.v.), shifted the scene of the attack to western Greece. 
Here his destruction of a small Turkish squadron at Salona Bay 
in the Gulf of Corinth (29th of September 1827) provoked 
Ibrahim Pasha into the aggressive movements which led to the 
destruction of his fleet by the allies at Navarino (q.v.) on the 
20th of October 1827. On the 25th of May 1828 he was wounded 
in an attack on Anatolikon, and he died in the harbour of Zante 
on the 1st of June. General Gordon, who served in the war 
and wrote its history, says of him: "If ever there was a 
disinterested and really .useful Philhellene it was Hastings. 
He received no pay, and had expended most of his slender 
fortune in keeping the ' Karteria ' afloat for the last six months. 
His ship, too, was the only one in the Greek navy where regular 
discipline was maintained." 

See Thomas Gordon, History of the Greek Revolution (London, 
1832); George Finlay, History of the Creek Revolution (Edinburgh, 

HASTINGS, WARREN (1732-1818), the first governor-general 
of British India, was born on the 6lh of December 1732 in the 
little hamlet of Churchill in Oxfordshire. He came of a family 
which had been settled for many generations in the adjoining 
village of Daylesford; but his great-grandfather had sold the 
ancestral manor-house, and his grandfather had been unable 
to maintain himself in possession of the family living. His 
mother died a few days after giving him birth; his father, 

Pynaston Hastings, drifted away to perish obscurely in the West 
Indies. Thus unfortunate in his birth, young Hastings received 
the elements of education at a charity school in his native village. 
At the age of eight he was taken in charge by an elder brother 
of his father, Howard Hastings, who held a post in the customs. 
After spending two years at a private school at Newington Butts, 
he was moved to Westminster, where among his contemporaries 
occur the names of Lord Thurlow and Lord Shelburne, Sir 
Elijah Impey, and the poets Cowper and Churchill. In 1749, 
v/hen his headmaster Dr Nichols was already anticipating for him 
a successful career at the university, his uncle died, leaving him 
to the care of a distant kinsman, Mr Creswicke, who was afterwards 
in the direction of the East India Company; and he determined 
to send his ward to seek his fortune as a " writer " in Bengal. 

When Hastings landed at Calcutta in October 1750 the affairs 
of the East India Company were at a low ebb. Throughout the 
entire south of the peninsula French influence was predominant. 
The settlement of Fort St George or Madras, captured by force 
of arms, had only recently been restored in accordance with a 
clause of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. The organizing genius of 
Dupleix everywhere overshadowed the native imagination, and 
the star of Clive had scarcely yet risen above the horizon. The 
rivalry between the English and the French, which had already 
convulsed the south, did not penetrate to Bengal. That province 
was under the able government of Ali Vardi Khan, who 
peremptorily forbade the foreign settlers at Calcutta and Chander- 
nagore to introduce feuds from Europe. The duties of a young 
" writer " were then such as are implied in the name. At an 
early date Hastings was placed in charge of an aurang or factory 
in the interior, where his duties would be to superintend the 
weaving of silk and cotton goods under a system of money 
advances. In 1753 he was transferred to Cossimbazar, the 
river-port of the native capital of Murshidabad. In 1756 the 
old nawab died, and was succeeded by his grandson Suraj- 
ud-Dowlah, a young madman of 19, whose name is indelibly 
associated with the tragedy of the Black Hole. When that 
passionate young prince, in revenge for a fancied wrong, resolved 
to drive the English out of Bengal, his first step was to occupy 
the fortified factory at Cossimbazar, and make prisoners of 
Hastings and his companions. Hastings was soon released at the 
intercession of the Dutch resident, and made use of his position 
at Murshidabad to open negotiations with the English fugitives 
at Falta, the site of a Dutch factory near the mouth of the Hugh. 
In later days he used to refer with pride to his services on this 
occasion, when he was first initiated into the wiles of Oriental 
diplomacy. After a while he found it necessary to fly from the 
Mahommedan court and join the main body of the English at 
Falta. When the relieving force arrived from Madras under 
Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson, Hastings enrolled himself as 
a volunteer, and took part in the action which led to the recovery 
of Calcutta. Clive showed his appreciation of Hastings's merits 
by appointing him in 1758 to the important post of resident at 
the court of Murshidabad. It was there that he first came into 
collision with the Bengali Brahman, Nuncomar, whose sub- 
sequent fate has supplied more material for controversy than any 
other episode in his career. During his three years of office as 
resident he was able to render not a few valuable services to the 
Company; but it is more important to observe that his name 
nowhere occurs in the official lists of those who derived pecuniary 
profit from the necessities and weakness of the native court. In 
1 761 he was promoted to be member of council, under the presi- 
dency of Mr Vansittart, who had been introduced by Clive from 
Madras. The period of Vansittart's government has been truly 
described as " the most revolting page of our Indian history." 
The entire duties of administration were suffered to remain in 
the hands of the nawab, while a few irresponsible English traders 
had drawn to themselves all real power. The members of 
council, the commanders of the troops, and the commercial 
residents plundered on a grand scale. The youngest servant of 
the Company claimed the right of trading on his own account, 
free from taxation and from local jurisdiction, not only for him- 
self but also for every native subordinate whom he might permit 



to use his name. It was this exemption, threatening the very 
foundations of the Mussulman government, that finally led to a 
rupture with the nawab. Macaulay, in his celebrated essay, has 
said that " of the conduct of Hastings at this time little is known." 
As a matter of fact, the book which Macaulay was professing to 
review describes at length the honourable part consistently 
taken by Hastings in opposition to the great majority of the 
council. Sometimes in conjunction only with Vansittart, some- 
times absolutely alone, he protested unceasingly against the 
policy and practices of his colleagues. On one occasion he was 
stigmatized in a minute by Mr Batson with " having espoused 
the nawab's cause, and as a hired solicitor defended all his actions, 
however dishonourable and detrimental to the Company." An 
altercation ensued. Batson gave him the lie and struck him in 
the council chamber. When war was actually begun, Hastings 
officially recorded his previous resolution to have resigned, in 
order to repudiate responsibility for measures which he had 
always opposed. Waiting only for the decisive victory of Buxar 
over the allied forces of Bengal and Oudh, he resigned his seat 
and sailed for England in November 1764. 

After fourteen years' residence in Bengal Hastings did not 
return home a rich man, estimated by the opportunities of his 
position. According to the custom of the time he had augmented 
his slender salary by private trade. At a later date he was 
charged by Burke with having taken up profitable contracts for 
supplying bullocks for the use of the Company's troops. It is 
admitted that he conducted by means of agents a large business 
in timber in the Gangetic Sundarbans. When at Falta he had 
married Mrs Buchanan, the widow of an officer. She bore him 
two children, of whom one died in infancy at Murshidabad, and 
was shortly followed to the grave by her mother. Their common 
gravestone is in existence at the present day, bearing date 
July n, 1759. The other child, a son, was sent to England, and 
also died shortly tefore his father's return. While at home 
Hastings is said to have attached himself to literary society; 
and it may be inferred from his own letters that he now made the 
personal acquaintance of Samuel Johnson and Lord Mansfield. 
In 1766 he was called upon to give evidence before a committee 
of the House of Commons upon the affairs of Bengal. The good 
sense and clearness of the views which he expressed caused 
attention to be paid to his desire to be again employed in India. 
His pecuniary affairs were embarrassed, partly from the liberality 
with which he had endowed his few surviving relatives. The 
great influence of Lord Clive was also exercised on his behalf. 
At last, in the winter of 1768, he received the appointment of 
second in council at Madras. Among his companions on his 
voyage round the Cape were the Baron Imhoff, a speculative 
portrait-painter, and his wife, a lady of some personal attractions 
and great social charm, who was destined henceforth to be 
Hastings's lifelong companion. Of his two years' work at Madras 
it is needless to speak in detail. He won the good-will of his 
employers by devoting himself to the improvement of their 
manufacturing business, and he kept his hands clean from the 
prevalent taint of pecuniary transactions with the nawab of the 
Carnatic. One fact of some interest is not generally known. 
He drew up a scheme for the construction of a pier at Madras, 
to avoid the dangers of landing through the surf, and instructed 
his brother-in-law in England to obtain estimates from the 
engineers Brindley and Smeaton. 

In the beginning of 1772 his ambition was stimulated by the 
nomination to the second place in council in Bengal with a 
promise of the reversion of the governorship when Mr Cartier 
should retire. Since his departure from Bengal in 1764 the 
situation of affairs in that settlement had scarcely improved. 
The second governorship of Clive was marked by the transfer 
of the d'vwani or financial administration from the Mogul emperor 
to the Company, and by the enforcement of stringent regulations 
against the besetting sin of peculation. But Clive was followed 
by two inefficient successors; and in 1770 occurred the most 
terrible Indian famine on record, which is credibly estimated 
to have swept away one-third of the population. In April 1772 
Warren Hastings took his seat as president of the council at Fort 

William. His first care was to carry out the instructions received 
from home, and effect a radical reform in the system of govern- 
ment. Clive's plan of governing through the agency of the native 
court had proved a failure. The directors were determined " to 
stand forth as dlwan, and take upon themselves by their own 
servants the entire management of the revenues." All the 
officers of administration were transferred from Murshidabad 
to Calcutta, which Hastings boasted at this early date that he 
would make the first city in Asia. This reform involved the 
ruin of many native reputations, and for a second time brought 
Hastings into collision with the wily Brahman, Nuncomar. 
At the same time a settlement of the land revenue on leases for 
five years was begun, and the police and military systems of 
the country were placed upon a new footing. Hastings was a 
man of immense industry, with an insatiable appetite for detail. 
The whole of this large series of reforms was conducted under 
his own personal supervision, and upon no part of his multifarious 
labours did he dwell in his letters home with greater pride. 
As an independent measure of economy, the stipend paid to the 
titular nawab of Bengal, who was then a minor, was reduced by 
one-half — to sixteen lakhs a year (say £160,000). Macaulay 
imputes this reduction to Hastings as a characteristic act of 
financial immorality; but in truth it had been expressly enjoined 
by the court of directors, in a despatch dated six months before 
he took up office. Hispecuniary bargains with Shuja-ud-Dowlah, 
the nawab wazlr of Oudh, stand on a different basis. Hastings 
himself always regarded them as incidents in his general scheme 
of foreign policy. The Mahrattas at this time had got possession 
of the person of the Mogul emperor, Shah Alam, from whom 
Clive obtained the grant of Bengal in 1765, and to whom he 
assigned in return the districts of Allahabad and Kora and a 
tribute of £300,000. With the emperor in their camp, the 
Mahrattas were threatening the province of Oudh, and 
causing a large British force to be cantoned along the frontier 
for its defence. Warren Hastings, as a deliberate measure of 
policy, withheld the tribute due to the emperor, and resold 
Allahabad and Kora to the wazir of Oudh. The Mahrattas 
retreated, and all danger for the time was dissipated by the 
death of their principal leader. The wazlr now bethought him 
that he had a good opportunity for satisfying an old quarrel 
against the adjoining tribe of Rohillas, who had played fast and 
loose with him while the Mahratta army was at hand. The 
Rohillas were a race of Afghan origin, who had established 
themselves for some generations in a fertile tract west of Oudh, 
between the Himalayas and the Ganges, which still bears the 
name of Rohilkhand. They were not so much the occupiers of 
the soil as a dominant caste of warriors and freebooters. But 
in those troubled days their title was as good as any to be found 
in India. After not a little hesitation, Hastings consented to 
allow the Company's troops to be used to further the ambitious 
designs of his Oudh ally, in consideration of a sum of money 
which relieved the ever-pressing wants of the Bengal treasury. 
The Rohillas were defeated in fair fight. Some of them fled the 
country, and so far as possible Hastings obtained terms for 
those who remained. The fighting, no doubt, on the part of the 
wazlr was conducted with all the savagery of Oriental warfare; 
but there is no evidence that it was a war of extermination. 

Meanwhile, the affairs of the East India Company had come 
under the consideration of parliament. The Regulating Act, 
passed by Lord North's ministry in 1773, effected considerable 
changes in the constitution of the Bengal government. Tie 
council was reduced to four members with a governor-general^ 
who were to exercise certain indefinite powers of control over the 
presidencies of Madras and Bombay. Hastings was named in 
the act as governor-general for a term of five years. The council 
consisted of General Clavering and the Hon. Colonel Monson, 
two third-rate politicians of considerable parliamentary influence; 
Philip Francis (q.v.), then only known as an able permanent 
official; and Barwell, of the Bengal Civil Service. At the same 
time a supreme court of judicature was appointed, composed 
of a chief and three puisne judges, to exercise an indeterminate 
jurisdiction at Calcutta. The chief-justice was Sir Elijah Impey, 



already mentioned as a schoolfellow of Hastings at Westminster. 
The whole tendency of the Regulating Act was to establish for 
the first time the influence of the crown, or rather of parliament, 
in Indian affairs. The new members of council disembarked 
at Calcutta on the ioth of October 1774; and on the following 
day commenced the long feud which scarcely terminated twenty- 
one years later with the acquittal of Warren Hastings by the 
House of Lords. Macaulay states that the members of council 
were put in ill-humour because their salute of guns was not 
proportionate to their dignity. In a contemporary letter 
Francis thus expresses the same petty feeling: " Surely Mr H. 
might have put on a ruffled shirt." Taking advantage of an 
ambiguous clause in their commission, the majority of the 
council (for Barwell uniformly sided with Hastings) forthwith 
proceeded to pass in review the recent measures of the governor- 
general. All that he had done they condemned; all that they 
could they reversed. Hastings was reduced to the position of a 
cipher at their meetings. After a time they lent a ready ear to 
detailed allegations of corruption brought against him by his 
old enemy Nuncomar. To charges from such a source, and 
brought in such a manner, Hastings disdained to reply, and 
referred his accuser to the supreme court. The majority of the 
council, in their executive capacity, resolved that the governor- 
general had been guilty of peculation, and ordered him to 
refund. A few days later Nuncomar was thrown into prison on 
a charge of forgery preferred by a private prosecutor, tried before 
the supreme court sitting in bar, found guilty by a jury of 
Englishmen and sentenced to be hanged. Hastings always 
maintained that he did not cause the charge to be instituted, 
and the legality of Nuncomar's trial is thoroughly proved by 
Sir James Stephen. The majority of the council abandoned 
their supporter, who was executed in due course. He had 
forwarded a petition for reprieve to the council, which Clavering 
took care should not be presented in time, and which was subse- 
quently burnt by the common hangman on the motion of Francis. 
While the strife was at its hottest, Hastings had sent an agent 
to England with a general authority to place his resignation in 
the hands of the Company under certain conditions. The agent 
thought fit to exercise that authority. The resignation was 
promptly accepted, and one of the directors was appointed 
to the vacancy. But in the meantime Colonel Monson had 
died, and Hastings was thus restored, by virtue of his casting 
vote, to the supreme management of affairs. He refused to 
ratify his resignation; and when Clavering attempted to seize 
on the governor-generalship, he judiciously obtained an opinion 
from the judges of the supreme court in his favour. From that 
time forth, though he could not always command an absolute 
majority in council, Hastings was never again subjected to 
gross insult, and his general policy was able to prevail. 

A crisis was now approaching in foreign affairs which de- 
manded all the experience and all the genius of Hastings for 
its solution. Bengal was prosperous, and free from external 
enemies on every quarter. But the government of Bombay had 
hurried on a rupture with the Mahratta confederacy at a time 
when France was on the point of declaring war against England, 
and when the mother-country found herself unable to subdue 
her rebellious colonists in America. Hastings did not hesitate 
to take upon his own shoulders the whole responsibility of 
military affairs. All the French settlements in India were 
promptly occupied. On the part of Bombay, the Mahratta war 
was conducted with procrastination and disgrace. But Hastings 
amply avenged the capitulation of Wargaon by the complete 
success of his own plan of operations. Colonel Goddard with a 
Bengal army marched across the breadth of the peninsula from 
the valley of the Ganges to the western sea, and achieved almost 
without a blow the conquest of Gujarat. Captain Popham, with 
a small detachment, stormed the rock fortress of Gwalior, then 
deemed impregnable and the key of central India; and by this 
feat held in check Sindhia, the most formidable of the Mahratta 
chiefs. The Bhonsla Mahratta raja of Nagpur, whose dominions 
bordered on Bengal, was won over by the diplomacy of an 
emissary of Hastings. But while these events were taking place, 

a new source of embarrassment had arisen at Calcutta. The 
supreme court, whether rightly or wrongly, assumed a jurisdic- 
tion of first instance over the entire province of Bengal. The 
English common law, with all the absurdities and rigours of that 
day, was arbitrarily extended to an alien system of society. 
Zamindars, or government renters, were arrested on mesne 
process; the sanctity of the zen&na, or women's chamber, as 
dear to Hindus as to Mahommedans, was violated by the sheriff's 
officer; the deepest feelings of the people and the entire fabric 
of revenue administration were alike disregarded. On this point 
the entire council acted in harmony. Hastings and Francis went 
joint-bail for imprisoned natives of distinction. At last, after 
the dispute between the judges and the executive threatened to 
become a trial of armed force, Hastings set it at rest by a charac- 
teristic stroke of policy. A new judicial office was created in 
the name of the Company, to which Sir Elijah Impey was 
appointed, though he never consented to draw the additional 
salary offered to him. The understanding between Hastings 
and Francis, originating in this state of affairs, was for a short 
period extended to general policy. An agreement was come to 
by which Francis received patronage for his circle of friends, 
while Hastings was to be unimpeded in the control of foreign 
affairs. But a difference of interpretation arose. Hastings 
recorded in an official minute that he had found Francis's private 
and public conduct to be " void of truth and honour." They 
met as duellists. Francis fell wounded, and soon afterwards 
returned to England. 

The Mahratta war was not yet terminated, but a far more 
formidable danger now threatened the English in India. The 
imprudent conduct of the Madras authorities had irritated 
beyond endurance the two greatest Mussulman powers in the 
peninsula, the nizam of the Deccan and Hyder Ali, the usurper 
of Mysore, who began to negotiate an alliance with the Mahrattas. 
A second time the genius of Hastings saved the British empire 
in the east. On the arrival of the news that Hyder had descended 
from the highlands of Mysore, cut to pieces the only British army 
in the field, and swept the Carnatic up to the gates of Madras, 
he at once adopted a policy of extraordinary boldness. He 
signed a blank treaty of peace with the Mahrattas, who were still 
in arms, reversed the action of the Madras government towards 
the nizam, and concentrated all the resources of Bengal against 
Hyder Ali. Sir Eyre Coote, a general of renown in former 
Carnatic wars, was sent by sea to Madras with all the troops and 
treasure that could be got together; and a strong body of rein- 
forcements subsequently marched southwards under Colonel 
Pearse along the coast line of Orissa. The landing of Coote 
preserved Madras from destruction, though the war lasted 
through many campaigns and only terminated with the death 
of Hyder. Pearse's detachment was decimated by an epidemic 
of cholera (perhaps the first mention of this disease by name in 
Indian history) ; but the survivors penetrated to Madras, and 
not only held in check Bhonsla and the nizam, but also corro- 
borated the lesson taught by Goddard — that the Company's 
sepoys could march anywhere, when boldly led. Hastings's 
personal task was to provide the ways and means for this exhaust- 
ing war. A considerable economy was effected by a reform in 
the establishment for collecting the land tax. The government 
monopolies of opium and salt were then for the first time placed 
upon a remunerative basis. But these reforms were of necessity 
slow in their beneficial operation. The pressing demands of the 
military chest had to be satisfied by loans, and in at least one 
case from the private purse of the governor-general. Ready 
cash could alone fill up the void; and it was to the hoards of 
native princes that Hastings's fertile mind at once turned. 
Chait Sing, raja of Benares, the greatest of the vassal chiefs who 
had grown rich under the protection of the British rule, lay 
under the suspicion of disloyalty. The wazir of Oudh had fallen 
into arrears in the payment due for the maintenance of the 
Company's garrison posted in his dominions, and his administra- 
tion was in great disorder. In his case the ancestral hoards were 
under the control of his mother, the begum of Oudh, into whese 
hands they had been allowed to pass at the time when Hastings 

5 »' 


was powerless in council. Hastings resolved to make a progress 
up country in order to arrange the affairs of both provinces, and 
bring back all the treasure that could be squeezed out of its 
holders by his personal intervention. When he reached Benares 
and presented his demands, the raja rose in insurrection, and the 
governor-general barely escaped with his life. But the faithful 
Popham rapidly rallied a force for his defence. The insurgents 
were defeated again and again; Chait Sing took to flight, and 
an augmented permanent tribute was imposed upon his suc- 
cessor. The Oudh business was managed with less risk. The 
wazir consented to everything demanded of him. The begum 
was charged with having abetted Chait Sing in his rebellion; 
and after the severest pressure applied to herself and her 
attendant eunuchs, a fine of more than a million sterling was 
exacted from her. Hastings appears to have been not altogether 
satisfied with the incidents of this expedition, and to have antici- 
pated the censure which it received in England. As a measure 
of precaution, he procured documentary evidence of the rebellious 
intentions of the raja and the begum, to the validity of which 
Impey obligingly lent his extra-judicial sanction. 

The remainder of Hastings's term of office in India was passed 
in comparative tranquillity, both from internal opposition and 
foreign war. The centre of interest now shifts to the India 
House and to the British parliament. The long struggle between 
the Company and the ministers of the crown for the supreme 
control of Indian affairs and the attendant patronage had 
reached its climax. The decisive success of Hastings's adminis- 
tration alone postponed the inevitable solution. His original 
term of five years would have expired in 1778; but it was 
annually prolonged by special act of parliament until his 
voluntary resignation. Though Hastings was thus irremovable, 
his policy did not escape censure. Ministers were naturally 
anxious to obtain the reversion to his vacant post, and Indian 
affairs formed at this time the hinge on which party politics 
turned. On one occasion Dundas carried a motion in the House 
of Commons, censuring Hastings and demanding his recall. 
The directors of the Company were disposed to act upon this 
resolution; but in the court of proprietors, with whom the 
decision ultimately lay. Hastings always possessed a sufficient 
majority. Fox's India Bill led to the downfall of the Coalition 
ministry in 1783. The act which Pitt successfully carried in the 
following year introduced a new constitution, in which Hastings 
felt that he had no place. In February 1785 he finally sailed 
from Calcutta, after a dignified ceremony of resignation, and 
amid enthusiastic farewells from all classes. 

On his arrival in England, after a second absence of sixteen 
years, he was not displeased with the reception he met with at 
court and in the country. A peerage was openly talked of as 
his due, while his own ambition pointed to some responsible 
office at home. Pitt had never taken a side against him, while 
Lord Chancellor Thurlow was his pronounced friend. But he 
was now destined to learn that his enemy Francis, whom he had 
discomfited in the council chamber at Calcutta, was more than 
his match in the parliamentary arena. Edmund Burke had taken 
the subject races of India under the protection of his eloquence. 
Francis, who had been the early friend of Burke, supplied him 
with the personal animus against Hastings, and with the know- 
ledge of detail, which he might otherwise have lacked. The 
Whig party on this occasion unanimously followed Burke's lead. 
Dundas, Pitt's favourite subordinate, had already committed 
himself by his earlier resolution of censure; and Pitt was induced 
by motives which are still obscure to incline the ministerial 
majority to the same side. To meet the oratory of Burke and 
Sheridan and Fox, Hastings wrote an elaborate minute with 
which he wearied the ears of the House for two successive nights, 
and he subsidized a swarm of pamphleteers. The impeachment 
was decided upon in 1786, but the actual trial did not commence 
until 1788. For seven long years Hastings was upon his defence 
on the charge of " high crimes and misdemeanours." During 
this anxious period he appears to have borne himself with charac- 
teristic dignity, such as is consistent with no other hypothesis 
than the consciousness of innocence. At last, in 1795, the House 

of Lords gave a verdict of not guilty on all charges laid against 
him; and he left the bar at which he had so frequently appeared, 
with his reputation clear, but ruined in fortune. However large 
the wealth he brought back from India, all was swallowed up in 
defraying the expenses of his trial. Continuing the line of conduct 
which in most other men would be called hypocrisy, he forwarded 
a petition to Pitt praying that he might be reimbursed his costs 
from the public funds. This petition, of course, was rejected. 
At last, when he was reduced to actual destitution, it was 
arranged that the East India Company should grant him an 
annuity of £4000 for a term of years, with £90,000 paid down in 
advance. This annuity expired before his death; and he was 
compelled to make more than one fresh appeal to the bounty of 
the Company, which was never withheld. Shortly before his 
acquittal he had been able to satisfy the dream of his childhood, 
by buying back the ancestral manor of Daylesford, where the 
remainder of his life was passed in honourable retirement. In 
1 813 he was called on to give evidence upon Indian affairs before 
the two houses of parliament, which received him with excep- 
tional marks of respect. The university of Oxford conferred on 
him the honorary degree of D.C.L.; and in the following year 
he was sworn of the privy council, and took a prominent part in 
the reception given to the duke of Wellington and the allied 
sovereigns. He died on the 22nd of August 1818, in his 86th 
year, and lies buried behind the chancel of the parish church, 
which he had recently restored at his own charges. 

In physical appearance, Hastings " looked like a great man, 
and not like a bad man." The body was wholly subjugated to 
the mind. A frame naturally slight had been further attenuated 
by rigorous habits of temperance, and thus rendered proof 
against the diseases of the tropics. Against his private character 
not even calumny has breathed a reproach. As brother, as 
husband and as friend, his affections were as steadfast as they 
were warm. By the public he was always regarded as reserved, 
but within his own inner circle he gave and received perfect 
confidence. In his dealings with money, he was characterized 
rather by liberality of expenditure than by carefulness of acquisi- 
tion. A classical education and the instincts of family pride 
saved him from both the greed and the vulgar display which 
marked the typical " nabob," the self-made man of those days. 
He could support the position of a governor-general and of a 
country gentleman with equal credit. Concerning his second 
marriage, it suffices to say that the Baroness Imhoff was nearly 
forty years of age, with a family of grown-up children, when the 
complaisant law of her native land allowed her to become Mrs 
Hastings. She survived her husband, who cherished towards 
her to the last the sentiments of a lover. Her children he 
adopted as his own; and it was chiefly for her sake that he 
desired the peerage which was twice held out to him. 

Hastings's public career will probably never cease to be a 
subject of controversy. It was his misfortune to be the scape- 
goat upon whose head parliament laid the accumulated sins, 
real and imaginary, of the East India Company. If the acquisi- 
tion of the Indian empire can be supported on ethical grounds, 
Hastings needs no defence. No one who reads his private 
correspondence will admit that even his least defensible acts 
were dictated by dishonourable motives. It is more pleasing to 
point out certain of his public measures upon which no difference 
of opinion can arise. He was the first to attempt to open a trade 
route with Tibet, and to organize a survey of Bengal and of the 
eastern seas. It was he who persuaded the pundits of Bengal to 
disclose the treasures of Sanskrit to European scholars. He 
founded the Madrasa or college for Mahommedan education at 
Calcutta, primarily out of his own funds; and he projected the 
foundation of an Indian institute in England. The Bengal 
Asiatic Society was established under his auspices, though he 
yielded the post of president to Sir W. Jones. No Englishman 
ever understood the native character so well as Hastings; none 
ever devoted himself more heartily to the promotion of every 
scheme, great and small, that could advance the prosperity of 
India. Natives and Anglo-Indians alike venerate his name, the 
former as their first beneficent administrator, the latter as the 



most able and the most enlightened of their own class. If Clive's 
sword conquered the Indian empire, it was the brain of Hastings 
that planned the system of civil administration, and his genius 
that saved the empire in its darkest hour. 

See G. B. Malleson, Life of Warren Hastings (1894); G. W. 

Forrest, The Administration of Warren Hastings (Calcutta, 1892); 

Sir Charles Lawson, The Private Life of Warren Hastings (1895); 

L. J. Trotter, Warren Hastings (" Rulers of India " series) (1890); 

Sir Alfred Lyall, Warren Hastings (" English Men of Action " series) 
(1889) ; F. M. Holmes, Four Heroes of India (1892) ; G. W. Hastings, 
A Vindication of Warren Hastings (1909). Macaulay's famous essay, 
though a classic, is very partial and inaccurate; and Burke's speech, 
on the impeachment of Warren Hastings, is magnificent rhetoric. 
The true historical view has been restored by Sir James Stephen's 
Story of Nuncomar (1885) and by Sir John Strachey's Hastings and 
the Rohilla War (1892), and it is enforced in some detail in Sydney 
C. Grier's Letters of Warren Hastings to his Wife (1905), material for 
which existed in a mass of documents relating to Hastings, acquired 
by the British Museum. (J. S. Co.) 

HASTINGS, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough 
and watering-place of Sussex, England, one of the Cinque Ports, 
62 m. S.E. by S. from London, on the South Eastern & Chatham 
and the London, Brighton & South Coast railways. Pop. (1901), 
65,528. It is picturesquely situated at the mouth of two narrow 
valleys, and, being sheltered by considerable hills on the north 
and east, has an especially mild climate. Eastward along the 
coast towards Fairlight, and inland, the country is beautiful. 
A parade fronts the English Channel, and connects the town on 
the west with St Leonard's, which is included within the borough. 
This is mainly a residential quarter, and has four railway stations 
on the lines serving Hastings. Both Hastings and St Leonard's 
have fine piers; there is a covered parade known as the Marina, 
and the Alexandra Park of 75 acres was opened in 1891. There 
are also numerous publi : gardens. The sandy beach is extensive, 
and affords excellent bathing. On the brink of the West Cliff 
stand a square and a circular tower and other fragments of the 
castle, probably erected soon after the time of William the 
Conqueror; together with the ruins, opened up by excavation 
in 1824, of the castle chapel, a transitional Norman structure 
no ft. long, with a nave, chancel and aisles. Besides the chapel 
there was formerly a college, both being under the control of a 
dean and secular canons. The deanery was held by Thomas 
Becket, and one of the canOnries by William of Wykeham. The 
principal public buildings are the old parish churches of All 
Saints and St Clements, the first containing in its register for 
1619 the baptism of Titus Oates, whose father was rector of the 
parish; numerous modern churches, the town hall (1880); 
theatre, music hall and assembly rooms. The Brassey Institute 
contains a public library, museum and art school. The Albert 
Memorial clock-tower was erected in 1864. Educational institu- 
tions include the grammar school (1883), school of science and 
art (1878) and technical schools. At the west end of the town 
are several hospitals and convalescent homes. The prosperity 
of the town depends almost wholly on its reputation as a watering- 
place, but there is a small fishing and boat-building industry. 
In 1890 an act of parliament authorized the construction of a 
harbour, but the work, begun in 1896, was not completed. The 
fish-market beneath the castle cliff is picturesque. The parlia- 
mentary borough, returning one member, falls within the Rye 
division of the county. The county borough was created in 
1888. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 10 aldermen 
and 30 councillors. Area, 4857 acres. 

Rock shelters on Castle Hill and numerous flint instruments 
which have been discovered at Hastings point to an extensive 
neolithic population, and there are ancient earthworks and a 
promontory camp of unknown date. There is no evidence that 
Hastings was a Roman settlement, but it was a place of some 
note in the Anglo-Saxon period. In 795 land at Hastings 
(Haestingaceaster, Haestingas, Haestingaport) is included in a 
grant, which may possibly be a forgery, of a South Saxon chieftain 
to the abbey of St Denis in France; and a royal mint was 
established at the town by ^Ethelstan. The battle of Hastings 
in 1066 described below was the first and decisive act of the 
Norman Conquest. It was fought near the present Battle Abbey, 

about 6 m. inland. After the Conquest William I. erected the 
earthworks of the existing castle. By 1086 Hastings was a 
borough and had given its name to the rape of Sussex in which 
it lay. The town at that time had a harbour and a market. 
Whether Hastings was one of the towns afterwards known as 
the Cinque Ports at the time when they received their first charter 
from Edward the Confessor is uncertain, but in the reign of 
William I. it was undoubtedly among them. These combined 
towns, of which Hastings was the head, had special liberties 
and a separate jurisdiction under a warden. The only charter 
peculiar to Hastings was granted in 1589 by Elizabeth, and 
incorporated the borough under the name of " mayor, jurats 
and commonalty," instead of the former title of " bailiff, jurats 
and commonalty." Hastings returned two members to parlia- 
ment probably from 1322, and certainly from 1366, until 1885, 
when the number was reduced to one. 

Battle of Hastings. — On the 28th of September 1066, William 
of Normandy, bent on asserting by arms his right to the English 
crown, landed at Pevensey. King Harold, who had destroyed 
the invaders of northern England at the battle of Stamford 
Bridge in Yorkshire, on hearing the news hurried southward, 
gathering what forces he could on the way. He took up his 
position, athwart the road from Hastings to London, on a hill 1 
some 6 m. inland from Hastings, with his back to the great 
forest of Anderida (the Weald) and in front of him a long glacis- 
like slope, at the bottom of which began the opposing slope of 
Telham Hill. The English army was composed almost entirely 
of infantry. The shire levies, for the most part destitute of body 
armour and with miscellaneous and even improvised weapons, 
were arranged on either flank of Harold's guards (huscarles), 
picked men armed principally with the Danish axe and shield. 

Before this position Duke William appeared on the morning 
of the 14th of October. His host, composed not only of his 
Norman vassals but of barons, knights and adventurers from all 
quarters, was arranged in a centre and two wings, each corps 
having its archers and arblasters in the front line, the rest of the 
infantry in the second and the heavy armoured cavalry in the 
third. Neither the arrows nor the charge of the second line 
of foot-men, who, unlike the English, wore defensive mail, made 
any impression on the English standing in a serried mass behind 
their interlocked shields. 2 

Then the heavy cavalry came on, led by the duke and his 
brother Odo, and encouraged by the example of the minstrel 
Taillefer, who rode forward, tossing and catching his sword, 
into the midst of the English line before he was pulled down and 
killed. All along the front the cavalry came to close quarters 
with the defenders, but the long powerful Danish axes were 

1 Freeman called this hill Senlac and introduced the fashion of 
describing the battle as " the battle of Senlac." Mr J. H. Round, 
however, proved conclusively that this name, being French (Sen- 
lecque), could not have been in use at the time of the Conquest, 
that the battlefield had in fact no name, pointing out that in William 
of Malmesbury and in Domesday Book the battle is called " of . 
Hastings " (Bellum Hastingense), while only one writer, Ordericus 
Vitalis, describes it two hundred years after the event as Bellum 
Senlacium. See Round, Feudal England (London, 1895), p. 333 
et sen. 

2 There is still a difference of opinion as to whether the English 
were, or were not, defended by any other rampart than that of the 
customary " shield-wall." Freeman, apparently as a result of a 
misunderstanding of a passage in Henry of Huntingdon and the 
slightly ambiguous verse of Wace in the Roman du Rou (11. 6991- 
6994 and 11. 7815-7826), affirms that Harold turned " the battle as 
far as possible into the likeness of a siege," by building round hig 
troops a " palisade " of solid timber {Norman Conquest, iii. 444). 
This was proved to be a fable by J. H. Round, in the course of a 
general attack on Freeman's historical method, which provoked the 
professor's defenders to take up the cudgels on his behalf in a very 
long and lively controversy. "The result of this was that Freeman's 
account was wholly discredited, though Round'sview-~that there was 
no wall of any kind save the shield-wall— is not generally accepted. 
Professor Oman {Academy, June 9, 1894), for instance, holds that 
there was " an abattis of some sort " set to hamper the advance 
of cavalry (see also English History, vol. ix., p. 474). Mr Round 
sums up the controversy, from his point of view, in his Feudal 
England, p. 340 et seq., where references to other monographs on 
the subiect will be found. 



as formidable as the halbert and the bill proved to be in battles 
of later centuries, and they lopped off the arms of the assailants 
and cut down their horses. The fire of the attack died out and 
the left wing (Bretons) fled in rout. But as thefyrd levies broke 
out of the line and pursued the Bretons down the hill in a wild, 
formless mob, William's cavalry swung round and destroyed 
them, and this suggested to the duke to repeat deliberately 
what the Bretons had done from fear. Another advance , followed 
by a feigned retreat, drew down a second large body of the 
English from the crest, and these in turn, once in the open, were 
ridden over and slaughtered by the men-at-arms. Lastly, 
these two disasters having weakened the defenders both 
materially and morally, William subjected the huscarles, who 
had stood fast when the fyrd broke its ranks, to a constant rain 
of arrows, varied from time to time by cavalry charges. These 
magnificent soldiers endured the trial for many hours, from 
noon till close on nightfall; but at last, when the Norman 
archers raised their bows so as to pitch the arrows at a steep 
angle of descent in the midst of the huscarles, the strain became 
too great. While some rushed forward alone or in twos and threes 
to die in the midst of the enemy, the remainder stood fast, too 
closely crowded almost for the wounded to drop. At last 
Harold received a mortal wound, the English began to waver, 
and the knights forced their way in. Only a remnant of the 
defenders made its way back to the forest; and William, after 
resting for a night on the hardly-won ground, began the work of 
the Norman Conquest. 

HASTINGS, a city and the county-seat of Adams county, 
Nebraska, U.S.A., about 95 m. W. by S. of Lincoln. Pop. 
(1890) 13,584; (1900) 7188 (1253 foreign-born); (1910) 9338. 
Hastings is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the 
Chicago & North-western, the Missouri Pacific and the St Joseph 
& Grand Island railways. It is the seat of Hastings College 
(Presbyterian, coeducational), opened in 1882, and having 286 
students in 1908, and of the state asylum for the chronic insane. 
The city carries on a considerable jobbing business for the farm- 
ing region of which it is the centre and produce market. There 
are a large foundry and several large brickyards here. Hastings 
was settled in 1872, was incorporated in 1874 and was chartered 
as a city in the same year. 

HAT, a covering for the head worn by both sexes, and dis- 
tinguished from the cap or bonnet by the possession of a brim. 
The word in O.E. is hast, which is cognate with O. Frisian halt, 
O.N. hotte, &c, meaning head-covering, hood ; it is distantly 
related to the O.E. hod, hood, which is cognate with the German 
for " hat," Hut. The history of the hat as part of the apparel 
of both sexes, with the various changes in shape which it has 
undergone, is treated in the article Costume. 

Hats were originally made by the process of felting, and as 
tradition ascribed the discovery of that very ancient operation 
to St Clement, he was assumed as the patron saint of the craft. 
At the present day the trade is divided into two distinct classes. 
The first and most ancient is concerned with the manufacture 
of felt hats, and the second has to do with the recent but now 
most extensive and important manufacture of silk or dress hats. 
In addition to these there is the important manufacture of straw 
or plaited hats (see Straw and Straw Manufactures); and 
hats are occasionally manufactured of materials and by processes 
not included under any of these heads, but such manufactures 
do not take a large or permanent position in the industry. 

Felt Hats. — There is a great range in the quality of felt hats: 
the finer and more expensive qualities are made entirely of fur; 
for commoner qualities a mixture of fur and wool is used ; and for 
the cheapest kinds wool alone is employed. The processes and 
apparatus necessary for making hats of fur differ also from those 
required in the case of woollen bodies; and in large manufactories 
machinery is now generally employed for operations which at no 
distant date were entirely manual. An outline of the operations 
by which the old beaver hat was made will give an idea of the 
manual processes in making a fur napped hat, and the apparatus 
and mechanical processes employed in making ordinary hard and 
soft felts will afterwards be noticed. 

Hatters' fur consists principally of the hair of rabbits (technically 
-ailed coneys) and hares, with some proportion of nutria, musquash 
ai.J beavers hair; and generally any parings and cuttings from 

furriers are also used. Furs intended for felting are deprived of their 
long coarse hairs, after which they are treated with a solution of 
nitrate of mercury, an operation called carroting or secretage, whereby 
the felting properties of the fur are greatly increased. The fur is 
then cut by hand or machine from the skin, and in this state it is 
delivered to the hat maker. 

The old process of making a beaver hat was as follows. The 
materials of a proper beaver consisted, for the body or foundation, of 
rabbits' fur, and for the nap, of beaver fur, although the beaver was 
often mixed with or supplanted by a more common fur. In pre- 
paring the fur plate, the hatter weighed out a sufficient quantity 
of rabbit fur for a single hat, and spread it out and combined it by 
the operation of bowing. The bow or stang ABC (fig. 1) was about 

Fig. 1. 

7 ft. long, and it stretched a single cord of catgut D, which the 
workman vibrated by means of a wooden pin E, furnished with at 
half knob at each end. Holding the bow in his left hand, and the pint 
in his right, he caused the vibrating string to come in contact with 
the heap of tangled fur, which did not cover a space greater than that 
of the hand. At each vibration some of the filaments started up to 
the height of a few inches, and fell away from the mass, a little to 
the right of the bow, their excursions being restrained by a concave 
frame of wicker work called the basket. One half of the material 
was first operated on, and by bowing and gathering, or a patting use 
of the basket, the stuff was loosely matted into a triangular figure, 
about 50 by 36 in., called a bat. In this formation care was taken to 
work about two-thirds of the fur down towards what was intended 
for the brim, and this having been effected, greater density was in- 
duced by gentle pressure with the basket. It was then covered with 
a wettish linen cloth, upon which was laid the hardening skin, a 
piece of dry half-tanned horse hide. On this the workman pressed 
until the stuff adhered closely to the damp cloth, in which it was then 
doubled up, freely pressed with the hand, and laid aside. By this 
process, called basoning, the bat became compactly felted and 
thinned toward the-sides and point. The other half of the fur was next 
subjected to precisely the same processes, after which a cone-shaped 
slip of stiff paper was laid on its surface, and the sides of the bat were 
folded over ics edges to its form and size. It was then laid paper-side 
downward upon the first bat, which was now replaced on the hurdle, 
and its edges were transversely doubled over the introverted side-lays 
of the second bat, thus giving equal thickness to the whole body. 
In this condition it was reintroduced between folds of damp linen 
cloth, and again hardened, so as to unite the two halves, the knitting 
together of which was quickly effected. The paper was then with- 
drawn, and the body in the form of a large cone removed to the 
plank or battery room. 

The battery consisted of an open iron boiler or kettle A (fig. 2), 
filled with scalding hot water, with shelves, B, C, partly of mahogany 
and partly of lead, slop- 
ing down to it. Here 
the body was first dipped 
in the water, and then 
withdrawn to the plank 
to cool and drain, when 
it was unfolded, rolled 
gently with a pin tapering 
towards the ends, turned, 
and worked in every 
direction, to toughen and 
shrink it, and at the same 
time prevent adhesion of 
its sides. Stopping or 
thickening any thin spots 
seen on looking through 
the body, was carefully 
performed by dabbing on 
additional stuff in succes- 

Fig. 2. 

sive supplies from the hot liquor with a brush frequently dipped into 
the kettle, until the body was shrunk sufficiently (about one-half) and 
thoroughly equalized. When quite dried, stiffening was effected 
with a brush dipped into a thin varnish of shellac, and rubbed into 
the body, the surface intended for the inside having much more 
laid on it than the outer, while the brim was made to absorb many 
times the quantity applied to any other part. 

On being again dried, the body was ready to be covered with a nap 
of beaver hair. For this, in inferior qualities, the hair of the otter, 
nutria or other fine fur was sometimes substituted. The requisite 
quantity of one or other of these was taken and mixed with a pro- 
portion of cotton, and the whole was bowed up into a thin uniform 
lap. The cotton merelv served to give sufficient body to the material 
to enable the workman :o handle the lap. The body of the hat 



being damped, the workman spread over it a covering of this lap, 
and by moistening and gentle patting with a brush the cut ends 
of the hair penetrated and fixed themselves in the felt body. The 
hat was then put into a coarse hair cloth, dipped and rolled in 
the hot liquor until the fur was quite worked in, the cotton being 
left on the surface loose and ready for removal. The blocking, 
dyeing and finishing processes in the case of beaver hats were 
similar to those employed for ordinary felts, except that greater care 
and dexterity were required on the part of the workmen, and further 
that the coarse hairs or kemps which might be in the fur were cut off 
by shaving the surface with a razor. The nap also had to be laid in 
one direction, smoothed and rendered glossy by repeated wettings, 
ironings and brushings. A hat so finished was very durable and 
much more light, cool and easy-fitting to the head than the silk hat 
which has now so largely superseded it. 

The first efficient machinery for making felt hats was devised in 
America, and from the United States the machine-making processes 
were introduced into England about the year 1858; and now in all 
large establishments machinery such as that alluded to below is 
employed. For the forming of hat bodies two kinds of machine are 
used, according as the material employed is fur or wool. In the case 
of fur, the essential portion of the apparatus is a " former," con- 
sisting of a metal cone of the size and form of the body or bat to 
be made, perforated all over with small holes. The cone is made to 
revolve on its axis slowly over an orifice under which there is a 
powerful fan, which maintains a strong inward draught of air 
through the holes in the cone. At the side of the cone, and with 
an opening towards it, is a trunk or box from which the fur to be 
made into a hat is thrown out by the rapid revolution of a brush- 
like cylinder, and as the cloud of separate hairs is expelled from 
the trunk, the current of air being sucked through the cone carries 
the fibres to it and causes them to cling closely to its surface. Thus 
a coating of loose fibres is accumulated on the copper cone, and 
these are kept in position only by the exhaust at work under it. 
When sufficient for a hat body has been deposited, it is damped and a 
cloth is wrapped round it; then an outer cone is slipped over it and 
the whole is removed for felting, while another copper cone is placed 
in position for continuing the work. The fur is next felted by 
being rolled and pressed, these operations being performed partly by 
hand and partly by machine. 

In the case of wool hats the hat or body is prepared by first 
carding in a modified form of machine. The wool is divided 
into two separate slivers as delivered from the cards, and these are 
wound simultaneously on a double conical block of wood mounted 
and geared to revolve slowly with a reciprocating horizontal motion, 
so that there is a continual crossing and recrossing of the wool as 
the sliver is wound around the cone. This diagonal arrangement of 
the sliver is an essential feature in the apparatus, as thereby the 
strength of the finished felt is made equal in every direction; and 
when strained in the blocking the texture yields in a uniform manner 
without rupture. The wool wound on the double block forms the 
material of two hats, which are separated by cutting around the 
median or base line, and slipping each half off at its own end. Into 
each cone of wool or bat an " inlayer " is now placed to prevent the 
inside from matting, alter which they are folded in cloths, and placed 
over a perforated iron plate through which steam is blown. When 
well moistened and heated, they are placed between boards, and 
subjected to a rubbing action sufficient to harden them for bearing 
the subsequent strong planking or felting operations. The planking 
of wool hats is generally done by machine, in some cases a form of 
fulling mill being used; but in all forms the agencies are heat, 
moisture, pressure, rubbing and turning. 

When by thorough felting the hat bodies of any kind have been 
reduced to dense leathery cones about one-half the size of the original 
bat, they are dried, and, if hard felts are to be made, the bodies are 
at this stage hardened or stiffened with a varnish of shellac. Next 
follows the operations of blocking, in which the felt for the first time 
assumes approximately the form it is ultimately to possess. For 
this purpose the conical body is softened in boiling water, and 
forcibly drawn over and over a hat-shaped wooden block. The 
operation of dyeing next follows, and the finishing processes include 
shaping on a block, over which crown and brim receive ultimately 
their accurate form, and pouncing or pumicing, which consists of 
smoothing the surface with fine emery paper, the hat being for this 
purpose mounted on a rapidly revolving block. The trimmer finally 
binds the outer brim and inserts the lining, after which the brim 
may be given more or less of a curl or turn over according to pre- 
vailing fashion. 

Silk Huts. — The silk hat, which has now become co-extensive with 
civilization, is an article of comparatively recent introduction. It 
was invented in Florence about 1760, but it was more than half a 
century before it was worn to any great extent. 

A silk hat consists of a light stilt body covered with a plush of 
silk, the manufacture of which in a brilliant glossy condition is the 
most important element in the industry. Originally the bodies 
were made of felt and various other materials, but now calico is 
chiefly used. The calico is first stiffened with a varnish of shellac, 
and then cut into pieces sufficient for crown, side and brim. The 
side-piece is wound round a wooden hat block, and its edges are 

joined by hot ironing, and the crown-piece is put on and similarly 
attached to the side. The brim, consisting of three thicknesses of 
calico cemented together, is now slipped over and brought to its 
position, and thereafter a second side-piece and another crown are 
cemented on. The whole of the body, thus prepared, now receives 
a coat of size, and subsequently it is varnished over, and thus it is 
ready for the operation of covering. In covering this body, the 
under brim, generally of merino, is first attached, then the upper 
brim, and lastly the crown and side sewn together are drawn over. 
All these by hot ironing and stretching are drawn smooth and tight, 
and as the varnish of the body softens with the heat, body and cover 
adhere all over to each other without wrinkle or pucker. Dressing 
and polishing by means of damping, brushing and ironing, come 
next, after which the hat is " velured " in a revolving machine by 
the application of haircloth and velvet velures, which cleans the nap 
and gives it a smooth and glossy surface. The brim has only then to 
be bound, the linings inserted, and the brim finally curled, when 
the hat is ready for use. 

HATCH, EDWIN (1835-1889), English theologian, was born 
at Derby on the 14th of September 1835, and was educated at 
King Edward's school, Birmingham, under James Prince Lee, 
afterwards bishop of Manchester. He had many struggles to 
pass through in early life, which tended to discipline his character 
and to form the habits of severe study and the mental independ- 
ence for which he came to be distinguished. Hatch became 
scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford, took a second-class in 
classics in 1857, and won the Ellerton prize in 1858. He was 
professor of classics in Trinity College, Toronto, from 1859 to 
1862, when he became rector of the high school at Quebec. 
In 1867 he returned to Oxford, and was made vice-principal of 
St Mary Hall, a post which he held until 1885. In 1883 he was 
presented to the living of Purleigh in Essex, and in 1884 was 
appointed university reader in ecclesiastical history. In 1880 
he was Bampton lecturer, and from 1880 to 1884 Grinfield 
lecturer on the Septuagint. In 1883 the university of Edinburgh 
conferred on him the D.D. degree. He was the first editor of 
the university official Gazette (1870), and of the Student's Hand- 
book to the University. A reputation acquired through certain 
contributions to the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities was 
confirmed by his treatises On the Organization of the Early 
Christian Churches (1881, his Bampton lectures), and on The 
Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages on the Christian Churth 
(the Hibbert lectures for 1888). These works provoked no little 
criticism on account of the challenge they threw down to the 
high-church party, but the research and fairness displayed were 
admitted on all hands. The Bampton lectures were translated 
into German by Harnack. Among his other works are The 
Growth of Church Institutions (1887); Essays in Biblical Greek 
(1889); A Concordance to the Septuagint (in collaboration with 
H. A. Redpath); Towards Fields of Light (verse, 1889); The 
God of Hope (sermons with memoir, 1890). Hatch died on the 
10th of November 1889. 

An appreciation by W. Sanday appeared in The Expositor for 
February 1890. 

HATCH. 1. (In Mid. Eng. hacche; the word is of obscure 
origin, but cognate forms appear in Swed. hacka, and Dan. 
hackke; it has been connected with " hatch," grating, with 
possible reference to a coop, and with " hack " in the sense 
" to peck," of chickens coming out of the shell), to bring out 
young from the egg, by incubation or other process, natural or 
artificial. The word is also used as a substantive of a brood of 
chickens brought out from the eggs. " Hatchery " is particularly 
applied to a place for the hatching of fish spawn, where the 
natural process is aided by artificial means. In a figurative 
sense " to hatch " is often used of the development or contrivance 
of a plot or conspiracy. 

2. (From the Fr. hacker, to cut, hache, hatchet), to engrave 
or draw by means of cutting lines on wood, metal, &c, or to 
ornament by inlaying with strips of some other substance as 
gold or silver. Engraved lines, especially those used in shading, 
are called " hatches " or " hachures " (see Hachure). 

3. (O.E. hac, a gate, rack in a stable; found in various 
Teutonic languages; cf. Dutch hek, Dan. hekke; the ultimate 
origin is obscure; Skeat suggests a connexion with the root 
seen in " hook "), the name given to the lower half of a divided 



door, as in " buttery-hatch," the half-door leading from the 
buttery or kitchen, through which the dishes could be passed 
into the dining-hall. It was used formerly as another name for 
a ship's deck, and thus the phrase " under hatches " meant 
properly below deck; the word is now applied to the doors of 
grated framework covering the openings (the " hatchways ") 
which lead from one deck to another into the hold through 
which the cargo is lowered. In Cornwall the word is used to 
denote certain dams or mounds used to prevent the tin-washes 
and the water coming from the stream-works from flowing into 
the fresh rivers. 

HATCHET (adapted from the Fr. hachette, diminutive of hache, 
axe, hacher, to cut, hack), a small, light form of axe with a short 
handle (see Tool); for the war-hatchet of the North American 
Indians and the symbolical ceremonies connected with it see 

HATCHETTITE, sometimes termed Mountain Tallow, Mineral 
Adipocire, or Adipocerite, a mineral hydrocarbon occurring in 
the Coal-measures of Belgium and elsewhere, occupying in some 
cases the interior of hollow concretions of iron-ore, but more 
generally the cavities of fossil shells or crevices in the rocks. 
It is of yellow colour, and translucent, but darkens and becomes 
opaque on exposure. It has no odour, is greasy to the touch, and 
has a slightly glistening lustre. Its hardness is that of soft 
wax. The melting point is 46° to 47 C, and the composition is 
C. 85-55, H. 14-45. 

HATCHMENT, properly, in heraldry, an escutcheon or armorial 
shield granted for some act of distinction or " achievement," 
of which word it is a corruption through such forms as atcheament, 
achement, hachement, &c. " Achievement " is an adaptation 
of the Fr. achevcment, from achever, a chef venir, Lat. ad caput 
venire, to come to a head, or conclusion, hence accomplish, 
achieve. The term " hatchment " is now usually applied to 
funeral escutcheons or armorial shields enclosed in a black 
lozenge-shaped frame suspended against the wall of a deceased 
person's house. It is usually placed over the entrance at the 
level of the second floor, and remains for from six to twelve 
months, when it is removed to the parish church. ' This custom 
is falling into disuse, though still not uncommon. It is usual to 
hang the hatchment of a deceased head of a house at the univer- 
sities of Oxford and Cambridge over the entrance to his lodge 
or residence. 

If for a bachelor the hatchment bears upon a shield his arms, 
crest, and other appendages, the whole on a black ground. If 
for a single woman, her arms are represented upon a lozenge, 

bordered with knotted ribbons, 
also on a black ground. If the 
hatchment be for a married 
man (as in the illustration), his 
arms upon a shield impale those 
of his surviving wife; or if she 
be an heiress they are placed 
upon a scutcheon of pretence, 
and crest and other appendages 
are added. The dexter half of 
the ground is black, the sinister 
white. For a wife whose hus- 
band is alive the same arrange- 
ment is used, but the sinister 
ground only is black. For a 
- ^ug^j^f ^ ' ■" M " 1 " sdhr ) widower the same is used as 
f* |— WW IKqifpWJiH J for a married man, but the 

whole ground is black; for a 
widow the husband's arms are given with her own, but upon a 
lozenge, with ribbons, without crest or appendages, and the 
whole ground is black. When there have been two wives or 
two husbands the ground is divided into three parts per pale, 
and the division behind the arms of the survivor is white. 
Colours and military or naval emblems are sometimes placed 
behind the arms of military or naval officers. It is thus easy 
to discern from the hatchment the sex, condition and quality, 
and possibly the name of the deceased. 

In Scottish hatchments it is not unusual to place the arms 
of the father and mother of the deceased in the two lateral 
angles of the lozenge, and sometimes the 4, 8 or 16 genealogical 
escutcheons are ranged along the margin. 

HATFIELD, a town in the Mid or St Albans parliamentary 
division of Hertfordshire, England, 17I m. N. of London by the 
Great Northern railway. Pop. (1901), 4754. It lies picturesquely 
on the flank of a wooded hill, and about its foot, past which runs 
the Great North Road. The church of St Etheldreda, well 
situated towards the top of the hill, contains an Early English 
round arch with the dog-tooth moulding, but for the rest is 
Decorated and Perpendicular, and largely restored. The chapel 
north of the chancel is known as the Salisbury chapel, and was 
erected by Robert Cecil, first earl of Salisbury (d. 1612), who 
was buried here. It is in a mixture of classic and Gothic styles. 
In a private portion of the churchyard is buried, among others 
of the family, the third marquess of Salisbury (d. 1903). In the 
vicinity is Hatfield House, close to the site of a palace of the 
bishops of Ely, which was erected about the beginning of the 
1 2 th century. From this palace comes the proper form of the 
name of the town, Bishop's Hatfield. In 1538 the manor was 
resigned to Henry VIII. by Bishop Thomas Goodrich of Ely, 
in exchange for certain lands in Cambridge, Essex and Norfolk; 
and after that monarch the palace was successively the residence 
of Edward VI. immediately before his accession, of Queen 
Elizabeth during the reign of her sister Mary, and of James I. 
The last-named exchanged it in 1607 for Theobalds, near 
Cheshunt, in the same county, an estate of Robert Cecil, earl of 
Salisbury, in whose family Hatfield House has since remained. 
The west wing of the present mansion, built for Cecil in 1608- 
161 1, was destroyed by fire in November 1835, the dowager 
marchioness of Salisbury, widow of the 1st marquess, perishing 
in the flames. Hatfield House was built, and has been restored 
and maintained, in the richest style of its period, both without 
and within. The buildings of mellowed red brick now used as 
stables and offices are, however, of a period far anterior to Cecil's 
time, and are probably part of the erection of John Morton, 
bishop of Ely in 1478-1486. The park measures some 10 m. 
in circumference. From the eminence on which the mansion 
stands the ground falls towards the river Lea, which here expands 
into a small lake. Beyond this is a rare example of a monks' 
walled vineyard. In the park is also an ancient oak under 
which Elizabeth is said to have been seated when the news of her 
sister's death was brought to her. Brocket Park is another fine 
demesne, at the neighbouring village of Lemsford, and the 
Brocket chapel in Hatfield church contains memorials of the 
families who have held this seat. 

1881), lord chancellor of Great Britain, son of Sir Matthew 
Wood, a London alderman and lord mayor who became famous 
for befriending Queen Caroline and braving George IV., was born 
in London on the 29th of November i8or. He was educated 
at Winchester, Geneva University, and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he became a fellow after being 24th wrangler in 
1824. He entered Lincoln's Inn, and was called to the bar in 
1824, studying conveyancing in Mr John Tyrrell's chambers. 
He soon obtained a good practice as an equity draughtsman 
and before parliamentary committees, and in 1830 married 
Miss Charlotte Moor. In 1845 he became Q.C., and in 1847 was 
elected to parliament for the city of Oxford as a Liberal. In 
1849 he was appointed vice-chancellor of the county palatine 
of Lancaster, and in 185 1 was made solicitor-general and knighted, 
vacating that position in 1852. When his party returned to 
power in 1853, he was raised to the bench as a vice-chancellor. 
In 1868 he was made a lord justice of appeal, but before the end 
of the year was selected by Mr Gladstone to be lord chancellor, 
and was raised to the peerage as Lord Hatherley of Down 
Hatherley. He retired in 1872 owing to failing eyesight, but sat 
occasionally as a law lord. His wife's death in 1878 was a great 
blow, from which he never recovered, and he died in London 
on the 10th of July 1881. Dean Hook said that Lord Hatherley 
— who was a sound and benevolent supporter of the Church of 



England — was the best man he had ever known. He was a 
particularly clear-headed lawyer, and his judgments — always 
delivered extempore — commanded the greatest confidence both 
with the public and the legal profession. He left no issue and 
the title became extinct on his death. 

(1791-1863), was born 011 the 18th of March 1791 and was 
educated at Rugby school and at Brasenose College, Oxford. 
He was the only son of Moreton Walhouse of Hatherton, Stafford- 
shire; but in 181 2, in accordance with the will of his great-uncle 
Sir Edward Littleton, Bart. (d. 1812), he took the name of 
Littleton. From 181 2 to 1832 he was member of parliament for 
Staffordshire and from 1832 to 1835 for the southern division of 
that county, being specially prominent in the House of Commons 
as an advocate of Roman Catholic emancipation. In January 
1833, against his own wish, he was put forward by the Radicals 
as a candidate for the office of speaker, but he was not elected and 
in May 1833 he became chief secretary to the lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland in the ministry of Earl Grey. His duties in this capacity 
brought him frequently into conflict with O'Connell, but he was 
obviously unequal to the great Irishman, although he told his 
colleagues to " leave me to manage Dan." He had to deal with 
the vexed and difficult question of the Irish tithes on which the 
government was divided, and with his colleagues had to face the 
problem of a new coercion act. Rather hastily he made a 
compact with O'Connell on the assumption that the new act could 
not contain certain clauses which were part of the old act. 
The clauses, however, were inserted; O'Connell charged Littleton 
with deception; and in July 1834 Grey, Althorp (afterwards 
Earl Spencer) and the Irish secretary resigned. The two latter 
were induced to serve under the new premier, Lord Melbourne, 
and they remained in office until Melbourne was dismissed in 
November 1 834. In 1835 Littleton was created Baron Hatherton, 
and he died at his Staffordshire residence, Teddesley Hall, on the 
4th of May 1863. In 1888 his grandson, Edward George Littleton 
(b. 1842), became 3rd Baron Hatherton. 

See Hatherton's Memoirs and Correspondence relating to Political 
Occurrences, June-July 1834, edited by H. Reeve (1872) ; and Sir 
S. Walpole, History of England, vol. iii. (1890). 

HATHRAS, a town of British India, in the Aligarh district 
of the United Provinces, 29 m. N. of Agra. Pop. (1001), 42,578. 
At the end of the 18th century it was held by a Jat chieftain, 
whose ruined fort still stands at the east end of the town, and 
was annexed by the British in 1803, but insubordination on 
the part of the chief necessitated the siege of the fort in 181 7. 
Since it came under British rule, Hathras has rapidly risen to 
commercial importance, and now ranks second to Cawnpore 
among the trading centres of the Doab. The chief articles of 
commerce are sugar and grain, there are also factories for ginning 
and pressing cotton, and a cotton spinning-miil. Hathras is 
connected by a light railway with Muttra, and by a branch with 
Hathras junction, on the East Indain main line. 

HATTIESBURG, a city and the county-seat of Forrest county, 
Mississippi, U.S.A., on the Hastahatchce (or Leaf) river, about 
90 m. S.E. of Jackson. Pop. (1890) 1172; (1900) 4175 (1687 
negroes) ; (1910) 11,733. Hattiesburg is served by the Gulf &Ship 
Island, the .Mississippi Central, the New Orleans, Mobile & 
Chicago and the New Orleans & North Eastern railways. The 
officers and employees of the Gulf & Ship Island railway own and 
maintain a hospital here. The city is in a rich farming, truck- 
gardening and lumbering country. Among its manufactures 
are lumber (especially yellow-pine), wood-alcohol, turpentine, 
paper and pulp, fertilizers, wagons, mattresses and machine-shop 
products. Hattiesburg was founded about 1882 and was named 
in honour of the wife of \V. H. Hardy, a railway official, who 
planned a town at the intersection of the New Orleans & North- 
Eastern (which built a round house and repair shops here in 1885) 
and the Gulf & Ship Island railways. The latter railway was 
opened from Gulfport to Hattiesburg in January 1897, and from 
Hattiesburg to Jackson in September 1900. Hattiesburg was 
incorporated as a town in 1884 and was chartered as a cily in 
1899. Formerly the " court house " of the second judicial 

district of Perry county, Hattiesburg became on the ist of 
January 1908 the county-seat of Forrest county, erected from 
the W. part of Perry county. 

HATTINGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Westphalia, on the river Ruhr, 21 m. N.E. of Dusseldorf. 
Pop. (1900), 8975. It has two Evangelical and a Roman Catholic 
church. The manufactures include tobacco, and iron and steel 
goods. In the neighbourhood are the ruins of the Isenburg, 
demolished in 1 2 26. Hattingen, which received communal rights 
in 1396, was one of the Hanse towns. 

HATTO I. (c. 850-913), archbishop of Mainz, belonged to a 
Swabian family, and was probably educated at the monastery 
of Reichenau, of which be became abbot in 888. He soon became 
known to the German king, Arnulf, who appointed him arch- 
bishop of Mainz in 891; and he became such a trustworthy 
and confidential counsellor that he was popularly called " the 
heart of the king." He presided over the important synod at 
Tribur in 895, and accompanied the king to Italy in 894 and 
895, where he was received with great favour by Pope Formosus. 
In 899, when Arnulf died, Hatto became regent of Germany, and 
guardian of the young king, Louis the Child, whose authority 
he compelled Zwentibold, king of Lorraine, an illegitimate son of 
Arnulf, to recognize. During these years he did not neglect 
his own interests, for in 896 he secured for himself the abbey of 
Ellwangen and in 898 thatof Lorsch. He assisted the Franconian 
family of the Conradines in its feud with the Babenbergs, and 
was accused of betraying Adalbert, count of Babenbcrg, to 
death. He retained his influence during the whole of the reign 
of Louis; and on the king's death in 911 was prominent in 
securing the election of Conrad, duke of Franconia, to the 
vacant throne. When trouble arose between Conrad and Henry, 
duke of Saxony, afterwards King Henry the Fowler, the attitude 
of Conrad was ascribed by the Saxons to the influence of Hatto, 
who wished to prevent Henry from securing authority in Thur- 
ingia, where the see of Mainz had extensive possessions. He 
was accused of complicity in a plot to murder Duke Henry, who 
in return ravaged the archiepiscopal lands in Saxony and 
Thuringia. He died on the 15th of May 913, one tradition saying 
he was struck by lightning, and another that he was thrown alive 
by the devil into the crater of Mount Etna. His memory was 
long regarded in Saxony with great abhorrence, and stories of 
cruelty and treachery gathered round his name. The legend of 
the Mouse Tower at Bingen is connected with Hatto II., who 
was archbishop of Mainz from 968 to 970. This Hatto built . 
the church of St George on the island of Reichenau, was generous 
to the see of Mainz and to the abbeys of Fulda and Reichenau, 
and was a patron of the chronicler Regino, abbot of Prum. 

See E. Dummler, Geschichte des ostfrdnkischen Reichs (Leipzig, 
1887-1888); G. Phillips, Die grosse Synode von Tribur (Vienna, 
1865); J. Heidemann, Hatto I., Erzbischof von Mainz (Berlin, 1865); 
G. Waitz, Jahrbiicher der deutschen Geschichte unter Heinrich I. 
(Berlin and Leipzig, 1863); and J. F. Bohmer, Regesta archiepisco- 
porum Maguntinensium, edited by C. Will (Innsbruck, 1877-1886). 

HATTON, SIR CHRISTOPHER (1 540-1 591), lord chancellor of 
England and favourite of Queen Elizabeth, was a son of William 
Hatton (d. 1546) of Holdenby, Northamptonshire, and was 
educated at St Mary Hall, Oxford. A handsome and accom- 
plished man, being especially distinguished for his elegant 
dancing, he soon attracted the notice of Queen Elizabeth, became 
one of her gentlemen pensioners in 1564, and captain of her 
bodyguard in 1572. He received numerous estates and many 
positions of trust and profit from the queen, and suspicion was 
not slow to assert that he was Elizabeth's lover, a charge which 
was definitely made by Mary queen of Scots in 1584. Hatton, 
who was probably innocent in this matter, had been made vice- 
chamberlain of the royal household and a member of the privy 
council in 1578, and had been a member of parliament since 1571, 
first representing the borough of Higham Ferrers and afterwards 
the county of Northampton. In 1578 he was knighted, and was 
now regarded as the queen's spokesman in the House of Commons, 
being an active agent in the prosecutions of John Stubbs and 
William Parry. He was one of those who were appointed to 
arrange a marriage between Elizabeth and Francis, duke of 

6 4 


Alencon, in 15S1; was a member of the court which tried 
Anthony Babington in 1586; and was one of the commissioners 
who found Mary queen of Scots guilty. He besought Elizabeth 
not to marry the French prince; and according to one account 
repeatedly assured Mary that he would fetch her to London if 
the English queen died. Whether or no this story be true, 
Hatton's loyalty was not questioned; and he was the foremost 
figure in that striking scene in the House of Commons in December 
1584, when four hundred kneeling members repeated after him 
a prayer for Elizabeth's safety. Having been the constant 
recipient of substantial marks of the queen's favour, he vigor- 
ously denounced Alary Stuart in parliament, and advised William 
Davison to forward the warrant for her execution to Fother- 
ingay. In the same year (1587) Hatton was made lord chan- 
cellor, and although he had no great knowledge of the law, he 
appears to have acted with sound sense and good judgment in 
his new position. He is said to have been a Roman Catholic 
in all but name, yet he treated religious questions in a moderate 
and tolerant way. He died in London on the 20th of November 
1591, and was buried in St Paul's cathedral. Although mention 
has been made of a secret marriage, Hatton appears to have 
remained single, and his large and valuable estates descended 
to his nephew, Sir William Newport, who took the name of 
Hatton. Sir Christopher was a knight of the Garter and chan- 
cellor of the university of Oxford. Elizabeth frequently showed 
her affection for her favourite in an extravagant and ostentatious 
manner. She called him her mouton, and forced the bishop of 
Ely to give him the freehold of Ely Place, Holborn, which became 
his residence, his name being perpetuated in the neighbouring 
Hatton Garden. Hatton is reported to have been a very mean 
man, but he patronized men of letters, and among his friends 
was Edmund Spenser. He wrote the fourth act of a tragedy, 
Tancrcd and Gismund, and his death occasioned several pane- 
gyrics in both prose and verse. 

When Hatton's nephew, Sir William Hatton, died without 
sons in 1597, his estates passed to a kinsman, another Sir Christ- 
opher Hatton (d. 1619), whose son and successor, Christopher 
(c. 1605-1670), was elected a member of the Long Parliament in 
1640, and during the Civil War was a partisan of Charles I. 
In 1643 he was created Baron Hatton of Kirby; and, acting as 
comptroller of the royal household, he represented thekingduring 
the negotiations at Uxbridge in 1645. Later he lived for some 
years in France, and after the Restoration was made a privy 
councillor and governor of Guernsey. He died at Kirby on 
the 4th of July 1670, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
By his wife Elizabeth (d. 1672), daughter of Sir Charles Montagu 
of Boughton, he had two sons and three daughters. His eldest 
son Christopher (1632-1706), succeeded his father as Baron 
Hatton and also as governor of Guernsey in 1670. In 1683 he 
was created Viscount Hatton of Grendon. He was married three 
times, and left two sons: William (1690-1760), who succeeded 
to his father's titles and estates, and Henry Charles (c. 1700- 
1762), who enjoyed the same dignities for a short time after his 
brother's death. When Henry Charles died, the titles became 
extinct, and the family is now represented by the Finch-Hattons, 
earls of Winchilsea and Nottingham, whose ancestor, Daniel 
Finch. 2nd earl of Nottingham, married Anne (d. 1743), daughter 
of the 1st Viscount Hatton. 

See Sir N. H. Nicolas, Life and Tunes of Sir Christopher Hatton 
(London, 1847); and Correspondence of the Family of Hatton, being 
chiefly Letters addressed to Christopher, first Viscount Hatton, 1601- 
1704, edited with introduction by E. M. Thompson (London, 1878). 

HATTON, JOHN LIPTROT (1809-1886), English musical 
composer, was born at Liverpool on the 12th of October 1809. 
He was virtually a self-taught musician, and besides holding 
several appointments as organist in Liverpool, appeared as an 
actor on the Liverpool stage, subsequently finding his way to 
London as a member of Macready's company at Drury Lane 
in 1832. Ten years after this he was appointed conductor 
at the s une theatre for a series of Knglish operas, and in 1843 
his own first operetta, ()wc;i of tin: Thames, wasgiven with success. 
Staudigl. the eminent German bass, was a member of the com- 

pany, and at his suggestion Hatton wrote a more ambitious work, 
Pascal Bruno, which, in a German translation, was presented at 
Vienna, with Staudig! in the principal part; the opera con- 
tained a song, " Revenge," which the basso made very popular 
in England, though the piece as a whole was not successful 
enough to be produced here. Hatton's excellent pianoforte 
playing attracted much attention in Vienna; he took the 
opportunity of studying counterpoint under Sechter, and wrote 
a number of songs, obviously modelled on the style of German 
classics. In 1846 he appeared at the Hereford festival as a singer, 
and also played a pianoforte concerto of Mozart. He undertook 
concert tours about this time with Sivori, Vieuxtemps and others. 
From 1848 to 1850 he was in America; on his return he became 
conductor of the Glee and Madrigal Union, and from about 
1853 was engaged at the Princess's theatre to provide and con- 
duct the music for Charles Kean's Shakespearean revivals. He 
seems to have kept this apppointment for about five years. In 
1856 a cantata, Robin Hood, was given at the Bradford festival, 
and a third opera, Rose, or Love's Ransom, at Covent Garden in 
1864, without much success. In 1866 he went again to America, 
and from this year Hatton held the post of accompanist at the 
Ballad Concerts, St James's Hail, for nine seasons. In 1875 
he went to Stuttgart, and wrote an oratorio, Hezekiah, given 
at the Cyrstal Palace in 1877; like all his larger works it met 
with very moderate success. Hatton excelled in the lyricai 
forms of music, and, in spite of his distinct skill in the severer 
styles of the madrigal, &c, he won popularity by such songs as 
" To Anthea," " Good-bye, Sweetheart," and " Simon the 
Cellarer," the first of which may be called a classic in its own 
way. His glees and part-songs, such as " When Evening's 
Twilight," arc still reckoned among the best of their class; 
and he might have gained a place of higher distinction among 
English composers had it not been for his irresistible animal 
spirits and a want of artistic reverence, which made it uncertain 
in his younger days whether, when he appeared at a concert, 
he would play a fugue of Bach or sing a comic song. He died 
at Margate on the 20th of September 1886. 

HAUCH, JOHANNES CARSTEN (1790-1872), Danish poet, 
was born of Danish parents residing at Frederikshald in Norway, 
on the 12th of May 1790. In 1802 he lost his mother, and in 
1803 returned with his father to Denmark. In 1807 he fought 
as a volunteer against the English invasion. He entered the 
university of Copenhagen in 1808, and in 1821 took his doctor's 
degree. He became the friend and associate of Steffens and 
Oehlenschlager, warmly adopting the romantic views about 
poetry and philosophy. His first two dramatic poems, The 
Journey to Ginistan and The Power of Fancy, appeared in 1816, 
and were followed by a lyrical drama, Rosaura (181 7); but 
these works attracted little or no attention. Hauch therefore 
gave up all hope of fame as a poet, and resigned himself entirely 
to the study of science. He took his doctor's degree in zoology 
in 1821, and went abroad to pursue his studies. At Nice he 
had an accident which obliged him to submit to the amputation 
of one foot. He returned to literature, publishing a dramatized 
fairy tale, the Hamadryad, and the tragedies of Bajazet, Tiberius, 
Gregory VII., in 1828- 1829, The Death of Charles V. (1831), 
and The Siege of Maastricht (1832). These plays were violently 
attacked and enjoyed no success. Hauch then turned to novel- 
writing, and published in succession five romances — Vilhelm 
Zabern (1834); The Alchemist (1836); A Polish Family (1839); 
The iLastle on the Rhine (1845); and Robert Fulton (1853). 
In 1842 he collected his shorter Poems. In 1846 he was 
appointed professor of the Scandinavian languages in Kiel, 
but returned to Copenhagen when the war broke out in 1848. 
About this time his dramatic talent was at its height, and he 
produced one admirable tragedy after "another; among these 
may be mentioned Svend Grathe (1841); The Sisters at Kinne- 
kullc (1849); Marshal Stig (1850); Honour Lost and Won (1851); 
and Tycho Brake's Youth (1852). From 1858 to i860 Hauch 
was director of the Danish National Theatre; he produced 
three more tragedies — The King's Favourite (1859); Henry of 
Navarre (1863); and Julian the Apostate (1866). In 1861 he 


published another collection of Lyrical Poems and Romances; 
and in 1862 the historical epic of Valdemar Seir, volumes which 
contain his best work. From 1851, when he succeeded Oehlen- 
schl'ager, to his death, he held the honorary post of professor 
of aesthetics at the university of Copenhagen. He died in Rome 
in 1872. Hauch was one of the most prolific of the Danish 
poets, though his writings are unequal in value. His lyrics and 
romances in verse are always line in form and often strongly 
imaginative. In all his writings, but especially in his tragedies, 
he displays a strong bias in favour of what is mystical and 
supernatural. Of his dramas Marshal Stig is perhaps the best, 
and of his novels the patriotic tale of Vilkelm Zabem is admired 
the most. 

Seed. Brandes, " Carsten Hauch " (1873) in Danske Digtere (1877) ; 
F. Running, /. C. Hauch (1890), and in Dansk Biografisk-Lexicon, 
(vol. vii. Copenhagen, 1893). Hauch's novels were collected (1873- 
1874) and his dramatic works (3 vols., 2nd ed., 1852-1859). 

HAUER, FRANZ, Ritter von ( 1 82 2-1 899) , Austrian geologist, 
born in Vienna on the 30th of January 1822, was son of Joseph 
von Hauer (1778-1863), who was equally distinguished as a high 
Austrian official and authority on finance and as a palaeontologist. 
He was educated in Vienna, afterwards studied geology at 
the mining academy of Schemnitz (1839-1843), and for a time 
was engaged in official mining work in Styria. In 1846 he 
became assistant to W. von Haidinger at the mineralogical 
museum in Vienna; three years later he joined the imperial 
geological institute, and in 1866 he was appointed director. 
In 1886 he became superintendent of the imperial natural history 
museum in Vienna. Among his special geological works are 
those on the Cephalopoda of the Triassic and Jurassic formations 
of Alpine regions (1S55-1856). His most important general 
work was that of the Geological Map of Austro-Hungary, in 
twelve sheets (1867-1871; 4th ed., 1884, including Bosnia 
and Montenegro). This map was accompanied by a series of 
explanatory pamphlets. In 1S82 he was awarded the Wollaston 
medal by the Geological Society of London. In 1892 von Hauer 
became a life-member of the upper house of the Austrian parlia- 
ment. He died on the 20th of March 1899. 

Publication's. — Beitrage zur Palaontolographle von Osterreich 
(1858-1859); Die Ceologie und ihre Anwendung auf die Kenntnis 
der Bodenbeschaffenheit der iisterr .-ungar . Monarchic (1875; ed. 2, 

Memoir by Dr E. Tietze; Jahrbuch der K. K. geolog. Reichsanstalt 
(1899, reprinted 1900, with portrait). 

HAUFF, WILHELM (1802-1827),. German poet and novelist, 
was born at Stuttgart on the 29th of November 1802, the son 
of a secretary in the ministry of foreign affairs. Young Hauff 
lost his father when he was but seven years of age, and his early 
education was practically self-gained in the library of his maternal 
grandfather at Tubingen, to which place his mother had removed. 
In 1818 he was sent to the Klosterschule at Biaubeuren, whence 
he passed in 1820 to the university of Tubingen. In four years 
he completed his philosophical and theological studies, and on 
leaving the university became tutor to the children of the famous 
Wiirttemberg minister of war, General Baron Ernst Eugen von 
Hiigei (1774-1849), and for them wrote his Mdrchen, which he 
published in his Miirchcnalmanach auf das Jahr 1826. He also 
wrote there the first part of the M itteilungen aus den Memoir en 
des Satan (1826) and Der Mann im Monde (1825). The latter, 
a parody of the sentimental and sensual novels of II. Clauren 
(pseudonym of Karl Gottlieb Samuel Heun[i77i-i854]), became, 
in course of composition, a close imitation of that author's style 
and was actually published under his name. Clauren, in con- 
sequence, brought an action for damages against Hauff and 
gained his case. Whereupon Hauff followed up the •attack in 
his witty and sarcastic Konlroverspredigt tiber H. Clauren und 
den Mann im Monde (1826) and attained his original object — 
the moral annihilation of the mawkish and unhealthy literature 
with which Clauren was flooding the country. Meanwhile, 
animated by Sir Walter Scott's novels, Hauff wrote the historical 
romance Lichtenstein (1826), which acquired great popularity 
in Germany and especially in Swabia, treating as it did the 
most interesting period in the history of that country, the reign 


of Duke Ulrich (1487-1550). While on a journey to France, 
the Netherlands and north Germany he wrote the second part 
of the Memoir en des Satan and some short novels, among them 
the charming Bettlerin vom Pont des Arts and his masterpiece, 
the Phantasien im Bremer Ratskeller (1827). He also published 
some short poems "which have passed into Volkslieder, among 
them M or gen rot, Morgenrot, leuchtest mir zum fr till en Tod; 
and Stch' ich in finstrer Mitternacht. In January 1827, Hauff 
undertook the editorship of the Stuttgart Morgcnblatt and in 
the following month married, but his happiness was prematurely 
cut short by his death from fever on the 18th of November 1827. 

Considering his brief life, Hauff was an extraordinarily prolific 
writer. The freshness and originality of his talent, his inventive- 
ness, and his genial humour have won him a high place among the 
south German prose writers of the early nineteenth century. 

His Sdmtliche Werke were published, with a biography, by 
G. Schwab (3 vols., 1830-1834; 5 vols., 18th ed., 1882), and by 
F. Bobertag (1891-1897), and a selection by M. Mendheim (3 vols., 
1891). For his life cf. J. Klaiber, Wilhelm Hauff, ein Lcbensbild 
(1881); M. Mendheim, Hauff s Leben und Werke (1894); and 
H. Hofmann, W. Hauff (1902). 

HAUG, MARTIN (1827-1876), German Orientalist, was born 
at Ostdorf near Balingen, Wurttemberg, on the 30th of January 
1827. He became a pupil in the gymnasium at Stuttgart at a 
comparatively late age, and in 1848 he entered the university 
of Tubingen, where he studied Oriental languages, especially 
Sanskrit. He afterwards attended lectures in Gottingen, and 
in 1854 settled as Privatdozent at Bonn. In 1856 he removed 
to Heidelberg, where he assisted Bunsen in his literary under- 
takings; and in 1859 he accepted an invitation to India, where 
he became superintendent of Sanskrit studies and professor of 
Sanskrit in Poona. Here his acquaintance with the Zend 
language and literature afforded him excellent opportunities 
for extending his knowledge of this branch of literature. The 
result of his researches was a volume of Essays on the sacred 
language, writings and religion of the Parsees (Bombay, 1862). 
Having returned to Stuttgart in 1866, he was called to Munich 
as professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in 1868. 
He died on the 3rd of June 1876. 

Besides the Essays on the Parsees, of which a new edition, by 
E. W. West, greatly enriched from the posthumous papers of the 
author, appeared in 1878, Haug published a number of works of 
considerable importance to the student of the literatures of ancient 
India and Persia. They include Die Pehlevjisprache und der Bunde- 
hesch (1854); Die Schrift und Sprache der zweiten Keilschriftgattung 
(1855); Die fiinf Galhas, edited, translated and expounded (1858- 
1860); an edition, with translation and explanation, of the Aitareya 
Brahmana of the Rigveda (Bombay, 1863), which is accounted his 
best work in the province of ancient Indian literature; A Lecture 
on an original Speech of Zoroaster (1865); An old Zend-Pahlavi 
Glossary (1867); Uber den Character der Pehlewisprache (1869); 
Das 18. Kapitel des Wendidad (1869); Uber das Ardai-Viraf- 
nameh (1870) ; An old Pahlavi-Pazand Glossary (1870) ; and Vedische 
Rdtselfragen und Ratselspriiche (1875). 

For particulars of Haug's life and work, see A. Bezzenberger, 
Beitrage zur Kunde der indogermanischen Sprachen, vol. i. pp. 70 seq. 
HAUGE, HANS NIELSEN (1771-1824), Norwegian Lutheran 
divine, was born in the parish of Thuno, Norway, on the 3rd of 
April 1 771, the son of a peasant. With the aid of various 
religious works which he found in his father's house, he laboured 
to supplement his scanty education. In his twenty-sixth year, 
believing himself to be a divinely-commissioned prophet, he 
began to preach in his native parish and afterwards throughout 
Norway, calling people to repentance and attacking rationalism. 
In 1800 he passed to Denmark, where, as at home, he gained 
many followers and assistants, chiefly among the lower orders. 
Proceeding to Christiansand in 1804, Hauge set up a printing- 
press to disseminate his views more widely, but was almost 
immediately arrested for holding illegal religious meetings, 
and for insulting the regular clergy in his books, all of which 
were confiscated; he was also heavily fined. After being in 
confinement for some years, he was released in 1814 on payment 
of a fine, and retiring to an estate at Breddwill, near Christiania, 
he died there on the 29th of March 1824. His adherents, who 
did not formally break with the church, were called Haugianer 
or Leser (i.e. Readers). He unquestionably did much to revive 



the spiritual life of the northern Lutheran Church. His views 
were of a pietistic nature. Though he cannot be said to have 
rejected any article of the Lutheran creed, the peculiar emphasis 
which he laid upon the evangelical doctrines of faith and grace 
involved considerable antagonism to the rationalistic or sacerdotal 
views commonly held by the established clergy. 

Hauge's principal writings are Forsog til Afhandeling om Guds 
Visdom (1796); Anvisning til nogle mbrkelige Sprog i Bibelen 
(1798) ; Forklaring over Loven og Evangelium (1803). For an account 
of his life and doctrines see C. Bang's Hans Nielsen Hauge og hans 
Samtid (Christiania; 2nd ed., 1875); O. Rost, Nogle Bemaerkninger 
om Hans Nielsen Hauge og hans Reining (1883), and the article in 
Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie. 

HAUGESUND, a seaport of Norway in Stavanger ami (county), 
on the west coast, 34 m. N. by W. of Stavanger. Pop. (1900), 
7935. It is an important fishing centre. Herrings are exported 
to the annual value of £100,000 to £200,000, also mackerel and 
lobsters. The principal imports are coal and salt. There are 
factories for woollen goods and a margarine factory. Haugesund 
is the reputed death-place of Harald Haarfager, to whom an 
obelisk of red granite was erected in 1872 on the thousandth 
anniversary of his victory at the Hafsfjord (near Stavanger) 
whereby he won the sovereignty of Norway. The memorial 
stands ij m. north of the town, on the Haraldshaug, where the 
hero's supposed tombstone is shown. 

HAUGHTON, SAMUEL (1821-1897), Irish scientific writer, 
the son of James Haughton (1795-1873), was born at Carlow 
on the 21st of December 1821. His father, the son of a Quaker, 
but himself a Unitarian, was an active philanthropist, a strong 
supporter of Father Theobald Mathew, a vegetarian, and an 
anti-slavery worker and writer. After a distinguished career 
in Trinity College, Dublin, Samuel was elected a fellow in 1844. 
He was ordained priest in 1847, but seldom preached. In 1851 
he was appointed professor of geology in Trinity College, and 
this post he held for thirty years. He began the study of 
medicine in 1859, and in 1862 took the degree of M.D. in the 
university of Dublin. He was then made registrar of the 
Medical School, the status of which he did much to improve, 
and he represented the university on the General Medical 
Council from 1878 to 1896. He was elected F.R.S. in 1858, and 
in course of time Oxford conferred upon him the hon. degree 
of D.C.L., and Cambridge and Edinburgh that of LL.D. He 
was a man of remarkable knowledge and ability, and he 
communicated papers on widely different subjects to various 
learned societies and scientific journals in London and Dublin. 
He wrote on the laws of equilibrium and motion of solid and 
fluid bodies (1846), on sun-heat, terrestrial radiation, geological 
climates and on tides. He wrote also on the granites of Leinster 
and Donegal, and on the cleavage and joint-planes in the Old 
Red Sandstone of Waterford (1857-1858). He was president of 
the Royal Irish Academy from 1886 to 1891, and for twenty 
years he was secretary of the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland. 
He died in Dublin on the 31st of October 1897. 

Publications. — Manual of Geology (1865); Principles of Animal 
Mechanics (1873); Six Lectures on Physical Geography (1880). In 
conjunction with his friend, Professor J. Galbraith, he issued a 
scries of .Manuals of Mathematical and Physical Science. 

HAUGHTON, WILLIAM (fl. 1598), English playwright. He 
collaborated in many plays with Henry Chettle, Thomas Dekker, 
John Day and Richard Hathway. The only certain biographical 
information about him is derived from Philip Henslowe, who on 
the 10th of March 1600 lent him ten shillings " to release him 
out of the Clink." Mr Fleay credits him with a considerable 
share in The Patient Grissill (1599), and a merry comedy entitled 
English-Men for my Money, or A Woman will have, her Will 
(1598) is ascribed to his sole authorship. The Devil and his 
Dame, mentioned as a forthcoming play by Henslowe in March 
1600, is identified by Mr Fleay as Grim, the Collier of Croydon, 
which was printed in 1662. In this play an emissary is sent 
from the infernal regions to report on the conditions of married 
life on earth. 

Grim is reprinted in vol. viii., and English-Men for my Money in 
vol. x., of W. C. Hazlitt's edition of Dodsley's Old Plays. 


Count von, Freiherr von Krappitz (1752-1831), Prussian 
statesman, was born on the nth of June 1752, at Peucke near 
Ols. He belonged to the Silesian (Protestant) branch of the 
ancient family of Haugwitz, of which the Catholic branch is 
established in Moravia. He studied law, spent some time in 
Italy, returned to settle on his estates in Silesia, and in 1791 was 
elected by the Silesian estates general director of the province. 
At the urgent instance of King Frederick William II. he entered 
the Prussian service, became ambassador at Vienna in 1792 
and at the end of the same year a member of the cabinet at 

Haugwitz, who had attended the young emperor Francis II. 
at his coronation and been present at the conferences held at 
Mainz to consider the attitude of the German powers towards 
the Revolution, was opposed to the exaggerated attitude of the 
French SmigrSs and to any interference in the internal affairs of 
France. After the war broke out, however, the defiant temper 
of the Committee of Public Safety made an honourable peace 
impossible, while the strained relations between Austria and 
Prussia on the question of territorial " compensations " crippled 
the power of the Allies to carry the war to a successful conclusion. 
It was in these circumstances that Haugwitz entered on the 
negotiations that resulted in the subsidy treaty between Great 
Britain and Prussia, and Great Britain and Holland, signed at 
the Hague on the 19th of April 1794. Haugwitz, however, was 
not the man to direct a strong and aggressive policy; the 
failure of Prussia to make any effective use of the money supplied 
broke the patience of Pitt, and in October the denunciation by 
Great Britain of the Hague treaty broke the last tie that bound 
Prussia to the Coalition. The separate treaty with France, 
signed at Basel on the 5th of April 1795, was mainly due to the 
influence of Haugwitz. 

His object was now to save the provinces on the left bank of 
the Rhine from being lost to the Empire. No guarantee of their 
maintenance had been inserted in the Basel treaty; but Haug- 
witz and the king hoped to preserve them by establishing the 
armed neutrality of North Germany and securing its recognition 
by the French Republic. This policy was rendered futile by 
the victories of Napoleon Bonaparte and the virtual conquest 
of South Germany by the French. Haugwitz, who had con- 
tinued to enjoy the confidence of the new king, Frederick 
William III., recognized this fact, and urged his master to join 
the new Coalition'in 1798. But the king clung blindly to the 
illusion of neutrality, and Haugwitz allowed himself to be made 
the instrument of a policy of which he increasingly disapproved. 
It was not till 1803, when the king refused his urgent advice to 
demand the evacuation of Hanover by the French, that he 
tendered his resignation. In August 1804 he was definitely 
replaced by Hardenberg, and retired to his estates. 

In his retirement Haugwitz was still consulted, and he used 
all his influence against Hardenberg's policy of a rapprochement 
with France. His representations had little weight, however, 
until Napoleon's high-handed action in violating Prussian 
territory by marching troops through Ansbach, roused the anger 
of the king. Haugwitz was now once more appointed foreign 
minister, as Hardenberg's colleague, and it was he who was 
charged to carry to Napoleon the Prussian ultimatum which was 
the outcome of the visit of the tsar Alexander I. to Berlin in 
November. But in this crisis his courage failed him; his nature 
was one that ever let " I dare not wait upon I will "; he delayed 
his journey pending some turn in events and to give time for- 
the mobilization of the duke of Brunswick's army; he was 
frightened by reports of separate negotiations between Austria 
and Napoleon, not realizing that a bold declaration by Prussia 
would nip them in the bud. Napoleon, when at last they met, 
read him like a book and humoured his diplomatic weakness 
until the whole issue was decided at Austerlitz. On the 1 5th of 
December, instead of delivering an ultimatum, Haugwitz signed 
at Schonbrunn the treaty which gave Hanover to Prussia in 
return for Ansbach, Cleves and Neuchatel. 

The humiliation of Prussia and her minister was, however, 



not yet complete. In February 1806 Haugwitz went to Paris 
to ratify the treaty of Schonbrunn and to attempt to secure some 
modifications in favour of Prussia. He was received with a storm 
of abuse by Xapoleon, who insisted on tearing up the treaty and 
drawing up a fresh one, which doubled the amount of territory 
to be ceded by Prussia and forced her to a breach with Great 
Britain by binding her to close the Hanoverian ports to British 
commerce. The treaty, signed on the 15th of February, left 
Prussia wholly isolated in Europe. What followed belongs to 
the history of Europe rather than to the biography of Haugwitz. 
He remained, indeed, at the head of the Prussian ministry of 
foreign affairs, but the course of Prussian policy it was beyond his 
power to control. The Prussian ultimatum to Napoleon was 
forced upon him by overwhelming circumstances, and with 
the battle of Jena, on the 14th of October, his political career 
came to an end. He accompanied the flight of the king into East 
Prussia, there took leave of him and retired to his Silesian estates. 
In 181 1 he was appointed Curator of the university of Breslau; 
in 1820, owing to failing health, he went to live in Italy, where 
he remained till his death at Venice in 1831. 

Haugwitz was a man of great intellectual gifts, of dignified 
presence and a charming address which endeared him to his 
sovereigns and his colleagues; but as a statesman he failed, 
not through want of perspicacity, but through lack of will power 
and a fatal habit of procrastination. During his retirement 
in Italy he wrote memoirs in justification of his policy, a fragment 
of which dealing with the episode of the treaty of Schonbrunn 
was published at Jena in 1837. 

See J. von Minutoli, Der Graf von Haugwitz und Job von Witzleben 
(Berlin, 1844); L. von Ranke, Hardenberg u. d. Gesch. des preuss. 
Staales (Leipzig, 1879-1881"), note on Haugwitz's memoirs in vol. ii. ; 
Denkwiirdigkeiten des Staatskanzlers Fiirsten von Hardenberg, ed. 
Ranke (5 vols., Leipzig, 1877); A. Sorel, L'Europe et la Revol. 
Franc., passim. 

HAUNTINGS (from " to haunt," Fr. hanter, of uncertain 
origin, but possibly from Lat. ambitare, ambire, to go about, 
frequent), the supposed manifestations of existence by spirits 
of the dead in houses or places familiar to them in life. The 
savage practice of tying up the corpse before burying it is clearly 
intended to prevent the dead from " walking "; and cremation, 
whether in savage lands or in classical times, may have originally 
had the same motive. The " spirit " manifests himself, as a 
rule, cither in his bodily form, as when he lived, or in the shape 
of some animal, or by disturbing noises, as in the case of the 
poltergeist (q.v.). Classical examples occur in Plautus {M o stel- 
lar ia), Lucian (P/iilopseudes), Pliny, Suetonius, St Augustine, 
St Gregory, Plutarch and elsewhere, while Lucretius has his 
theory of apparitions of the dead. He does not deny the fact; 
he explains it by " films " diffused from the living body and 
persisting in the atmosphere. 

A somewhat similar hypothesis, to account for certain alleged 
phenomena, was invented by Mr Edmund Gurney. Some 
visionary appearances in haunted houses do not suggest the idea 
of an ambulatory spirit, but rather of the photograph of a past 
event, impressed we know not how on we know not what. In 
this theory there is no room for the agency of spirits of the dead. 
The belief in hauntings was naturally persistent through the 
middle ages, and example and theory abound in the Loca infesta 
(Cologne, 150S) of Petrus Thyraeus, S.J.; Wierius (c. 1560), 
in I)c pracsligiis dacmonum, is in the same tale. According 
to Thyraeus, hauntings appeal to the senses of sight, hearing 
and touch. The auditory phenomena are mainly thumping 
noises, sounds of footsteps, laughing and moaning. Rackets 
in general are caused by lares domeslici (" brownies ") or the 
Poltergeist. In the tactile way ghosts push the living; " I have 
been thrice pushed by an invisible power," writes the Rev. 
Samuel Wesley, in 1717, in his narrative of the disturbances at 
his rectory at Epworth. Once he was pushed against the corner 
of his desk in the study; once up against the door of the matted 
chamber; and, thirdly, " against the right-hand side of the 
frame of my study door, as I was going in." We have thus 
Protestant corroboration of the statement of the learned 

Thyraeus raises the question, Are the experiences hallucina- 
tory? Did Mr Wesley (to take his case) receive a mere halluci- 
natory set of pushes? Was the hair of a friend of the writer's, 
who occupied a haunted house, only pulled in a subjective 
way ? Thyraeus remarks that, in cases of noisy phenomena, 
not all persons present hear them ; and, rather curiously, Mr 
Wesley records the same experience; he sometimes did not 
hear sounds that seemed violently loud to his wife and family, 
who were with him at prayers. Thyraeus says that, as collective 
hallucinations of sight are rare — all present not usually seeing 
the apparition — so audible phenomena are not always ex- 
perienced by all persons present. In such cases, he thinks that 
the sights and sounds have no external cause, he regards the 
sights and sounds as delusions — caused by spirits. This is a 
difficult question. He mentions that we hear all the furniture 
being tossed about (as Sir Walter and Lady Scott heard it at 
Abbotsford; see Lockhart's Life, v. 311-315). Yet, on inspec- 
tion, we find all the -furniture in its proper place. There is 
abundant evidence to experience of this phenomenon, which 
remains as inexplicable as it was in the days of Thyraeus. When 
the sounds are heard, has the atmosphere vibrated, or has the 
impression only been made on " the inner ear " ? In reply, 
Mr. Procter, who for sixteen years (1831-1847) endured the 
unexplained disturbances at Willington Mill, avers that the 
material objects on which the knocks appeared to be struck 
did certainly vibrate (see Poltergeist). Is then the felt 
vibration part of the hallucination? 

As for visual phenomena, " ghosts," Thyraeus does not regard 
them as space-filling entities, but as hallucinations imposed by 
spirits on the human senses; the spirit, in each case, not being 
necessarily the soul of the dead man or woman whom the 
phantasm represents. 

In the matter of alleged hauntings, the symptoms, the pheno- 
mena, to-day, are exactly the same as those recorded by Thyraeus. 
The belief in them is so far a living thing that it greatly lowers 
the letting value of a house when it is reported to be haunted. 
(An action for libelling a house as haunted was reported in the 
London newspapers of the 7th of March 1907). It is true that 
ancient family legends of haunts are gloried in by the inheritors 
of stately homes in England, or castles in Scotland, and to 
discredit the traditional ghost — in the days of Sir Walter Scott 
— was to come within measurable distance of a duel. But the 
time-honoured phantasms of old houses usually survive only in 
the memory of " the oldest aunt telling the saddest tale."' Their 
historical basis can no more endure criticism than does the family 
portrait of Queen Mary, — signed by Medina about 1750-^1770, 
and described by the family as " given to our ancestor by the 
Queen herself." After many years' experience of a baronia) 
dwelling credited with seven distinct and separate phantasms, 
not one of which was ever seen by hosts, guests or domestics, 
scepticism as regards traditional ghosts is excusable. Legend 
reports that they punctually appear on the anniversaries of their 
misfortunes, but no evidence of such punctuality has been 

The Society for Psychical Research has investigated hundreds 
of cases of the alleged haunting of houses, and the reports are 
in the archives of the society. But, as the mere rumour of a 
haunt greatly lowers the value of a house, it is seldom possible 
to publish the names of the witnesses, and hardly ever permitted 
to publish the name of the house. From the point of view of 
science this is unfortunate (see Proceedings S.P.R. vol. vidi. 
pp. 311-332 and Proceedings of 1882-1883, 1883-1884). As 
far as inquiry had any results, they were to the following effect. 
The spectres were of the most shy and fugitive kind, seen now by 
one person, now by another, crossing a room, walking along 1 , 
corridor, and entering chambers in which, on inspection, they were 
not found. There was almost never any story to account for the 
appearances, as in magazine ghost-stories, and, if story there 
were, it lacked evidence. Recognitions of known dead persons 
were infrequent ; occasionally there was recognition of a portrait 
in the house. The apparitions spoke in only one or two recorded 
cases, and, as a rule, seemed to have no motive for appearing. 



The " ghost " resembles nothing so much as a somnambulist, 
or the dream-walk of one living person made visible, telepathic- 
ally, to another living person. Almost the only sign of conscious- 
ness given by the appearances is their shyness; on being spoken 
to or approached they generally vanish. Not infrequently they 
are taken, at first sight, for living human beings. In darkness 
they are often luminous, otherwise they would be invisible ! 
Unexplained noises often, but not always, occur in houses where 
these phenomena are perceived. E vi dence is only good , approxi- 
mately, when a series of persons, in the same house, behold the 
same appearance, without being aware that it has previously 
been seen by others. Naturally it it almost impossible to prove 
this ignorance. 

When inquirers believe that the appearances are due to the 
agency of spirits of the dead, they usually suppose the method 
to be a telepathic impact on the mind of the living by some 
" mere automatic projection from a consciousness which has its 
centre elsewhere " (Myers, Proceedings S.P.R. vol. xv. p. 64). 
Myers, in Human Personality, fell back on " palaeolithic psycho- 
logy," and a theory of a phantasmogenetic agency producing a 
phantasm which had some actual relation to space. But space 
forbids us to give examples of modern experiences in haunted 
houses, endured by persons sane, healthy and well educated. 
The cases, abundantly offered in Proceedings S. P.R., suggest that 
certain localities, more than others, are " centres of permanent 
possibilities of being hallucinated in a manner more or less 
uniform." The causes of this lact (if causes there be, beyond a 
casual hallucination or illusion of A, which, when reported, 
begets by suggestion, or, when not reported, by telepathy, 
hallucinations in B, C, D and E), remain unknown {Proceedings 
S.P.R. vol. viii. p. 133 et seq.). Mr Podmore proposed this 
hypothesis of causation, which was not accepted by Myers; 
he thought that the theory laid too heavy a burden on telepathy 
and suggestion. Neither cause, nor any other cause of similar 
results, ever affects members of the S.P.R. who may be sent to 
dwell in haunted houses. They have no weird experiences, 
except when they are visionaries who see phantoms wherever. 
they go. (A. L.) 

HAUPT, MORITZ (1808-1874), German philologist, was born 
at Zittau, in Lusatia, on the 27th of July 1808. His early 
education was mainly conducted by his father, Ernst Friedrich 
Haupt, burgomaster of Zittau, a man of good scholarly attain- 
ment, who used to take pleasure in turning German hymns or 
Goethe's poems into Latin, and whose memoranda were employed 
by G. Freytag in the 4th volume of his Bilder aus der deutschen 
Vergangenheit. From the Zittau gymnasium, where he spent 
the five years 1821-1826, Haupt removed to the university of 
Leipzig with the intention of studying theology; but the natural 
bent of his mind and the influence of Professor G. Hermann soon 
turned all his energies in the direction of philosophy. On the 
close of his university course (1830) he returned to his father's 
house, and the next seven years were devoted to quiet work, not 
only at Greek, Latin and German, but at Old French, Provencal 
and Bohemian. He formed with Lachmann at Berlin a friendship 
which had great effect on his intellectual development. In 
September 1837 he " habilitated " at Leipzig as Privatdozent, 
and his first iectures, dealing with such diverse subjects as 
Catullus and the Nibelungenlied, indicated the twofold direction 
of his labours. A new chair of German language and literature 
being founded for his benefit, he became professor extraordinarius 
(1841) and then professor ordinarius (1843); and in 1842 he 
married Louise Hermann, the daughter of his master and col- 
league. But the peaceful and prosperous course opening out 
before him at the university of Leipzig was brought to a sudden 
close. Having taken part in 1849 with Otto Jahn and Theodor 
Mommsen in a political agitation for the maintenance of the 
imperial constitution, Haupt was deprived of his professorship 
by a decree of the 22nd of April 185T. Two years later, however, 
he was called to succeed Lachmann at the university of Berlin; 
and at the same time the Berlin academy, which had made him 
a corresponding member in 1841, elected him an ordinary 
member. For twenty-one years he continued to hold a prominent 

place among the scholars of the Prussian capital, making his 
presence felt, not only by the prestige of his erudition and the 
clearness of his intellect, but by the tirelessness of his energy 
and the ardent fearlessness of his temperament. He died, of 
heart disease, on the 5th of February 1874. 

Haupt's critical work is distinguished by a happy union of the 
most painstaking investigation with intrepidity of conjecture, and 
while in his lectures and addresses he was frequently carried away 
by the excitement of the moment, and made sharp and questionable 
attacks on his opponents, in his writings he exhibits great self- 
control. The results of mariy of his researches are altogether lost, 
because he could not be prevailed upon to publish what fell much 
short of his own high ideal of excellence. To the progress of classical 
scholarship he contributed by Quaestiones Catullianae (1837), 
Observationes criticae (1841), and editions of Ovid's Halieutica 
and the Cynegctica of Gratius and Ncmesianus (1838), of Catullus, 
Tibullus and Propertius (3rd ed., 1868), of Horace (3rd ed., 1871) 
and of Virgil (2nd ed., 1873). As early as 1836, with Hoffmann 
von Fallersleben, he started the Altdeutsche Blatter, which in 1841 
gave place to the Zeitschrift fur deutsches A Iter turn, of which he 
continued editor till his death. Hartmann von Aue's Erec (1839) 
and his Lieder, Biichlein and Der arme Heinrich (1842), Rudolf 
von Ems's Guter Gerhard (1840) and Conrad von Wiirzburg's 
Engelhard (1844) are the principal German works which he edited. 
To form a collection of the French songs of the 16th century was 
one of his favourite schemes, but a little volume published after his 
death, Franzosische Volkslieder (1877), is the only monument of 
his labours in that direction. Three volumes of his Opuscula were 
published at Leipzig (1875-1877). 

See Kirchhoff, " Gedachtnisrede," in Abhandl. der Konigl. Akad. 
der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (1875); Otto Belger, Moritz Iiaupt als 
Lchrer (1879); Sandys, Hist. Class. Schol. iii. (1908). 

HAUPTMANN, GERHART (1862- ), German dramatist, 
was born on the 15th of November 1862 at Obersalzbrunn in 
Silesia, the son of an hotel-keeper. From the village school of 
his native place he passed, to the Realschule in Breslau, and was 
then sent to learn agriculture on his uncle's farm at Jauer. 
Having, however, no taste for country life, he soon returned to 
Breslau and entered the art school, intending to become a 
sculptor. He then studied at Jena, and spent the greater part 
of the years 1883 and 1884 in Italy. In May 1885 Hauptmann 
married and settled in Berlin, and, devoting himself henceforth 
entirely to literary work, soon attained a great reputation as 
one of the chief representatives of the modern drama. In 1891 
he retired to Schreiberhau in Silesia. Hauptmann's first drama, 
Vor Sonnenaufgang (1889) inaugurated the realistic movement 
in modern German literature; it was followed by Das Friedens- 
fesl (1890), Einsame Menschen (1891) and Die Weber (r8g2), a 
powerful drama depicting the rising of the Silesian weavers in 
1844. Of Hauptmann's subsequent work mention may be 
made of the comedies Kollege Crampton (1892), Der Biberpeh 
(1893) and Der rote Hahn (1901), a " dream poem," Hannele 
(1893), and an historical drama Florian Geyer (1895). He also 
wrote two tragedies of Silesian peasant life, Fuhrmann Henschel 
(1898) and Rose Berndt (1903), and the " dramatic fairy-tales " 
Die vcrsunkene Glocke (1897) and Und Pippa tanzt (1905). 
Several of his works have been translated into English. 

Biographies of Hauptmann and critical studies of his dramas 
have been published by A. Bartels (1897); P. Schlenther (1898); 
and U. C. Woerner (2nd ed., 1900). See also L. Benoist-Hanappier, 
Le Drame naturaliste en Allemagne (1905). 

HAUPTMANN, MORITZ (1792-1868), German musical com- 
poser and writer, was born at Dresden, on the 13th of October 
1792, and studied music under Scholz, Lanska, .Grosse and 
Morlacchi, the rival of Weber. Afterwards he completed his 
education as a violinist and composer under Spohr, and till 1820 
held various appointments in private families, varying his 
musical occupations with mathematical and other studies 
bearing chiefly on acoustics and kindred subjects. For a time 
also Hauptmann was employed as an architect, but all other - 
pursuits gave place to music, and a grand tragic opera, Mathilde, 
belongs to the period just referred to. In 1822 he entered the 
orchestra of Cassel, again under Spohr's direction, and it was then 
that he first taught composition and musical theoryto such men 
as Ferdinand David, Burgm tiller, Kiel and others. His com- 
positions at this time chiefly consisted of motets, masses, can- 
tatas and songs. His opera Mathilde was performed at Cassel 



with great success. In 1842 Hauptmann obtained the position 
of cantor at the Thomas-school of Leipzig (long previously 
occupied by the great Johann Sebastian Bach) together with 
that of professor at the conservatoire, and it was in this capacity 
that his unique gift as a teacher developed itself and was acknow- 
ledged by a crowd of enthusiastic and more or less distinguished 
pupils. He died on the 3rd of January 1868, and the universal 
regret felt at his death at Leipzig is said to have been all but 
equal to that caused by the loss of his friend Medelssohn many 
years before. Hauptmann's compositions are marked by 
symmetry and perfection of workmanship rather than by 
spontaneous invention. 

Amongst his vocal compositions — by far the most important 
portion of his work — may be mentioned two masses, choral songs 
for mixed voices (Op. 32, 47), and numerous part songs. The re- 
sults of his scientific research were embodied in his book Die Nalur 
der Harmonik und Metrik (1853), a standard work of its kind, in 
which a philosophic explanation of the forms of music is attempted. 

HAUREAU, (JEAN) BARTH^LEMY (1812-1896), French 
historian and miscellaneous writer, was born in Paris. At the 
age of twenty he published a series of apologetic studies on the 
Montagnards. In later years he regretted the youthful enthu- 
siasm of these papers, and endeavoured to destroy the copies. 
He joined the staff of the National, and was praised by Theophile 
Gautier as the " tribune " of romanticism. At that time he 
seemed to be destined to a political career, and, indeed, after 
the revolution of the 24th of February 1848 was elected member 
of the National Assembly; but close contact with revolutionary 
men and ideas gradually cooled his old ardour. Throughout 
his life he was an enemy to innovators, not only in politics and 
religion, but also in literature. This attitude sometimes led 
him to form unjust estimates, but only on very rare occasions, 
for his character was as just as his erudition was scrupulous. 
After the coup d'etat he resigned his position as director of the 
MS. department of the Bibliotheque Nationale, to which he had 
been appointed in 1848, and he refused to accept any adminis- 
trative post until after the fall of the empire. After having acted 
as director of the national printing press from 1870 to 1881, he 
retired, but in 1893 accepted the post of director of the Fondation 
Thiers. __ He was also a member of the council of improvement 
of the Ecole des Chartes. He died on the 29th of April 1896. 
For over half a century he was engaged in writing on the religious, 
philosophical, and more particularly the literary history of the 
middle ages. Appointed librarian of the town of Lc Mans in 
183S, he was first attracted by the history of Maine, and in 1843 
published the first volume of his Histoire litteraire dn Maine 
(4 vols., 1843-1852), which he subsequently recast on a new plan 
(10 vols.. 1870-1S77). In 1845 he brought out an edition of 
vol. ii. of G. Menage's Histoire dc Sable. He then undertook 
the continuation of the Gallia Christiana, and produced vol. xiv. 
(1856) for the province of Tours, vol. xv. (1862) for the province 
of Besancon, and vol. xvi. (1865-1870) for the province of Vienne. 
This important work gained him admission to the Academie des 
Inscriptions et Belles-Let tres (1862). In the Notices et cxtraits 
des manuscrits he inserted several papers which were afterwards 
published separately, with additions and corrections, under the 
title Notices et cxtraits de quelques manuscrits dc la Bibliotheque 
Nationale (6 vols., 1890-1893). To the Histoire litteraire de la 
France he contributed a number of studies, among which must 
be mentioned that relating to the sermon-writers (vol. xxvi., 
1873), whose works, being often anonymous, raise many problems 
of attribution, and, though deficient in orginalitv^ of thought 
and style, reflect the very spirit of the middle ages. Among his 
other works mention must be made of his remarkable Histoire 
de la philosophic scolastique (1872-1880), extending from the 
time of Charlemagne to the 13th century, which was expanded 
from a paper crowned by the Academic des Sciences Morales et 
Politiques in 1S50; Lcs Melanges poetiques d'Hildcbcrl de Lavardin 
(1882); an edition of the Works of Hugh of St Victor (1886); a 
critical study of the Latin poems attributed to St Bernard 
(iSqo); and Bernard Delicieux el I'inquisition albigeoise (1877). 
To these must be added his contributions to the Dictionnairc des 
sciences philosophiqiics, Didot's Biographic generate, the Biblio- 

theque de V Ecole des Chartes, and the Journal des savants. From 
the time of his appointment to the Bibliotheque, Nationale up 
to the last days of his life he was engaged in 'making abstracts 
of all the medieval Latin writings (many anonymous or of 
doubtful attribution) relating to philosophy, theology, grammar, 
canon law, and poetry, carefully noting on cards the first words 
of each passage. After his death this index of incipits, arranged 
alphabetically, was presented to the Academie des Inscriptions, 
and a copy was placed in the MS. department of the Bibliotheque 

Sec^ obituary notice read by Henri Wallon at a meeting of the 
Academie des Inscriptions on the 12th of November 1897; and the 
notice by Paul Meyer prefixed to vol. xxxiii. of the Histoire litteraire 
de la France. 

HAUSA, sometimes incorrectly written Haussa, Houssa or 
Haoussa, a people inhabiting about half a million square miles 
in the western and central Sudan from the river Niger in the 
west to Bornu in the east. Heinrich Barth identifies them with 
the Atarantians of Herodotus. According to their own traditions 
the earliest home of the race was the divide between the Sokoto 
and Chad basins, and more particularly the eastern watershed, 
whence they spread gradually westward. In the middle ages, 
to which period the first authentic records refer, the Hausa, 
though never a conquering race, attained great political power. 
They were then divided into seven states known as " Hausa 
bokoy " (" the seven Hausa ") and named Biram, Daura, Gober, 
Kano, Rano, Katsena and Zegzeg, after the sons of their legendary 
ancestor. This confederation extended its authority over many 
of the neighbouring countries, and remained paramount till 
the Fula under Sheikh Dan Fodio in 1810 conquered the Hausa 
states and founded the Fula empire of Sokoto (see Fula). 

The Hausa, who number upwards of 5,000,000, form the most 
important nation of the central Sudan. They are undoubtedly 
nigritic, though in places with a strong crossing of Fula and 
Arab blood. Morally and intellectually they are, however, 
far superior to the typical Negro. They are a powerful, heavily 
built race, with skin as black as most Negroes, but with lips not 
so thick nor hair so woolly. They excel in physical strength. 
The average Hausa will carry on his head a load of ninety or a 
hundred pounds without showing the slightest signs of fatigue 
during a long day's march. When carrying their own goods 
it is by no means uncommon for them to take double this weight. 
They are a peaceful and industrious people, living partly in 
farmsteads amid their crops, partly in large trading centres 
such as Kano, Katsena and Yakoba (Bauchi). They are 
extremely intelligent and even cultured, and have exercised a 
civilizing effect upon their Fula conquerors to whose oppressive 
rule they submitted. They are excellent agriculturists, and, 
almost unaided by foreign influence, they have developed a 
variety of industries, such as the making of cloth, mats, leather 
and glass. In Sierra Leone and the Gold Coast territory they 
form the backbone of the military police, and under English 
leadership have again and again shown themselves to be admir- 
able fighters and capable of a high degree of discipline and good 
conduct. Their food consists chiefly of guinea corn (sorghum 
vulgare), which is ground up and eaten as a sort of porridge 
mixed with large quantities of red pepper. The Hausa attribute 
their superiority in strength to the fact that they live on guinea 
corn instead of yams and bananas, which form the staple food of 
the tribes on the river Niger. The Hausa carried on agriculture 
chiefly by slave labour; they are themselves born traders, 
and as such are to be met with in almost every part of Africa 
north of the equator. Small colonies of them are to be foundin 
towns as far distant from one another as Lagos, Tunis, Tripoli, 
Alexandria and Suakin. 

Language. — The Hausa language has a wider range over Africa 
north of the equator, south of Burbary and west of the valley of the 
Nile, than any other tongue. It is a rich sonorous language, with a 
vocabulary containing perhaps 10,000 words. As an example of 
the richness of the vocabulary Bishop Crowther mentions that there 
are eight names for different parts of the day from cockcrow till 
after sunset. About a third of the words are connected with Arabic 
roots, nor arc these such as the Hausa could well have borrowed in 
anything like recent times from the Arabs. Many words representing 




ideas or things with which the Hausa must have been familiar 
from the very earliest time are obviously connected with Arabic or 
Semitic roots. There is a certain amount of resemblance between 
the Hausa language and that spoken by the Berbers to the south of 
Tripoli and Tunis. This language, again, has several striking points 
of resemblance with Coptic. If, as seems likely, the connexion 
between these three languages should be demonstrated, such con- 
nexion would serve to corroborate the Hausa tradition that their 
ancestors came from the very far east away beyond Mecca. The 
Hausa language has been reduced to writing for at least a century, 
possibly very much longer. It is the only language in tropical 
Africa which has been reduced to writing by the natives themselves, 
unless the Vai alphabet, introduced by a native inventor in the 
interior of Liberia in the first half of the 19th century be excepted; 
the character used is a modified form of Arabic. Some fragments of 
literature exist, consisting of political and religious poems, together 
with a limited amount of native history. A volume, consisting of 
history and poems reproduced in facsimile, with translations, has 
been published by the Cambridge University Press. 

Religion. — About one-third of the people are professed Mahom- 
medans, one-third are heathen, and the remainder have apparently 
no definite form of religion. Their Mahommedanism dates from the 
14th century, but became more general when the Fula sheikh Dan 
Fodio initiated the religious war which ended in the founding of the 
Fula empire. Ever since then the ruler of Sokoto has been acknow- 
ledged as the religious head of the whole country, and tribute has 
been paid to him as such. The Hausa who profess Mahommedanism 
are extremely ignorant of their own faith, and what little religious 
fanaticism exists is chiefly confined to the Fula. Large numbers of 
the Hausa start every year on the pilgrimage to Mecca, travelling 
sometimes across the Sahara desert and by way of Tripoli and Alex- 
andria, sometimes by way of Wadai, Darfur, Khartum and Suakin. 
The journey often occupies five or six years, and is undertaken quite 
as much from trading as from religious motives. Mahommedanism 
is making very slow, if any, progress amongst the Hausa. The 
greatest obstacle to its general acceptance is the institution of the 
Ramadan fast. In a climate so hot as that of Hausaland, the 
obligation to abstain from food and drink from sunrise to sunset 
during one month in the year is a serious difficulty. Until the last 
decade of the 19th century no important attempt had been made to 
introduce Christianity, but the fact that the Hausa are fond of read- 
ing, and that native schools exist in all parts of the country, should 
greatly facilitate the work of Christian missionaries. 

Bibliography. — El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny, Account of 
Timbuctoo and Haussa Territories (1820) ; Norris, Dialogues and part 
of the New Testament in the English, Arabic, Haussa and Bornu 
Languages (1853); Koelle, Polyglotta Africana (1854); Schon, 
Grammar of the Hausa Language (London, 1862), Hausa Reading 
Book (1877), and also A Dictionary of the Hausa Language (1877). 
Schon has also produced Hausa translations of Gen. (1858), Matt. 
(1857) and Luke (1858). Heinrich Barth, Travels in North and 
Central Africa (2 vols., London, 1857); Central-afrikanische Vokabu- 
larien (Gotha, 1867) ; C. H. Robinson, Hausaland, or Fifteen Hundred 
Miles through the Central Soudan (1896); Specimens of Hausa 
Literature (1896); Hausa Grammar (1897); Hausa Dictionary 
(1 899) ; P. L. Monteil, De St-Lonis & Tripoli par le lac Tchad (Paris, 
1895) ; Lt. Seymour Vandeleur, Campaigning on the Upper Nile and 
Niger (1898J. 

HAUSER, KASPAR, a German youth whose life was re- 
markable from the circumstances of apparently inexplicable 
mystery in which it was involved. He appeared on the 26th of 
May 1828. in the streets of Nuremberg, dressed in the garb of a 
peasant, and with such a helpless and bewildered air that he 
attracted the attention of the passers-by. In his possession 
was found a letter purporting to be written by a poor labourer, 
stating that the boy was given into his custody on the 7th of 
October 1812, and that according to agreement he had instructed 
him in reading, writing, and the Christian religion, but that up 
to the time fixed for relinquishing his custody he had kept him 
in close confinement. Along with this letter was enclosed another 
purporting to be written by the boy's mother, stating that he 
was born on the 30th of April 1812, that his name was Kaspar, 
and that his father, formerly a cavalry officer in the 6th regiment 
at Nuremberg, was dead. The appearance, bearing, and pro- 
fessions of the youth corresponded closely with these credentials. 
He showed a repugnance to all nourishment except bread and 
water, was seemingly ignorant of outward objects, wrote his 
name as Kaspar Hauser, and said that he wished to be a cavalry 
officer like his father. For some time he was detained in prison 
at Nuremberg as a vagrant, but on the 18th of July 1828 he 
was delivered over by the town authorities to the care of a school- 
master, Professor Daumcr, who undertook to be his guardian 
and to take the charge of his education. Further mysteries 

accumulated about Kaspar's personality and conduct, not 
altogether unconnected with the vogue in Germany, at that time, 
of " animal magnetism," " somnambulism," and similar theories 
of the occult and strange. People associated him with all sorts 
of possibilities. On the 17th of October 1829 he was found to 
have received a wound in the forehead, which, according to his 
own statement, had been inflicted on him by a man with a 
blackened face. Having on this account been removed to the 
house of a magistrate and placed under close surveillance, he 
was visited by Earl Stanhope, who became so interested in his 
history that he sent him in 1832 to Ansbach to be educated 
under a certain Dr Meyer. After this he became clerk in the 
office of Paul John Anselm von Feuerbach, president of the 
court of appeal, who had begun to pay attention to his case in 
1828; and his strange history was almost forgotten by the 
public when the interest in it was suddenly revived by his 
receiving a deep wound on his left breast, on the 14th of December 
1833, and dying from it three or four days afterwards. He 
affirmed that the wound was inflicted by a stranger, but many 
believed it to be the work of his own hand, and that he did 
not intend it to be fatal, but only so severe as to give a sufficient 
colouring of truth to his story. The affair created a great sensa- 
tion, and produced a long literary agitation. But the whole story 
remains somewhat mysterious. Lord Stanhope eventually 
became decidedly sceptical as to Kaspar's stories, and ended by 
being accused of contriving his death ! 

In 1830 a pamphlet was published at Berlin, entitled Kaspar 
Hauser nicht unwahrscheinlich ein Betruger; but the truthfulness 
of his statements was defended by Daumer, who published Mittei- 
lungen iiber Kaspar Hauser (Nuremberg, 1832), and Enthullungen 
iiber Kaspar Hauser (Frankfort, 1859); as well as Kaspar Hauser, 
sein Wesen, seine Unschuld, &c. (Regensburg, 1873), in answer to 
Meyer's (a son of Kaspar's tutor) Authentische Miileilungen iiber 
Kaspar Hauser (Ansbach, 1872). Feuerbach awakened considerable 
psychological interest in the case by his pamphlet Kaspar Hauser, 
Beispiel eines Verbrechens am Seelenleben (Ansbach, 1832), and Earl 
Stanhope also took part in the discussion by publishing Materialen 
zur Geschichte K. Hausers (Heidelberg, 1836). The theory of Daumer 
and Feuerbach and other pamphleteers (finally presented in 1892 by- 
Miss Elizabeth E. Evans in her Story of Kaspar Hauser from Authentic 
Records) was that the youth was the crown prince of Baden, the 
legitimate son of the grand-duke Charles of Baden, and that he 
had been kidnapped at Karlsruhe in October 1812 by minions of 
the countess of Hochberg (morganatic wife of the grand-duke) in 
order to secure the succession to her offspring; but this theory was 
answered in 1875 by the publication in the Augsburg Allgemeine 
Zeitung of the official record of the baptism, post-mortem examina- 
tion and burial of the heir supposed to have been kidnapped. See 
Kaspar Hauser und sein badisches Prinzentum (Heidelberg, 1876). ■ 
In 1883 the story was again revived in a Regensburg pamphlet attack- 
ing, among other people, Dr Meyer; and the sons of the Jatter, 
who was dead, brought an action for libel, under the German law, 
to which no defence was made ; all the copies of the pamphlet were 
ordered to be destroyed. The evidence has been subtly analyzed 
by Andrew Lang in his Historical Mysteries (1904), with results un- 
favourable to the " romantic " version of the story. Lang's view 
is that possibly Kaspar was a sort of" ambulatory automatist," an 
instance of a phenomenon, known by other cases to students of 
psychical abnormalities, of which the characteristics are a mania 
for straying away and the persistence of delusions as to identity; 
but he inclines to regard Kaspar as simply a " humbug " The 
" authentic records " purporting to confirm the kidnapping story 
Lang stigmatizes as " worthless and impudent rubbish." The 
evidence is in iny case in complete confusion. 

German mineralogist, was born at Hanover on the 22nd of Feb- 
ruary 1782. He was educated at Gottingen, where he obtained 
the degree of Ph.D. After making a geological tour in Denmark, 
Norway and" Sweden in 1807, he was two years later placed a.t 
the head of a government mining establishment in Westphalia, 
and he established a school of mines at Clausthal in the Harz 
mountains. In 181 1 he was appointed professor of technology 
and mining, and afterwards of geology and mineralogy in the 
university of Gottingen, and this chair he occupied until a short 
time before his death. He was also for many years secretary 
of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Gottingen. He published 
observations on geology and mineralogy in Spain and Italy as 
well as in central and northern Europe: he wrote on gypsum, 
pyrites, felspar, tachylite, cordierite and on some eruptive 



rocks, and he devoted much attention to the crystals developed 
during metallurgical processes. He died at Hanover on the 26th 
of December 1859. 

Publication's. — Grundlinien einer Encyklopadie der Bergwerks- 
wissenschaften (181 1); Reise durch Skandinavien (5 vols., 1811-1818); 
Handbuch der Mineralogie (3 vols., 1813; 2nd ed., 1828-1847). 

HAUSRATH, ADOLPH (1837- 1909), German theologian, 
was born at Karlsruhe on the 13th of January 1837 and was 
educated at Jena, Gottingen, Berlin and Heidelberg, where 
he became Privatdozent in 1861, professor extraordinary in 
1867 and ordinary professor in 1872. He was a disciple of the 
Tubingen school and a strong Protestant. Among other works he 
wrote Der Apostcl Paulus (1865), Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte 
(1868-1873, 4 vols.; Eng. trans.), D. F. Strauss und die Theologie 
seiner Zeit (1876-1878, 2 vols.), and lives of Richard Rothe 
(2 vols. 1902), and Lutlier (1904). His scholarship was sound 
and his style vigorous. Under the pseudonym George Taylor 
he wrote several historical romances, especially Antinous (1880), 
which quickly ran through five editions, and is the story of a 
soul " which courted death because the objective restraints 
of faith had been lost." Klytia (1883) was a 16th-century story, 
Jetta (1884) a tale of the great immigrations, and Eljriede " a 
romance of the Rhine." He died on the 2nd of August 1909. 

HAUSSER, LUDWIG (1S18-1867), German historian, was 
born at Kleeburg, in Alsace. Studying philology at Heidelberg 
in 1835, ne was ' e d by F. C. Schlosser to give it up for history, 
and after continuing his historical work at Jena and teaching 
in the gymnasium at Wertheim he made his mark by his Die 
teutschen eiber vom Anfang des Frankenreichs 
bis auf die Hohcnstaufen (1839). Next year appeared his Sage 
von Tell. After a short period of study in Paris on the French 
Revolution, he spent some time working in the archives of 
Baden and Bavaria, and published in 1845 Die Ceschichte der 
rheinischen Pfdlz, which won for him a professorship extra- 
ordinarily at Heidelberg. In 1850 he became professor ordinarius. 
Hausser also interested himself in politics while at Heidelberg, 
publishing in 1846 Schlcswig-H olstein, Ddncmark und Deutschland, 
and editing with Gervinus the Deutsche Zcitung. In 1848 he 
was elected to the lower legislative chamber of Baden, and in 
1850 advocated the project of union with Prussia at the parlia- 
ment held at Erfurt. Another timely work was his edition 
of Friedrich List's Gesammelle Schriften (1850), accompanied 
with a life of the author. His greatest achievement, and the 
one on which his fame as an historian rests, is his Deutsche 
Ceschichte vom Tode Friedrichs des Grossen bis zur Griindung 
des deutsclien Bundcs (Leipzig, 1854-1857, 4 vols.). This was 
the first work covering that period based On a scientific study 
of the archival sources. In 1859 he again took part in politics, 
resuming his place in the lower chamber, opposing in 1863 the 
project of Austria for the reform of the Confederation brought 
forward in the assembly of princes at Frankfort, in his book 
Die Reform des deutschen Bundestages, and becoming one of 
the leaders of the '' little German " (kleindeutsche) party, which 
advocated the exclusion of Austria from Germany. In addition 
to various essays (in his Gcsammelte Schriften, Berlin, 1869- 
1870, 2 vols.), Hausser's lectures have been edited by W. Oncken 
in the Ceschichte des Zeitalters der Reformation (1869, 2nd ed. 
1880). and Ceschichte der franzbsischen Revolution (1869, 2nd 
ed. 1870). These lectures reveal all the charm of style and 
directness of presentation which made Hausser's work as a 
professor so vital. 

See \Y. Wattenbach, Lud. Hausser- ein Vortrag (Heidelberg, 1867). 

HAUSSMANN, GEORGES EUGENE, Baron (1809-1891), 
whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris, was born 
in that city on the 27th of March 1809 of a Protestant family, 
German in origin. He was educated at the College Henri IV, 
and subsequently studied law, attending simultaneously the 
classes at the Paris conservatoire of music, for he was a good 
musician. He became sous-prefet of Nerac in 1830, and advanced 
rapidly in the civil service until in 1853 he was chosen by Persigny 
prefect of the Seine in succession to Jean Jacques Berger, who 
hesitated to incur the vast expenses of the imperial schemes 

for the embellishment of Paris. Haussmann laid out the Bois 
de Boulogne, and made extensive improvements in the smaller 
parks. The gardens of the Luxembourg Palace were cut down 
to allow of the formation of new streets, and the Boulevard 
de Sebastopol, the southern half of which is now the Boulevard 
St Michel, was driven through a populous district. A new 
water supply, a gigantic system of sewers, new bridges, the 
opera, and other public buildings, the inclusion of outlying 
districts — these were among the new prefect's achievements, 
accomplished by the aid of a bold handling of the public funds 
which called forth Jules Ferry's indictment, Lcs Comptes fan- 
tasticrues de Haussmann, in 1867. A loan of 250 million francs 
was sanctioned for the city of Paris in 1865, and another of 
260 million in 1869. These sums represented only part of his 
financial schemes, which led to his dismissal by the government 
of Emile Ollivier. After the fall of the Empire he spent about 
a year abroad, but he re-entered public life in 1877, when he 
became Bonapartist deputy for Ajaccio. He died in Paris 
on the nth of January 1891. Haussmann had been made 
senator in 1857, member of the Academy of Fine Arts in 1867, 
and grand cross of the Legion of Honour in 1862. His name 
is preserved in the Boulevard Haussmann. His later years 
were occupied with the preparation of his Memoires (3 vols., 

CLlSRON, Comte d' (1800-1884), French politician and historian, 
was born in Paris on the 27th of May 1809. His grandfather had 
been " grand louvetier " of France; his father Charles Louis 
Bernard de Cleron, comte d'Haussonville (1770-1846), was 
chamberlain at the court of Napoleon, a count of the' French 
empire, and under the Restoration a peer of France and an 
opponent of the Villele ministry. Comte Joseph had filled a 
series of diplomatic appointments at Brussels, Turin and Naples 
before he entered the chamber of deputies in 1842 for Provins. 
Under the Second Empire he published a liberal anti-imperial 
paper at Brussels, Le Bulletin franqais, and in 1863 he actively 
supported the candidature of Prevost Paradol. He was elected 
to the French Academy in 1869, in recognition of his historical 
writings, Histoire de la politique exterieure du gouvernement 
franqais de 1830 a 1848 (2 vols., 1850), Histoire de la reunion de 
la Lorraine a la France (4 vols., 1854-1859), L'Eglise rotnaine 
et le premier empire 1800-1814 (5 vols., 1864-1879). In 1870 
he published a pamphlet directed against the Prussian treatment 
of France, La France et la Prusse devant I' Europe, the sale of 
which was prohibited in Belgium at the request of King William 
of Prussia. He was the president of an association formed to 
provide new homes in Algeria for the inhabitants of Alsace- 
Lorraine who elected to retain their French nationality. In 
1878 he was made a life-senator, in which capacity he allied 
himself with the Right Centre in defence of the religious associa- 
tions against the anti-clericals. He died in Paris on the 28th 
of May 1884. 

His wife Louise (1818-1882), a daughter of Due Victor de 
Broglie, published in 1858 a novel Robert Emmet, followed by 
Marguerite de Valois reine de Navarre (1870), La Jeunesse de Lord 
Byron (1872), and Les Demieres Annies de Lord Byron (1874). 

His son, Gabriel Paul Othenin de Cleron, comte 
d'Haussonville, was born at Gurcy de Chatel (Seine-et-Marne) 
on the 21st of September 1843, and married in 1865 Mile Pauline 
d'Harcourt. He represented Seine-et-Marne in the National 
Assembly (187 1) and voted with the Right Centre. Though he- 
was not elected to the chamber of deputies he became the right- 
hand man of his maternal uncle, the due de Broglie, in the 
attempted coup of the 16th of May. His Etablissements peni- 
tentiaires en France et aux colonies (1875) was crowned by the 
Academy, of which he was admitted a member in 1888. In 
1891 the resignation of Henri Edouard Bocher from the adminis- 
tration of the Orleans estates led to the appointment of M 
d'Haussonville as accredited representative of the comte de 
Paris in France. He at once set to work to strengthen the 
Orleanist party by recruiting from the smaller nobility the 
officials of the local monarchical committees. He established 



new Orleanist organs, and sent out lecturers with instructions 
to emphasize the modern and democratic principles of the comte 
de Paris; but the prospects of the party were dashed in 1894 
by the death of the comte de Paris. In 1904 he was admitted 
to the Academy of Moral and Political Science. The comte 
d'Haussonvillc published:— C. A. Sainlc-Bcuve, jp, vie et scs 
ceuvres (1875), Etudes biograpliiques et liltcraires, 2 series (1879 
and 188S), Le Salon de Mine Necker (1882, 2 vols.), Madame 
de La Fayette (1891), Madame Ackermami (1892), Le Comte de 
Paris, souvenirs personnels (1895), La Duehesse de Bourgogne 
et V alliance savoyarde (1898-1903), Salaire et miseres de femme 
(1900), and, with G. Hanotaux, Souvenirs sur Madame de 
Maintcnon (3 vols., 1002-1904). 

^ HAUTE-GARONNE, a frontier department of south-western 
I' ranee, formed in 1790 from portions of the provinces of 
Languedoc(Toulousain and Lauraguais)and Gascony(Comminges 
and Xebouzan). Pop. (1906), 442,065. Area, 2458 sq. m. It 
is bounded X. by the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, E. by 
larn, Aude and Ariege, S. by Spain and W. by Gers and Hautes- 
Pyrenees. Long and narrow in shape, the department consists 
m the north of an undulating stretch of country with continual 
interchange of hill and valley nowhere thrown into striking 
rebel; while towards the south the land rises gradually to the 
Pyrenees, winch on the Spanish border attain heights of upwards 
of 10,000 ft. Two passes, the Port d'Oo, near the beautiful lake 
and waterfall of Oo, and the Port de Venasque, exceed 9800 and 
7900 ft. in altitude respectively. Entering the deoartment in 
the south-east, the Garonne flows in a northerly direction and 
traverses almost its entire length, receiving in its course the 
Pique, the Salat, the Louge, the Ariege, the Touch and the Save. 
Except 111 the mountainous region the climate is mild, the mean 
annual temperature being rather higher than that of Paris. 
The rainfall, which averages 24 in. at Toulouse, exceeds 40 in. 
m some parts of the mountains; and sudden and destructive 
inundations of the Garonne— of which that of 1875 is a celebrated 
example— are always to be feared. The valley of the Garonne 
is also frequently visited by severe hail-storms. Thick forests 
of oak, fir and pine exist in the mountains and furnish timber 
for shipbuilding. The arable land of the plains and valleys is 
well adapted for the cultivation of wheat, maize and other grain 
crops; and the produce of cereals is generally much more than is 
required for the local consumption. Market-gardening flourishes 
around Toulouse. A large area is occupied by vineyards, though 
the wine is only of medium quality; and chestnuts, apples and 
peaches are grown. As pasture land is abundant a good deal 
oi attention is given to the rearing of cattle and sheep, and 
co-operative dairies are numerous in the mountains; but de- 
forestation has tended to reduce the area of pasture-land, because 
the soil, unretained by the roots of trees, has been gradually 
washed away. Haute-Garonne has deposits of zinc and lead 
and salt-workings; there is an ancient and active marble- 
workmg industry at St Beat. Mineral springs are common, 
those ol Bagneres-de-Luchon Encausse, Barbazan and Salies-du- 
Salat being well known. The manufactures are various though 
not individually extensive, and include iron and copper goods 
woollen, cotton and linen goods, leather, paper, boots and shoes' 
tobacco and table delicacies. Flour-mills, iron-works and 
brick-works are numerous. Railway communication is furnished 
by the Southern and the Orleans railways, the main line of the 
former from Bordeaux to Cette passing through Toulouse. The 
Canal du Midi traverses the department for 32 m. and the lateral 
canal of the Garonne for 15 m. The Garonne is navigable below 
its confluence with the Salat. There are four arrondissements— 
loulouse, \ illefranche, Muret and St Gaudens, subdivided into 
39 cantons and 588 communes. The chief town is Toulouse 
which is the seat of a court of appeal and of an archbishop the 
headquarters of the XVIIth army corps and the centre of an 
academy; and St Gaudens, Bagneres-de-Luchon and, from an 
architectural and historical standpoint, St Bertrand-de- 
Comminges are of importance and receive separate treatment 
Other places of interest are St Aventin,Montsaunes and Venerque 
which possess ancient churches in the Romanesque style. The 

church of St Just at Valcabrere is of still greater age, the choir 
dating from the 8th or 9 th century and part of the nave from the 
nth century. There are ruins of a celebrated Cistercian abbey 
at Bonnefont near St Martory. Gallo-Roman remains and 
works of art have been discovered at Martres. Near Revel is 
the fine reservoir of St Ferrdol, constructed for the canal du Midi 
in the 17th century. 

_ HAUTE-LOIRE, a department of central France, formed 
in 1790 of Velay and portions of Vivarais and Gevaudan three 
districts formerly belonging to the old province of Lang'uedoc 
of a portion of Forez formerly belonging to Lyonnais, and a 
portion of lower Auvergne. Pop. (1906), 314,770. Area, 1931 
sq. m. It is bounded N. by Puy-de-D6me and Loire, E by Loire 
and Ardeche, S. by Ardeche and Lozere and W. by Lozere and 
Cantal. Haute-Loire, which is situated on the central plateau 
of France, is traversed from north to south by four mountain 
ranges. Its highest point, the Mont Mezenc (5755 ft.), in the 
south-east of the department, belongs to the mountains of 
\1vara1s, which are continued along the eastern border by the 
Boutieres chain. The Lignon divides the Boutieres from the 
Massif du Megal, which is separated by the Loire itself from the 
mountains of Velay, a granitic range overlaid with the eruptions 
of more than one hundred and fifty craters. The Margeride 
mountains run along the western border of the department 
The Loire enters the department at a point 16 m. distant from 
its source in Ardeche, and first flowing northwards and then 
north-east, waters its eastern half. The Allier, which joins the 
Loire at Nevers, traverses the western portion of Haute-Loire 
in a northerly direction. The chief affluents of the Loire within 
the limits of the department are the Borne on the left, joining it 
near Le Puy, and the Lignon, which descends from the Mezenc 
between the Boutieres and Megal ranges, on the right The 
climate, owing to the altitude, the northward direction of the 
valleys, and the winds from the Cevennes, is cold, the winters 
being long and rigorous. Storms and violent rains are frequent 
on the higher grounds, and would give rise to serious inundations 
were not the rivers for the most part confined within deep rocky 
channels. Cereals, chiefly rye, oats, barley and wheat, are 
cultivated in the lowlands and on the plateaus, on which aromatic 
and medicinal plants are abundant. Lentils, peas, mangel- 
wurzels and other forage and potatoes are also grown. Horned 
cattle belong principally to the Mezenc breed; goats are 
numerous. The woods yield pine, fir, oak and beech. Lace- 
making, which employs about 90,000 women, and coal-mining 
are mam industries; the coal basins are those of Brassac and 
[^, ngea ) ( ;- There are aIso mines of antimony and stone-quarries. 
Silk-millmg, caoutchouc-making, various kinds of smith's work 
paper-making, glass-blowing, brewing, wood-sawing and flour- 
milling are also carried on. The principal imports are flour 
brandy,wine, live-stock, lace-thread and agricultural implements' 
Exports include fat stock, wool, aromatic plants, coal, lace. 
I he department is served chiefly by the Paris-Lyon-Mediterranee 
company. There are three arrondissements— Le Puy, Brioude 
and Yssingeaux, with 28 cantons and 265 communes. 

Haute-Loire forms the diocese of Le Puy and part of the 
ecclesiastical province of Bourges, and belongs to the academie 
(educational division) of Clermont-Ferrand. Its court of appeal 
is at Riom. Le Puy the capital, Brioude and La Chaise-Dieu 
the principal towns of the department, receive separate treat- 
ment. It has some notable churches, of which those of Chama- 
heres, St Paulien and Sainte-Marie-des-Chazes are Romanesque 
in style; Le Monastier preserves the church, in part Romanesque" 
and the buildings of the abbey to which it owes its origin' 
Arlempdes and Bouzols (near Coubon) have the ruins of large 
feudal chateaus. The rocky plateau overlooking Polignac is 
occupied by the ruins of the imposing stronghold of the ancient 
family of Polignac, including a square donjon of the 14th century. 
Interesting Gallo-Roman remains have been found on the site. 

HAUTE-MARNE, a department of north-eastern France made 
up for the most part of districts belonging to the former province 
of Champagne (Bassigny, Perthois, Vallage), with smaller 
portions of Lorraine and Burgundy, and some fragments of 



Franche-Comte. Area, 2415 sq. m. Pop. (1906), 221,724. It is 
bounded N.E. by Meuse, E. by Vosges, S.E. by Haute-Saone, 
S. and S.W. by Cote d'Or, W. by Aube, and N.W. by Marne. 
Its greatest elevation (1693 ft.) is in the plateau of Langres in 
the south between the sources of the Marne and those of the 
Aube; the watershed between the basin of the Rhone on the 

' south and those of the Seine and Meuse on the north, which is 
formed by the plateau of Langres continued north-east by the 
Monts Faucilles, has an average height of 1500 or 1600 ft. The 
country descends rapidly towards the south, but in very gentle 
slopes northwards. To the north is Bassigny (the paybas or 
low country, as distinguished from the highlands), a district 
characterized by monotonous flats of little fertility and extensive 
wooded tracts. The lowest level of the department is 361 ft. 
Hydrographically Haute-Marne belongs for the most part to 
the basin of the Seine, the remainder to those of the Rhone and 
the Meuse. The principal river is the Marne, which rises here, 
and has a course of 75 m. within the department. Among its 

» more important affluents arc, on the right the Rognon, and on 
the left the Blaise. The Saulx, another tributary of the Marne 
on the right, also rises in Haute-Marne. Westward the depart- 
ment is watered by the Aube and its tributary the Aujon, both 
of which have their sources on the plateau of Langres. The Meuse 
also rises in the Monts Faucilles, and has a course of 31 m. within 
the department. On the Mediterranean side the department 
sends to the Saone the Apance, the Amance, the Salon and the 
Vingeanne. The climate is partly that of the Seine region, 
partly that of the Vosges, and partly that of the Rhone; the 
mean temperature is 51 F., nearly that of Paris; the rainfall 
is slightly below the average for France. 

The agriculture of the department is carried on chiefly by 
small proprietors. The chief crops are wheat and oats, which 
are more than sufficient for the needs of the inhabitants; potatoes, 
lucerne and mangel wurzels are next in importance. Natural 
pasture is abundant, especially in Bassigny, where horse and 
cattle-raising flourish. The vineyards produce some fair wines, 
notably the white wine of Soyers. More than a quarter of the 
territory is under wood. The department is rich in iron and 
building and other varieties of stone are quarried. The warm 
springs of Bourbonne-les-Bains are among the earliest known and 
most frequented in France. The leading industry is the metal- 
lurgical; its establishments include blast furnaces, foundries, 
forges, plate-rolling works, and shops for nailmaking and smith's 
work of various descriptions. St Dizier is the chief centre of 
manufacture and distribution. The cutlery trade occupies 
thousands of hands at Nogent-en-Bassigny and in the neighbour- 
hood of Langres. Yal d'Osne is well known for its production 
of fountains, statues, &c. in metal-work. Flour-milling, glove- 
making (at Chaumont), basket-making, brewing, tanning and 
other industries are also carried on. The principal import is 
coal, while manufactured goods, iron, stone, wood and cereals 
are exported. The department is served by the Eastern railway, 
of which the line from Paris to Belfort passes through Chaumont 
and Langres. The canal from the Marne to the Saone and the 
canal of the Haute-Marne, which accompany the Marne, together 
cover 99 m.; there is a canal 14 m. long from St Dizier to Wassy. 
There are three a rrondissements (Chaumont, Langres and Wassy), 
with 28 cantons and 550 communes. Chaumont is the capital. 
Th . department forms the diocese of Langres; it belongs to the 
VII. military region and to the educational circumscription 
(academic) of Dijon, where also is its court of appeal. The 
principal towns —Chaumont, Langres, St Dizier and Bourbonne- 
les-Bains — receive separate notice. At Monlier-en-Dcr the 
remains of an abbey founded in the 7th century include a fine 
church with nave and aisles of the roth, and choir of the 13th 
century. Wassy. the scene in [562 of the celebrated massacre of 
Protestants by the troops of Francis, duke of Guise, has among 
its old building* a church much of which dates from the Koman- 
esque period. Yignory has a church of the nth century. Join- 
ville. a metallurgical centre, preserves a chateau of the dukes of 
Guise in the Renaissance style. Pailly, near Langres, has a fine 
chateau of the last half of the 16th century. 

LANAUTTE, Comte d' (1754-1830), French statesman and 
diplomatist, was born at Aspres (Hautes-Alpes) on the 14th of 
April 1754, and was educated at Grenoble, where he became a 
professor. Later he held a similar position at Tours, and there 
he attracted the attention of the due de Choiseul, who invited 
him to visit him at Chanteloup. Hauterive thus came in contact 
with the great men who visited the duke, and one of these, the 
comte de Choiseul-Goiflier, on his appointment as ambassador 
to Constantinople in 1784 took him with him. Hauterive was 
enriched for a time by his marriage with a widow, Madame de 
Marchais, but was ruined by the Revolution. In 1790 he applied 
for and received the post of consul at New York. Under the 
Consulate, however, he was accused of embezzlement and re- 
called; and, though the charge was proved to be false, was not 
reinstated. In 1798, after trying his hand at farming in America, 
Hauterive was appointed to a post in the French foreign office. 
In this capacity he made a sensation by his L'Etat de la France A 
la fin de Van VIII (1800), which he had been commissioned by 
Bonaparte to draw up, as a manifesto to foreign nations, after 
the coup d'etat of the 18th Brumaire. This won him the con- 
fidence of Bonaparte, and he was henceforth employed in drawing 
up many of the more important documents. In 1805 he was 
made a councillor of state and member of the Legion of Honour, 
and between 1805 and 1813 he was more than once temporarily 
minister of foreign affairs. He attempted, though vainly, to use 
his influence to moderate Napoleon's policy, especially in the 
matter of Spain and the treatment of the pope. In 1805 a 
difference of opinion with Talleyrand on the question of the 
Austrian alliance, which Hauterive favoured, led to his with- 
drawal from the political side of the ministry of foreign affairs, 
and he was appointed keeper of the archives of the same depart- 
ment. In this capacity he did very useful work, and after the 
Restoration continued in this post at the request of the due de 
Richelieu, his work being recognized by his election as a member 
of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1820. He 
died at Paris on the 28th of July 1830. 

There is a detailed account of Hauterive, with considerable extracts 
from his correspondence with Talleyrand, in the Biographie universelle 
by A. F. Artand de Montor, who published a separate life in 1831. 
Criticisms of his Etat de la France appeared in Germany and England 
by F. von Gentz (Von dem politischen Zustande, 1801). and by 
T. B. Clarke {A Hist, and Pol. View . . . . 1803). 

HAUTES ALPES, a department in S.E. France, formed in 
1790 out of the south-eastern portion of the old province of 
Dauphine, together with a small part of N. Provence. It is 
bounded N. by the department of Savoic, E. by Italy and the 
department of the Basses Alpes, S. by the last-named depart- 
ment and that of the Drome, and W. by the departments of the 
Drome and of the Iscre. Its area is 2178 sq. m., its greatest 
length is 85 m. and its greatest breadth 62 m. It is very moun- 
tainous, and includes the Pointe des Ecrins (13,462 ft.), the 
loftiest summit in France before the annexation of Savoy in 
i860, as well as the Meije (13,081 ft.), the Ailefroide (12,989 ft.) 
and the Mont Pelvoux (12,973 ft.), though Monte Viso (12,609 ft.) 
is wholly in Italy, rising just over the border. The department 
is to a large extent made up of the basins of the upper Durance 
(with its tributaries, the Guisane, the Gyronde and the Guil), of 
the upper Drac and of the Buech — all being to a very large 
extent wild mountain torrents in their upper course. The depart- 
ment is divided into three arrondissements (Gap, Briancon and 
Embrun), 24 cantons and 186 communes. In 1906 its population 
was 107,498. It is a very poor department owing to its great 
elevation above the sea-level. There are no industries of any 
extent, and its commerce is almost wholly of local importance. 
The prolonged winter greatly hinders agricultural development, 
while the pastoral region has been greatly damaged and the 
forests destroyed by the ravages of the Provencal sheep, vast 
flocks of which are driven up here in the summer, as the pastures 
are leased out to a large extent, and but little utilized by the 
inhabitants. It now forms the diocese of Gap (this see is first 
certainly mentioned in the 6th century), which is in the ecclesi- 
astical province of Aix en Provence; in 1791 there was annexed 



to it the archiepiscopal see of Embrun, which was. then sup- 
pressed. There are 114 m. of railway in the department. This 
includes the main line from Briancon past Gap towards Grenoble. 
About i6| m. W. of Gap is the important railway junction of 
Veynes, whence branch off the lines to Grenoble, to Valence by 
Die and Livron, and to Sisteron for Marseilles. The chief town 
is Gap, while Briancon and Embrun are the only other important 

See J. Roman, Dictionnaire topographique du dep. des Htes-Alpes 
(Paris, 1884), Tableau historique du dep. des Htes-Alpes (Paris, 1887- 
1890, 2 vols.), and Repertoire archeologique du dep. des Htes-Alpes 
(Paris, 1888); J. C. F. Ladoucette, Histoire, topographie, fife, des 
Hautes-Alpes (3rd ed., Paris, 1848). (W. A. B. C.) 

HAUTE-SA6NE, a department of eastern France, formed in 
1 -go from the northern portion of Franche Comte. It is traversed 
by the river Saone, bounded N. by the department of the Vosges, 
E. by the territory of Belfort, S. by Doubs and Jura, and W. by 
Cote-d'Or and Haute-Marne. Pop. (1906), 263,890; area, 2075 
sq. m. On the north-east, where they are formed by the Vosges, 
and to the south along the course of the Ognon the limits are 
natural. The highest point of the department is the Ballon de 
Servance (3970 ft.), and the lowest the confluence of the Saone 
and Ognon (610 ft.). The general slope is from north-east to 
south-west, the direction followed by those two streams. In the 
north-east the department belongs to the Vosgian formation, 
consisting of forest-clad mountains of sandstone and granite, 
and is of a marshy nature; but throughout the greater part of its 
extent it is composed of limestone plateaus 800 to 1000 ft. high 
pierced with crevasses and subterranean caves, into which the 
rain water disappears to issue again as springs in the valleys 200 
ft. lower down. In its passage through the department the 
Saone receives from the right the Amance and the Salon from the 
Langres plateau, and from the left the Coney, the Lanterne 
(augmented by the Breuchin which passes by Luxeuil), the 
Durgeon (passing Vesoul), and the Ognon. The north-eastern 
districts are cold and have an annual rainfall ranging from 36 
to 48 in. Towards the south-west the climate becomes more 
temperate. At Vesoul and Gray the rainfall only reaches 24 in. 
per annum. 

Haute-Saone is primarily agricultural. Of its total area 
nearly half is arable land; wheat, oats, meslin and rye are the 
chief cereals and potatoes are largely grown. The vine flourishes 
mainly in the arrondissement of Gray. Apples, plums and 
cherries (from which the kirsch, for which the department is 
famous, is distilled) are the chief fruits. The woods which cover 
a quarter of the department are composed mainly of firs in the 
Vosges and of oak, beech, hornbeam and aspen in the other 
districts. The river-valleys furnish good pasture for the rearing 
of horses and of horned cattle. The department possesses mines 
of coal (at Ronchamp) and rock-salt (at Gouhenans) and stone 
quarries are worked. Of the many mineral waters of Haute- 
Saone the best known are the hot springs of Luxeuil (q.v.). 
Besides iron-working establishments (smelting furnaces, foundries 
and wire-drawing mills), Haute-Saone possesses copper-foundries, 
engineering works, steel-foundries and factories at Planchcr-les- 
Mines and elsewhere for producing ironmongery, nails, pins, fdes, 
saws, screws, shot, chains, agricultural implements, locks, spin- 
ning machinery, edge tools. Window-glass and glass wares, 
pottery and earthenware arc manufactured; there are also 
brick and tile-works. The spinning and weaving of cotton, of 
which Hcricourt (pop. in 1906, 5104) is the chief centre, stand 
next in importance to metal working, and there are numerous 
paper- mills. Print-works, fulling mills, hosiery factories and 
straw-hat factories are also of some account; as well as sugar 
works, distilleries, dye-works, saw-mills, starch-works, the 
chemical works at Gouhenans, oil-mills, tanyards and flour- 
miiis. The department exports wheat, cattle, cheese, butter, 
iron, wood, pottery, kirschwasser, plaster, leather, glass, &c. 
The Saone provides a navigable channel of about 70 m., which 
is connected with the Moselle and the Meuse at Corre by the 
Canal de l'Est along the valley of the Coney. Gray is the chief 
emporium of the water-borne trade of the Saone. Haute-Saone 

is served chiefly by the Eastern railway. There are three arron- 
dissements — Vesoul, Gray, Lure — comprising 28 cantons, 583 
communes. Haute-Saone is in the district of the VII. army 
corps, and in its legal, ecclesiastical and educational relations 
depends on Besancon. 

Vesoul, the capital of the department, Gray and Luxeuil are 
the principal towns. There is an important school of agri- 
culture at St Remy in the arrondissement of Vesoul. The 
Roman ruins and mosaics at Membrey in the arrondissement 
of Gray and the church (13th and 15th centuries) and abbey 
buildings at Faverney, in the arrondissement of Vesoul, are of 
antiquarian interest. 

HAUTE-SAVOIE, a frontier department of France, formed 
in i860 of the old provinces of the Genevois, the Chablais and 
the Faucigny, which constituted the northern portion of the 
duchy of Savoy. It is bounded N. by the canton and Lake of 
Geneva, E. by the Swiss canton of the Valais, S. by Italy and the 
department of Savoie, and W. by the department of the Ain. It 
is mainly made up of the river-basins of the Arve (flowing along 
the northern foot of the Mont Blanc range, and receiving the 
Giffre, on the right, and the Borne and Foron, on the left — the 
Arve joins the Rhone, close to Geneva), of the Dranse (with 
several branches, all flowing into the Lake of Geneva), of the 
Usses and of the Fier (both flowing direct into the Rhone, the 
latter after forming the Lake of Annecy) . The upper course of the 
Arly is also in the department, but the river then leaves it to fall 
into the Isere. The whple of the department is mountainous. 
But the hills attain no very great height, save at its south-east 
end, where rises the sncwclad chain of Mont Blanc, with many 
high peaks (culminating in Mont Blanc, 15,782 ft.) and many 
glaciers. That portion of the department is alone frequented by 
travellers, whose centre is Chamonix in the upper Arve valley. 
The lowest point (945 ft.) in the department is at the junction of 
the Fier with the Rhone. The whole of the department is 
included in that portion of the duchy of Savoy which was neutral- 
ized in 1815. In 1906 the population of the department was 
260,617. Its area is 1775 sq. m., and it is divided into four 
arrondissements (Annecy, the chief town, Bonneville, St Julien 
and Thonon), 28 cantons and 314 communes. It forms the 
diocese of Annecy. There are in the department 176 m. of 
broad-gauge railways, and 70 m. of narrow-gauge lines. 
There are also a number of mineral springs, only three of 
which are known to foreigners — the chalybeate waters of 
Evian and Amphion, close to each other on the south shore 
of the Lake of Geneva, and the chalybeate and sulphurous 
waters of St Gervais, at the north-west end of the chain of Mont 
Blanc. Anthracite and asphalte mines are numerous, as well as 
stone quarries. Cotton is' manufactured at Annecy, while Cluses 
is the centre of the clock-making industry. There is a well-known 
bell foundry at Annecy le Vieux. Thonon (the old capital of the 
Chablais) is the most important town on the southern shore of the 
Lake of Geneva and, after Annecy, the most populous place in 
the department. (W. A. B. C.) 

HAUTES-PYR§N6ES, a department of south-western France, 
on the Spanish frontier, formed in 1790, half of it being taken 
from Bigorre and the remainder from Armagnac, Nebouzan, 
Astarac and Quatre Vallees, districts which all belonged to the 
province of Gascony. Pop. (1906), 209,397. Area, 1750 sq. m. 
Hautes-Pyrenees is bounded S. by Spain, W. by the department 
of Basses-Pyrenees (which encloses on its eastern border five 
communes belonging to Hautes-Pyrenees), N. by Gers and E. 
by Haute-Garonne. Except on the south its boundaries are 
conventional. The south of the department, comprising two- 
thirds of its area, is occupied by the central Pyrenees. Some 
of the peaks reach or exceed the height of 10,000 ft., the Vigne- 
male (10,820 ft.) being the highest in the French Pyrenees. The 
imposing cirques (Cirques de Troumouse, Gavarnie and Estaube), 
with their glaciers and waterfalls, and the pleasant valleys 
attract a large number of tourists, the most noted point being 
the Cirque de Gavarnie. The northern portion of the depart- 
ment is a region of plains and undulating hills clothed with corn- 
fields, vineyards and meadows. To the north-east, however, the 


/ 5 

cold and wind-swept plateau of Lannemezan (about 2000 ft.), 
the watershed of the streams that come down on the French side 
of the Pyrenees, presents in its bleakness and barrenness a 
striking contrast to the plain that lies below. The department 
is drained by three principal streams, the Gave de Pau, the Adour 
and the Neste, an affluent of the Garonne. The sources of the 
first and third lie close together in the Cirque of Gavarnie and 
on the slopes of Troumouse, whence they flow respectively to 
the north-west and north-east. An important section of the 
Pyrenees, which carries the Massif Neouvielle and the Pic du 
Midi de Bigorre (with its meteorological observatory), runs 
northward between these two valleys. From the Pic du Midi 
descends the Adour, which, after watering the pleasant valley 
of Campan, leaves the mountains at Bagneres and then divides 
into a multitude of channels, to irrigate the rich plain of Tarbes. 
The chief of these is the Canal dAlaric with a length of 36 m. 
Beyond Hautes-Pyrenees it receives on the right the Arros, 
which flows through the department from south to north-north- 
west; on the left it receives the Gave de Pau. This latter 
stream, rising in Gavarnie, is joined at Luz by the Gave de 
Bastan from Neouvielle, and at Pierrefitte by the Gave de 
Cauterets, fed by streams from the Vignemale. The Gave de Pau, 
after passing Argeles, a well-known centre for excursions, and 
Lourdes, leaves the mountains and turns sharply from north 
to west; it has a greater volume of water than the Adour, but, 
being more of a mountain torrent, is regarded as a tributary 
of the Adour, which is navigable in the latter part of its course. 
The Neste d'Aure, descending from the peaks of Neouvielle 
and Troumouse, receives at Arreau the Neste de Louron from 
the pass of Clarabide and flows northwards through a beautiful 
valley as far as La Barthe, where it turns east; it is important 
as furnishing the plateau of Lannemezan with a canal, the Canal 
de la Neste, the waters of which are partly used ior irrigation 
and partly for supplying the streams that rise there and are dried 
up in summer — the Gers and the Ba'ise, affluents of the Garonne. 
This latter only touches the department. The climate of Hautes- 
Pyrenees, though very cold on the highlands, is warm and moist 
in the plains, where there are hot summers, fine autumns, mild 
winters and rainy springs. On the plateau of Lannemezan, 
while the summers are dry and scorching, the winters are very 
severe. The average annual rainfall at Tarbes, in the north of 
the department, is about 34 in.; at the higher altitudes it is 
much greater. The mean annual temperature at Tarbes is 
59 Fahr. 

Hautes-Pyrenees is agricultural in the plains, pastoral in the 
highlands. The more important cereals are wheat and maize, 
which is much used for the feeding of pigs and poultry, especially 
geese; rye, oats and barley are grown in the mountain districts. 
The wines of Madiran and Peyriguere are well known and 
tobacco is also cultivated; chestnut trees and fruit trees are 
grown on the lower slopes. In the neighbourhood of Tarbes and 
Bagneres-de-Bigorre horse-breeding is the principal occupation 
and there is a famous stud at Tarbes. The horse of the region 
is the result of a fusion of Arab, English and Navarrese blood 
and is well fitted for saddle and harness; it is largely used by 
light cavalry regiments. Cattle raising is important; the milch- 
cows of Lourdes and the oxen of Tarbes and the valley of the 
Aure are highly esteemed. Sheep and goats are also reared. 
The forests, which occur chiefly in the highlands, contain bears, 
boars, wolves and other wild animals. There are at Campan 
and Sarrancolin quarries of fine marble, which is sawn and 
worked at Bagneres. There is a group of slate quarries at 
Labassere. Deposits of lignite, lead, manganese and zinc are 
found. The mineral springs of Hautes-Pyrenees are numerous 
and much visited. The principal in the valley of the Gave de 
Pau are Cauterets (hot springs containing sulphur and sodium), 
St Sauveur (springs with sulphur and sodium), and Bareges 
(hot springs with sulphur and sodium), and in the valley of the 
Adour Bagneres (hot or cold springs containing calcium sulphates, 
iron, sulphur and sodium) and Capvern near Lannemezan 
(springs containing calcium sulphates). 

The department has flour-mills and saw-mills, a large military 

arsenal at Tarbes, paper-mills, tanneries and manufactories of 
agricultural implements and looms. The spinning and weaving 
of wool and the manufacture of knitted goods are carried 
on; Bagneres-de-Bigorre is the chief centre of the textile 

Of the passes (ports) into Spain, even the chief, Gavarnie 
(7398 ft.), is not accessible to carriages. The department is 
served by the Southern railway and is traversed from west to 
east by the main line from Bayonne to Toulouse. There are 
three arrondissements, those of Tarbes, Argeles and Bagneres- 
de-Bigorre, 26 cantons and 480 communes. Tarbes is the capital 
of Hautes-Pyrenees, which constitutes the diocese of Tarbes, and 
is attached to the appeal court of Pau ; it forms part of the region 
of the XVIII. army corps. In educational matters it falls within 
the circumscription of the academie of Toulouse. Tarbes, 
Lourdes, Bagneres-de-Bigorre and Luz-St Sauveur are the prin- 
cipal towns. St Savin, in the valley of the Gave de Pau, and 
Sarrancolin have interesting Romanesque churches. The church 
of Maubourguet built by the TeniDlars in the 1 2th century is also 

HAUTE-VIENNE, a department of central France, formed in 
1790 of Haut-Limousin and of portions of Marche, Poitou and 
Berry. Pop. (1906), 385,732. Area, 2144 sq. m. It is bounded 
N. by Indre, E. by Creuse, S.E. by Correze, S.W. by Dordogne, 
W. by Charente and N.W. by Vienne. Haute- Vienne belongs 
to the central plateau of France, and drains partly to the Loire 
and partly to the Garonne. The highest altitude (2549 ft.) is 
in the extreme south-east, and belongs to the treeless but well- 
watered plateau of Millevaches, formed of granite, gneiss and 
mica. From that point the department slopes towards the west, 
south-west and north. To the north-west of the Millevaches 
are the Ambazac and Blond Hills, both separating the valley 
of the Vienne from that of the Gartempe, a tributary of the 
Creuse. The Vienne traverses the department from east to 
west, passing Eymoutiers, St Leonard, Limoges and St Junien, 
and receiving on the right the Maude and the Taurion. The Isle, 
which flows into the Dordogne, with its tributaries the Auvezere 
and the Dronne, and the Tardoire and the Bandiat, tributaries 
of the Charente, all rise in the south of the department. The 
altitude and inland position of Haute-Vienne, its geological 
character, and the northern exposure of its valleys make the 
winters long and severe; but the climate is milder in the west 
and north-west. The annual rainfall often reaches 36 or 37 in. 
and even more in the mountains. Haute-Vienne is on the whole 
unproductive. Rye, wheat, buckwheat and oats are the cereals 
most grown, but the chestnut, which is a characteristic product 
of the department, still forms the staple food of large numbers 
of the population. Potatoes, mangolds, hemp and colza are 
cultivated. After the chestnut, walnuts and cider-apples are 
the principal fruits. Good breeds of horned cattle and sheep are 
reared and find a ready market in Paris. Horses for remount 
purposes are also raised. The quarries furnish granite and large 
quantities of kaolin, which is both exported and used in the 
porcelain works of the department. Amianthus, emeralds and 
garnets are found. Limoges is the centre of the porcelain industry 
and has important liqueur distilleries. Woollen goods, starch, 
paper and pasteboard, wooden and leather shoes, gloves, agri- 
cultural implements and hats are other industrial products, 
and there are flour-mills, breweries, dye-works, tanneries, iron 
foundries and printing works. Wine and alcohol for the liqueur- 
manufacture, coal, raw materials for textile industries-, 
hops, skins and various manufactured articles are among the 

The department is served almost entirely by the Orleans 
Railway. It is divided into the arrondissements of Limoges, 
Bellac, Rochechouart and St Yrieix (29 cantons and 205 com- 
munes), and belongs to the academie (educational division) of 
Poitiers and the ecclesiastical province of Bourges. Limoges, 
the capital, is the seat of a bishopric and of a court of appeal, 
and is the headquarters of the XII. army corps. The other prin- 
cipal towns are St Yrieix and St Junien. Solignac, St Leonard 
and Le Dorat have fine Romanesque churches. The remains 

7 6 


of the chateau of Chalusset (S.S.E. of Limoges), the most remark- 
able feudal ruins in Limousin, and the chateau of Rochechouart, 
which dates from the 13th, 15th and 16th centuries, are also of 

HAUT-RHIN, before 1S71 a department of eastern France, 
formed in 1700 from the southern portion of Alsace. The 
name " Haut-Rhin " is sometimes used of the territory of 
Belfort (q.v.). 

HAUY, RENi JUST (1743-1822), French mineralogist, 
commonly styled the Abbe Haiiy, from being an honorary 
canon of Notre Dame, was born at St Just, in the department 
of Oise, on the 28th of February 1743. His parents were in 
a humble rank of life, and were only enabled by the kindness of 
friends to s<;nd their son to the college of Navarre and afterwards 
to that of Lemoine. Becoming one of the teachers at the 
latter, he began to devote his leisure hours to the study of botany; 
but an accident directed his attention to another field in natural 
history. Happening to let fall a specimen of calcareous spar 
belonging to a friend, he was led by examination of the fragments 
to make experiments which resulted in the statement of the 
geometrical law of crystallization associated with his name 
(see Crystallography). The value of this discovery, the 
mathematical theory of which is given by Haiiy in his Traite 
de mineralogie, was immediately recognized, and when communi- 
cated to the Academy, it secured for its author a place in that 
society. Hatty's name is also known for the observations he 
made in pyro-electricity. When the Revolution broke out, he 
was thrown into prison, and his life was even in danger, when 
he was saved by the intercession of E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. 
In 1802, under Napoleon, he became professor of mineralogy 
at the museum of natural history, but after 1814 he was deprived 
of his appointments by the government of the Restoration. 
His latter days were consequently clouded by poverty, but the 
courage and high moral qualities which had helped him forward 
in his youth did not desert him in his old age; and he lived 
cheerful and respected till his death at Paris on the 3rd of June 

The following are his principal works: Essai d'une theorie sur 
la structure des cristaux (1784); Exposition raisonnee de la theorie 
de Velectricite et du magnetisme, d'apres les principes d'Aepinus 
(1787); De la structure consideree comme caract'ere distinctif des 
mineraux (1793); Exposition abregee' de la theorie de la structure 
des cristaux (1793); Extrait d'un traite elementaire de mineralogie 
(1797); Traite de mineralogie (4 vols., 1801); Traite elementaire 
de physique (2 vols., 1803, 1806); Tableau comparatif des resultats 
de la cristallographie, et de V analyse chimique relativement d la 
classification des miner aux (1809); Traite des pierres precieuses 
(1817); Traite de cristallographie (2 vols., 1822). He also contri- 
buted papers, of which 100 are enumerated in the Royal Society's 
catalogue, to various scientific journals, especially the Journal de 
physique and the Annals du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. 

HAVANA (the name is of aboriginal origin; Span. Habana 
or, more fully, San Cristobal de la Habana), the capital of Cuba, 
the largest city of the West Indies, and one of the principal 
seats of commerce in the New World, situated on the northern 
coast of the island in 23 9' N. lat. and 82 22' W. long. Pop. 
(1899), 235,981; (1907), 297,159. The city occupies a peninsula 
to the W. of the harbour, between its waters and those of the 
sea. Several small streams, of which the Almendares river is 
the largest, empty into the harbour. The pouch-shaped, land- 
locked bay is spacious and easy of access. Large merchantmen 
and men-of-war can come up and unload along at least a consider- 
able part of the water-front. The entrance, which is encumbered 
by neither bar nor rock, averages about 260 yds. in width and 
is about 1400 yds. long. Within, the bay breaks up into three 
distinct arms, Marimalena or Regla Bay, Guanabacoa Bay 
and the Bay of Atares. On the left hand of the entrance stands 
the lofty lighthouse tower of the Morro. The sewage of the 
city and other impurities were for centuries allowed to pollute 
the bay, but the extent to which the harbour was thereby filled 
up has been exaggerated. Though certainly very much smaller 
than it once was, there is a difference of opinion as to whether 
the harbour has grown smaller since the end of the 18th century. 
From the sea the city presents a picturesque appearance. 

The Havana side of the bay has a sea-wall and an excellent 
drive. The city walls, begun in 1671 and completed about 1740, 
were almost entirely demolished between 1863 and 1880, only 
a few insignificant remnants having survived the American 
military occupation of 1899-1902; but it is still usual to speak 
of the " intramural " and the " extramural " city. The former, 
the old city, lying close to the harbour front, has streets as 
narrow as is consistent with wheel traffic. Obispo (Pi y Margall 
in the new republican nomenclature), O'Reilly and San Rafael 
are the finest retail business streets, and the Prado and the 
Cerro the handsomest residential streets in the city proper. 
The new city, including the suburbs to the W. overlooking the 
sea, has been laid out on a somewhat more spacious plan, with 
isolated dwellings and wide thoroughfares, some planted with 
trees. Most of the houses, and especially those of the planter 
aristocracy, are massively built of stone, with large grated 
windows, flat roofs with heavy parapets and inner courts. As 
the erection of wooden buildings was illegal long after 1772, 
it is only in the suburban districts that they are to be seen. 
The limestone which underlies almost all the island affords 
excellent building stone. The poorer houses are built of brick 
with plaster fronts. Three-fourths of all the buildings of the 
city are of one very high storey; there are but a few dozen 
buildings as high as four storeys. Under Spanish rule, Havana 
was reputed to be a city of noises and smells. There was no 
satisfactory cleaning of the streets or draining of the sub-soil, 
and the harbour was rendered visibly foul by the impurities 
of the town. A revolution was worked in this respect during 
the United States military occupation of the city, and the 
republic continued the work. 

Climate. — The general characteristics of the climate of Havana are 
described in the article Cuba. A temperature as low as 40 F. is 
extraordinary; and freezing point is only reached on extremely 
rare occasions, such as during hurricanes or electric storms. The 
mean annual temperature is about 25-7° C. (78 F.) ; that of the 
hottest month is about 28-8° C. (84 F.), and that of the coldest, 
21° C. (70 F.). The means of the four seasons are approximately — 
for December, January, February and successive quarters — 23 , 
27 , 28 and26* C. (73-4°, 8o-6°, 82-4° and 78-8° F.). The mean 
relative humidity is between 75 and 80 for all seasons save spring, 
when it is least and may be from 65 upward. A difference of 30 C. 
(54 F.) at mid-day in the temperature of two spots close together, 
one in sun and one in shade, is not unusual. The daily variation of 
temperature is also considerable. The depressing effect of the heat 
and humidity is greatly relieved by afternoon breezes from the sea, 
and the nights are invariably comfortable and generally cool. 

Defences. — The principal defences of Havana under Spanish rule, 
when the city was maintained as a military stronghold of the first 
rank, were (to use the original and unabbreviated form of the names) 
the Castillo de San Salvador de la Punta, to the W. of the harbour 
entrance; the Castillo de Los Tres Reyes del Morro and San Carlos 
de la Cabana, to the E. ; the Santo Domingo de Atares, at the 
head of the western arm of the bay, commanding the city and its 
vicinity; and the Castillo del Principe (1 767-1 780), situated inland 
on an eminence to the W. El Morro, as it is popularly called, was 
first erected in 1590-1640, and La Punta, a much smaller fort, is of 
the same period; both were reconstructed after the evacuation of 
the city by the English in 1763, from which time also date the castles 
of Principe, Atares and the Cabana. The Cabana, which alone 
can accommodate some 6000 men, fronts the bay for a distance of 
more than 800 yds., and was long supposed, at least by Spaniards, 
to be the strongest fortress of America. Here is the " laurei 
ditch " or " dead-line " — commemorated by a handsome bronze 
relief set in the wall of the fortress — where scores of Cuban patriots 
were shot. To the E. and W. inland are several small forts. The 
military establishment of the republic is very small. 

Churches. — Of the many old churches in the city, the most note 1 
worthy is the cathedral. The original building was abandoned 
in 1762. The present one, originally the church of the Jesuits, was 
erected in 1 656-1 724. The interior decoration dates largely from 
the last decade of the 18th century and the first two decades of the 
19th. In the wall of the chancel, a medallion and inscription long 
distinguished the tomb of Columbus, whose remains were removed 
hither from Santo Domingo in 1796. In 1898 they were taken to 
Spain. Mention may also be made of the churches of Santo Domingo 
(begun in 1578), Santa Catalina (1700), San Agustin (t6o8), Santa 
Clara (1644), La Merced (1744, with a collection of oil paintings) 
and San Felipe (1693). Monasteries and nunneries were very 
numerous until the suppression of the religious orders in 1842, 
when many became simple churches. Some of the convents were 
successful in conserving their wealth. The former monastery of the 
Jesuits, now the Jesuit church of Bcl<5n (1704), at the corner of Luz 



and Compostela Streets, is one of the most elegant and richly 
ornamented in Cuba. 

Public Buildings. — The Palace, which served as a residence for the 
captains-general during the Spanish rule, is the home of the city 
government and the residence of the president of the republic. It 
is a large and handsome stone structure (tinted in white and yellow), 
and stands on the site of the original parish church, facing" the Plaza 
de Armas from the east. It was erected in 1 773-1 792 and radically 
altered in 1835 and 1851. A large municipal gaol (1834-1837), 
capable of receiving 500 inmates, with barracks for a regiment, is a 
striking object on the Prado. The Castillo del Principe now serves 
as the state penitentiary. Among other public buildings are the 
exchange (El Muelle), the custom-house (formerly the church of San 
Francisco; begun about 1575, rebuilt in 1731-1737), and the 
Maestranza (c. 1723), once the navy yard and the headquarters of 
the artillery and now the home of the national library. All these 
are in the old city. Some of the older structures — notably the 
church of Santo Domingo and the Maestranza — are built of grey 
limestone. In the old city also are the Plaza Vieja, dating from the 
middle of the 16th century (with the modern Mercado de Cristina, 
of 1837 — destroyed 1908), the old stronghold La Fuerza, erected by 
Hernando de Soto in 1538, once the treasury of the flotas and 
galleons, and residence of the governors, with its old watch-tower 
(La Vigia) ; and the Plaza de Armas, with the palace, the Senate 
building, a statue of Fernando VII. (1833), and a commemorative 
chapel (El Templete, 1828) to mark the supposed spot where mass 
was first said at the establishment of the city. Mention must be 
made of the large and interesting markets, especially those of 
Colon and Tacon. Of the theatres, which until the end of the 
Spanish period had to compete with the bull-ring and the cock- 
pit, the most important is the Tacon (now " Nacional ") erected 
in 1838. 

Havana is famous for its promenades, drives and public gardens. 
On the city's E. harbour front runs the Paseo (Alameda) de Paula 
(1772-1775, improved 1844-1845), an embanked drive, continued 
by the Paseo de Rocali and the Cortina de Valdes, with fine views 
of the forts and the harbour. On the N., along the sea, beginning 
at the Punta fortress and running W. for several miles along the sea- 
wall, is a speedway and pleasure-drive, known — from the wall — 
as the Malecon. Beginning at the Punta fortress — where a park 
was laid out in 1899 in the place of an ugly quarter, with a memorial 
to the students judicially murdered by the Spanish volunteers in 
1 87 1 — and running along the line of the former city walls, past the 
Parque Central, through the Parque de Isabel II. and the Parque de 
la India (these two names are now practically abandoned) to the 
Parque de Colon or Campo de Marte, is the Prado, 1 a wide and hand- 
some promenade and drive, shaded with laurels and lined with fine 
houses and clubs. In 1907 a hurricane destroyed the greater part of 
the laurels of the Prado and the royal palms of the Parque de Colon. 
Central Park is surrounded by hotels, theatres, cafes and clubs, 
the last including the Centro Asturiano and Casino Espafiol. In the 
centre is a monument to Jose Marti (1853-1895), " the apostle of 
independence," and in an adjoining square is the city's fine monu- 
ment to the Cuban engineer Francisco de Albcar, to whom she owes 
her water system. From the Parque de Colon the Calle (or Calzada) 
de la Reina — an ordinary business street, once a promenade and 
known as the Alameda de Isabel II. — with its continuations, the Paseo 
de Carlos III. and Paseo de Tacon, runs westward through the city 
past the botanical gardens and the Quinta de los Molinos to the 
citadel of El Principe (1774-1794). A statue of Charles III. by 
Canova (1803), fountains, pavilions and four rows of trees adorn the 
Pasco de Carlos III. The gardens of Los Molinos, where the captains- 
general formerly maintained their summer residence, and the ad- 
joining botanical gardens of the university, contain beautiful 
avenues of palm trees. Near El Principe is the Columbus cemetery, 
with a fine gateway, a handsome monument (1888) to the students 
shot in 1 87 1, and another (1897; 75 ft. high) to the firemen lost in a 
great fire in 1890, besides many smaller memorials. The Calzada 
de la Infanta is a fine street at the W. end of the new city; the 
Cerro, in the S.W., is lined with massive residences, once the homes 
of Cuban aristocracy. 

Suburbs. — In the coral rock of the coast sea-baths are excavated, 
so that bathers may run no risk from sharks. On the S. and W. the 
city is backed by an amphitheatre of hills, which are crowned in 
the W. by the conspicuous fortifications of Castillo del Principe. 
On the lower heights near the city lie Vcdado, Jesus del Monte, 
Lnyano and other healthy suburbs. Chorrera, Puentes Grandes, 
Marianao (founded 1830; pop. 1907, 9332) and Ouanabacoa (with 
mineral springs), are attractive places of resort. Regla, just across 
the bay (now part of the municipio), has large business interests. 

Charities and Education. — Among the numerous charitable in- 
stitutions the most important hospital is the Casa de Bencficencia 
y Maternidad (Charity and Maternity Asylum), opened in 1794, and 
containing an orphan asylum, a maternity ward, a home for vagrants, 
a lunatic asylum and an infirmary. There is also in the city an 
immense lazaretto for lepers. The Centro Asturiano, a club with a 
membership of some ten or fifteen thousand (not limited to Asturians), 

1 Renamed Paseo de Marti by the republic, but the name is never 

maintains for the benefit of its members a large and well-managed 
sanatorium in spacious grounds in the midst of the city. 

Of the schools of the city the most noteworthy is the university 
(581 regular students, 1907), founded in 1728. Its quarters were in 
the old convent of Santo Domingo until 1900, when the American 
military government prepared better quarters for it in the former 
Pirotecnica Militar, near El Principe. There arc various laboratories 
in the city. Other schools are the provincial Institute of Secondary 
Education (490 regular students in 1907; library of 12,863 vols.), 
a provincial school of arts and trades (opened 1882), a theological 
seminary, a boys' technical school, a school of painting and sculpture, 
a conservatory of music, normal school, mercantile school and a 
military academy. The Jesuit church (Belen) has a large college 
for boys, laboratories, an observatory, a museum of natural history, 
and an historical library. Great progress has been made in educa- 
tion, which was extremely backward until after the end of Spanish 
rule. The Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais, established in 
1792, has always had considerable influence. It has a library of 
some 42,000 volumes, rich in material for Cuban history. Among 
other similar organizations are an Academy of Medical, Physical 
and Natural Sciences (1863); a national library, established in 1901, 
and having in 1908 about 40,000 volumes, including the finest 
collection in the world of materials for Cuban history ; an anthropo- 
logical society; various medical societies; and a Bar association. 
An association of sugar planters is a very important factor in the 
economic development of the island. 

Of the newspapers of Havana the most notable is the El Diario 
de la Marina (established in 1838; under its present name, 1844; 
morning and evening), which was almost from its foundation an 
official organ of the Spanish government, and generally the mouth- 
piece of the most intransigent peninsular opinion in all that con- 
cerned the politics of the island. El Ansador Comercial (1868; 
evening) is devoted almost exclusively to commercial and financial 
news. Of the other newspapers the leading ones in 1909 were 
La Discusion (1888; evening), La Lucha (1884; evening) and El 
Mundo (1902; morning). 

Trade. — Havana commands the wholesale trade of all the western 
half of the island, and is the centre of commercial and banking 
interests. Its foreign trade in the five calendar years 1902-1906 
(average imports 157,201,276; exports, $40,563,637) amounted to 
68-9% of the imports and 44-6% of the exports of the island. 
The average number of vessels entering the port annually in the ten 
years from 1864 to 1873 was 1981 (771,196 tons), and the average 
entries in the five years 1902-1906 were 3698 of 3,904,906 gross tons 
(coast trade alone, 2162 of 333,795 tons). 

In spite of high tariffs and civil wars, and the competition of 
Matanzas, Cardenas, Cienfuegos and other Cuban ports opened to 
foreign trade in modern times, the commerce of Havana has steadily 
increased. The chief foreign customers are Great Britain and the 
United States. The two staple articles of export are sugar and 
tobacco-wares. Other exports of importance are rum, wax and 
honey; and of less primary importance, fruits, fine cabinet woods, 
oils and starch. The leading imports are grains, flour, lard and 
■various other foodstuffs, coal, lumber, petroleum and machinery, 
all mainly from the United States; wines and olive oil from Spain; 
jerked beef from South America; fabrics and other staples from 
varied sources. Rice is a principal food of the people; it was 
formerly taken from the East Indies, but is now mostly raised in the 

The chief manufacturing industry of Havana is that of tobacco. 
Of the cigar factories, some of which are in former public and private 
palaces, more than a hundred may be reckoned as of the first class. 
Besides the making of boxes and barrels and other articles necessarily 
involved in its sugar and tobacco trade, Havana also, to some extent, 
builds carriages and small ships, and manufactures iron and 
machinery; but the weight of taxation during the Spanish period 
was always a heavy deterrent on the development of any business 
requiring great capital. There are minor manufacturing interests in 
tanneries, and in the manufacture of sweetmeats, malt and distilled 
liquors, especially rum, besides soaps, candles, starch, perfume, &c. 
There is one large and complete petroleum refinery (1905). 

Havana has frequent steam-boat communication with New York, 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, Tampa, Mobile, New Orleans and other 
ports of the United States; and about as frequent with several 
ports in England, Spain and France. It is the starting-point of a 
railway system which reaches the six provincial capitals between 
Pinar del Rio and Santiago, Cardenas, Cienfuegos and other ports. 
Telegraphs radiate to all parts of the island; a submarine cable" to 
Key West forms part of the line of communication between Colon 
and New York, and by other cables the island has connexion with 
various parts of the West Indies and with South America. 

Population and Health. — The population of Havana was reported 
as 51,307 in 1791; 96,304 in 1811; 94,023 in 1817; 184,508 m 1841. 
In 1899 the American census showed 235,981, of whom about 25% 
were foreign (20 % Spanish) ; and the census of 1907 showed 
2 97. x 59 ( n °t including the attached country districts) and 302,526 
(including these country districts), the last being forthe" municipio " 
of Havana. The industrial population is very densely crowded. 
Owing to this, as well as to the entire lack of proper sanitary customs 
I among the people, the horrible condition of sewerage and the 



favour as a seaside resort, having a wide sandy beach and good 
golf links. The island was in the possession of successive religious 
bodies from the Conquest (when it was given to the Benedictines 
of Jumieges, near -Rouen), until the Dissolution. The church 
of South Hayling is a fine Early English building. 

HAVEL, a river of Prussia, Germany, having its origin in 
Lake Dambeck (223 ft.) on the Mecklenburg plateau, a few 
miles north-west of Neu-Strelitz, and after threading several 
lakes flowing south as far as Spandau. Thence it curves south- 
west, past Potsdam and Brandenburg, traversing another chain 
of lakes, and finally continues north-west until it joins the Elbe 
from the right some miles above Wittenberge after a total 
course of 221 m. and a total fall of only 158 ft. Its banks are 
mostly marshy or sandy, and the stream is navigable from the 
Mecklenburg lakes downwards. Several canals connect it 
with these lakes, as well as with other rivers — e.g. the Finow 
canal with the Oder, the Ruppin canal with the Rhin, the Berlin- 
Spandau navigable canal (5 J m.) with the Spree, and the Plaue- 
Ihlc canal with the Elbe. The Sakrow-Paretz canal, 11 m. long, 
cuts off the deep bend at Potsdam. The most notable of the 
tributaries is the Spree (227'm. long), which bisects Berlin and 
joins the Havel at Spandau. Area of river basin, 10,159 sq. m. 

HAVELBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Brandenburg, on the Havel and the railway Glowen-Havel- 
berg. Pop. (1905), 5988. The town is built partly on an island 
in the Havel, and partly on hills on the right bank of the river, 
on one of which stands the fine Romanesque cathedral dating 
from the 12th century. The two parts, which are connected 
by a bridge, were incorporated as one town in 1875. The 
inhabitants are chiefly engaged in tobacco manufacturing, 
sugar-refining and boat-building, and in the timber trade. 

Otto I. founded a bishopric at Havelberg in 946; the bishop, 
however, who was a prince of the Empire, generally resided at 
Plattenburg, or Wittstock, a few miles to the north. In 1548 
the bishopric was seized by the elector of Brandenburg, who 
finally took possession of it fifty years later, and the cathedral 
passed to the Protestant Church, retaining its endowments till 
the edict of 1810, by which all former ecclesiastical oossessions 
were assumed by the crown. The final secularization was delayed 
till 1819. Havelberg was formerly a strong fortress, but in the 
Thirty Years'' War it was taken from the Danish by the imperial 
troops in 1627. Recaptured by the Swedes in 1631, and again 
in 1635 and 1636, it was in 1637 retaken by the Saxons. It 
suffered severely from a conflagration in 1870. 

HAVELOCK, SIR HENRY (1795-1857), British soldier, one of 
the heroes of the Indian Mutiny, the second of four brothers (all 
of whom entered the army), was born at Ford Hall, Bishop- 
Wearmouth, Sunderland, on the 5th of April 1795. Flis parents 
were William Havelock, a wealthy shipbuilder in Sunderland, 
and Jane, daughter of John Carter, solicitor at Stockton-on-Tees. 
When about five years old Henry accompanied his elder brother 
William to Mr Bradley's school at Swanscombe, whence at the 
age of ten he removed for seven years to Charterhouse school. 
In accordance with the desire of his mother, who had died in 
1S11. he entered the Middle Temple in 1813, studying under 
Chitty the eminent special pleader. His legal studies having been 
abridged by a misunderstanding with his father, he in 1815 
accepted a second lieutenancy in the Rifle Brigade (95th), 
procured for him by the interest of his brother William. During 
the following eight years of service in Britain he read extensively 
and acquired a good acquaintance with the theory of war. In 
1823, having exchanged into the 21st and thence into the 13th 
Light Infantry, he followed his brothers William and Charles 
to India, first qualifying himself in Hindustani under Dr Gilchrfst, 
a celebrated Orientalist. 

At the close of twenty-three years' service he was still a 
lieutenant, and it was not until 1838 that, after three years' 
adjutancy of his regiment, he became captain. Before this, 
however, he had held several staff appointments, notably that 
of deputy assistant-adjutant-general of the forces in Burma till 
the peace of Yandabu, of which he, with Lumsden and Knox, 
procured the ratifications at Ava from the '.' Golden Foot," 

who bestowed on him the " gold leaf " insignia of Burmese 
nobility. His first command had been at a stockade capture 
in the war, and he was present also at the battles of Napadee, 
Patanago and Pagan. He had also held during his lieutenancy 
various interpreterships and the adjutancy of the king's troops 
at Chinsura. In 1828 he published at Serampore Campaigns in 
Ava, and in 1829 he married Hannah Shepherd, daughter of Dr 
Marshman, the eminent missionary. About the same time he 
became a Baptist, being baptized by Mr John Mack at Serampore. 
During the first Afghan war he was present as aide-de-camp to 
Sir Willoughby Cotton at the capture of Ghazni, on the 23rd of 
July 1839, and at the occupation of Kabul. Aft era short absence 
in Bengal to secure the publication of his Memoirs of the Afghan 
Campaign, he returned to Kabul in charge of recruits, and 
became interpreter to General Elphinstone. In 1840, being 
attached to Sir Robert Sale's force, he took part in the Khurd- 
Kabul fight, in the celebrated passage of the defiles of the Ghilzais 
(1841) and in the fighting from Tezeen to Jalalabad. Here, 
after many months' siege, his column in a sortie en masse defeated 
Akbar Khan on the 7 th of April 1842. He was now made deputy 
adjutant-general of the infantry division in Kabul, and in 
September he assisted at Jagdalak, at Tezeen, and at the release 
of the British prisoners at Kabul, besides taking a prominent 
part at Istaliff . Having obtained a regimental majority he next 
went through the Mahratta campaign as Persian interpreter 
to Sir Hugh (Viscount) Gough, and distinguished himself at 
Maharajpore in 1843, and also in the Sikh campaign at Moodkee, 
Ferozeshah and Sobraon in 1845. For these services he was 
made deputy adjutant-general at Bombay. He exchanged from 
the 13th to the 39th, then as second major into the 53rd at the 
beginning of 1849, and soon afterwards left for England, where 
he spent two years. In 1854 he became quartermaster-general, 
then full colonel, and lastly ajdutant-general of the troops in 

In 1857 he was selected by Sir James Outram for the command 
of a division in the Persian campaign, during which he was present 
at the actions of Muhamra and Ahwaz. Peace with Persia set 
him free just as the Mutiny broke out; and he was chosen to 
command a column " to quell disturbances in Allahabad, to 
support Lawrence at Lucknow and Wheeler at Cawnpore', to 
disperse and utterly destroy all mutineers and insurgents." At 
this time Lady Canning wrote of him in her diary: " General 
Havelock is not in fashion, but all the same we believe that he 
will do well. No doubt he is fussy and tiresome, but his little 
old stiff figure looks as active and fit for use as if he were made of 
steel." But in spite of this lukewarm commendation Havelock 
proved himself the man for the occasion, and won the reputation 
of a great military leader. At Fatehpur, on the 12th of July, 
at Aohg and Pandoob ridge on the 15th, at Cawnpore on the 
16th, at Unao on the 29th, at Busherutgunge on the 29th and 
again on the 5th of August, at Boorhya on the 12th of August, 
and at Bithur on the 16th, he defeated overwhelming forces. 
Twice he advanced for the relief of Lucknow, but twice prudence 
forbade a reckless exposure of troops wasted by battle and 
disease in the almost impracticable task. Reinforcements arriv- 
ing at last under Outram, he was enabled by the generosity of his 
superior officer to crown his successes on the 25th of September 
1857 by the capture of Lucknow. There he died on the 24th of 
November 1857, of dysentery, brought on by the anxieties and 
fatigues connected with his victorious march and with the 
subsequent blockade of the British troops. He lived long enough 
to receive the intelligence that he had been created K.C.B. for 
the first three battles of the campaign; but of the major-general- 
ship which was shortly afterwards conferred he never knew. 
On the 26th of November, before tidings of his death had reached 
England, letters-patent were directed to create him a baronet 
and a pension of £1000 a year was voted at the assembling of 
parliament. The baronetcy was afterwards bestowed upon his 
eldest son; while to his widow, by royal order, was given the 
rank to which she would have been entitled had her husband 
survived and been created a baronet. To both widow and son 
pensions of £1000 were awarded by parliament. 



prevalence of yellow fever (first brought to Havana, it is thought, in 
1761 , from Vera Cruz), the reputation of the city as regards health 
was long very bad. The practical extermination of yellow fever 
during the U.S. military occupation following 1899 was a remarkable 
achievement. In 1895-1899, owing to the war, there were few 
non-immune persons in the city, and there was no trouble with 
the fever, but from the autumn of 1899 a heavy immigration from 
Spain began, and a fever epidemic was raging in 1900. The American 
military authorities found that the most extraordinary measures for 
cleansing the city — involving repeated house-to-house inspection, 
enlorced cleanliness, improved drainage and sewerage, the destruc- 
tion ol various public buildings, and thorough cleansing of the streets 
— although decidedly effective in reducing the general death-rate 
of the city (average, 1890-1899, 45-83; 1900, 24-40; 1901, 22-11; 
1902, 2063; general death-rate of U.S. soldiers in 1898, 67-94; in 
1901-1902, 7-00), apparently did not affect yellow fever at all. 
In 1900-1901 Major Walter Reed (1851-1902), a surgeon in the 
United States army, proved by experiments on voluntary human 
subjects that the infection was spread by the Stegomyia mosquito, 1 
and the prevention of the disease was then undertaken by Major 
William C. Gorgas — all patients being screened and mosquitoes 
practically exterminated. 2 The number of subsequent deaths from 
yellow fever has depended solely on the degree to which the necessary 
precautionary measures were taken. 

The entire administrative system of the island, when a Spanish 
jolony, was centred at Havana. Under the republic this remains 
the capital and the residence of the president, the supreme court, 
Congress when in session and the chief administrative officers. 
None of the public services was good in the Spanish period, except 
the water-supply, which was excellent. The water is derived from 
the Vento springs, 9 m. from Havana, and is conducted through 
aqueducts constructed between 1 859 and 1894 at a cos t of some 
§5,000,000. About 40,000,000 gallons are supplied daily. The 
system is owned by the municipality. The older Fernando VII. 
aqueduct (1831-1835) is still usable in case of need; its supply was 
the Almendares river (until long after the construction of this, a 
still older aqueduct, opened at the end of the 16th century, was in 
use). The sewerage system and conditions of house sanitation 
were found extremely inadequate when the American army occupied 
the city in 1899. Several public buildings were so foul that they 
were demolished and burned. The improvement since the end of 
Spanish rule has been steady. 

History. — Havana, originally founded by Diego Velasquez 
in 1 5 14 on an unhealthy site near the present Batabano (pop. 
in 1007, 15,435, including attached country districts), on the 
south coast, was soon removed to its present position, was 
granted an ayuntamiento (town council), and shortly came to 
be considered one of the most important places in the New 
World. Its commanding position gained it in 1634, by royal 
decree, the title of Llave del Nuevo Mundo y Antemural 
de las Indias Occidentales" (Key of the New World and Bulwark 
of the West Indies), in reference to which it bears on its coat 
of arms a symbolic key and representations of the Morro, Punta 
and Fuerza. In the history of the place in the 16th century 
few things stand out except the investments by buccaneers: 
in 1537 it was sacked and burned, and in 1555 plundered by 
French buccaneers, and in 1586 it was threatened by Drake. 
In 15S9 Philip II. of Spain ordered the erection of the Punta 
and the Morro. In the same year the residence of the governor 
of the island was moved from Santiago de Cuba to Havana. 
Philip II. granted Havana the title of " ciudad " in 1592. Sugar 
plantations in the environs appeared before the end of the 
16th century. The population of the city, probably about 3000 
at tie beginning of the 17th century, was doubled in the 
years following 1655 by the coming of Spaniards from Jamaica. 
In the course of the 17th century the port became the great 

1 Dr Carlos Finlay of Havana, arguing from the coincidence 
between the climatic limitation of yellow fever and the geographical 
limitation of the mosquito, urged (1881 sqq.) that there was some 
relation between the disease and the insect. Reed worked from 
the observation of Dr H. R. Carter (U.S. Marine Hospital Service) 
chat although the incubation of the disease was 5 days, 15 to 20 days 
had to elapse before the " infection " of the house, and from Ross's 
demonstration of the part played in malaria by the Anopheles. 
See H. A. Kelly, Walter Reed and Yellow Fever (New York, 1907). 

1 The average number of deaths from yellow fever annually from 
1885 (when reliable registration began) to 1898 was 455; maximum 
1282 in 1896 (supposed average for 4 years, 1856-1859, being 1489-8 
and for 7 years, 1873-1879, 1395-1), minimum 136, in 1898; average 
deaths of military, 1885-1898, 278-4 (in 1896-1897 constituting 1966 
out of a total of 2140); deaths of American soldiers, 1809-1900, 
18 out of 431. 

rendezvous for the royal merchant and treasure fleets that mono- 
polized trade with America, and the commercial centre of the 
Spanish-American possessions. It was blockaded four times 
by the Dutch (who were continually molesting the treasure 
fleets) in the first half of the 17th century. In 167 1 the city 
walls were begun; they were completed in 1702. The European 
wars of the 17th and 18th centuries were marked by various 
incidents in local history. After the end of the Spanish War of 
Succession (1713) came a period of comparative prosperity 
in slave-trading and general commerce. The creation in 1740 
of a monopolistic trading-company was an event of importance 
in the history of the island. English squadrons threatened the 
city several times in the first half of the 18th century, but it 
was not until 1762 than an investment, made by Admiral Sir 
George Pocock and the earl of Albemarle, was successful. The 
siege lasted from June to August and was attended by heavy 
loss to both besiegers and besieged. The British commanders 
wrung great sums from the church and the city as prize of war 
and price of good order. By the treaty of the 10th of February 
1763, at the close of the Seven Years' War, Havana was restored 
to Spain in exchange for the Floridas. The English turned 
over the control of the city on the 6th of July. Their occupation 
greatly stimulated commerce, and from it dates the modern 
history of the city and of the island (see Cuba). The gradual 
removal of obstacles from the commerce of the island from 
1766 to 1818 particularly benefited Havana. At the end of the 
1 8th century the city was one of the seven or eight great com- 
mercial centreb of the world, and in the first quarter of the 
19th century was a rival in population and in trade of Rio 
Janeiro, Buenos Aires and New York. In 1789 a bishopric 
was created at Havana suffragan to the archbishopric at Santiago. 
From the end of the 18th century Havana, as the centre of 
government, was the centre of movement and interest. During 
the administration of Miguel Tacon Havana was improved 
by many important public works; his name is frequent in the 
nomenclature of the city. The railway from Havana to Guines 
was built between 1835 and 1838. Fifty Americans under 
Lieut. Crittenden, members of the Bahia Honda filibustering 
expedition of Narciso Lopez, were shot at Fort Atares in 1851. 
Like the rest of Cuba, Havana has frequently suffered severely 
from hurricanes, the most violent being those of 1768 (St 
Theresa's), 1810 and 1846. The destruction of the U.S. battle- 
ship "Maine" in the harbour of Havana on the 15th of 
February 1898 was an influential factor in causing the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American War, and during the war the city was 
blockaded by a United States fleet. 

See J. de la Pezuela, Diccionario de la Isla de Cuba, vol. iii. (Madrid, 
1863), for minute details of history, administration and economic 
conditions down to 1862; J. M. de la Torre, Lo que fuimos y lo 
que somos, 6 la Habana antigua y moderna (Habana, 1857); P. J. 
Guit6ras, Historia de la conquista de la Habana 1762 (Philadelphia, 
1856); J. de la Pezuela, Sitio y rendition de la Habana en 1762 
(Madrid, 1859); A. Bachiller y Morales, Monograjia liisiorica 
(Habana, 1883), minutely covering the English occupation (the 
best account) of 1762-1763; Maria de los Mercedes, comtesse de 
Merlin, La Havana (3 vols., Paris, 1844) ; and the works cited under 

HAVANT, a market-town in the Fareham parliamentary 
division of Hampshire, England, 67 m. S.W. from London by 
the London & South Western and the London, Brighton & 
South Coast railways. Pop. of urban district (igoi), 3837. 
The urban district of Warblington, 1 m. S.E. (pop. 3639), has 
a fine church, Norman and later, with traces of pre-Norman 
work, and some remains of a Tudor castle. Havant lies in a 
flat coastal district, near the head of Langstone Harbour, a wide 
shallow inlet of the English Channel. The church of St Faith 
was largely rebuilt in 1875, but retains some good Early English 
work. There are breweries and tanneries, and the manufacture 
of parchment is carried on. Off the mainland near Havant lies 
Hayling, a flat island of irregular form lying between the harbours 
of Langstone and Chichester. It measures 4 m. in length from 
N. to S., and is nearly the same in breadth at the south, but the 
breadth generally is about i\ m. It is well wooded and fertile. 
A railway serves the village of South Hayling, which is in some 



See Marshman, Life of Havelock (i860) ; L. J. Trotter, The Bayard 
of India (1903) ; F. M. Holmes, Four Heroes of India; G. B. Smith, 
heroes of the Nineteenth Century (1901); find A. Forbes, Havelock 
(" English Men of Action " series, 1890). 

HAVELOK THE DANE, an Anglo-Danish romance. The hero, 
under the name of Cuheran or Cuaran, was a scullion-jongleur 
at the court of Edelsi (Alsi) or Godric, king of Lincoln and 
Lindsey. At the same court was brought up Argentille or 
Goldborough, the orphan daughter of Adelbrict, the Danish 
king of Norfolk, and his wife Orwain, Edelsi's sister; and 
Edelsi, to humiliate his ward, mairied her to the scullion Cuaran. 
But, inspired by a vision, Cuaran and Goldborough set out for 
Grimsby, where Cuaran learned that Grim, his supposed father, 
was dead. His foster-sister, moreover, told him that his real 
name was Havelok, that he was the son of Gunter (or Birkabeyn), 
king of Denmark, and had been rescued by Grim, who though 
a poor fisherman was a noble in his own country, when Gunter 
perished by treason. The hero then wins back his own and 
Goldborough's kingdoms, punishing traitors and rewarding the 
faithful. The story exists in two French versions: as an inter- 
polation between Geffrei Gaimar's Brut and his Estorie dcs 
Engles (c. 11 50) and in the Anglo-Norman Lai a" Havelok (12th 
century). The English Havelok (c. 1300) is written in a Lincoln- 
shire dialect and embodies abundant local tradition. A short 
version of the tale is interpolated in the Lambeth MS. of Robert 
Mannyng's Handlyng Symie. The story reappears more than 
once in English literature, notably in the ballad of " Argentille 
and Curan " in William Warner's Albion's England. The name 
of Havelok (Habloc, Abloec, Abloyc) is said to correspond in 
Welsh to Anlaf or Olaf . Now the historical Anlaf Curan was the 
son of a Viking chief Sihtric, who was king of Northumbria in 
025 and died in 927. Anlaf Sihtricson was driven into exile by 
his stepmother's brother .Lkhelstan, and took refuge in Scotland 
at the court of Constantine II., whose daughter he married. 
He was defeated with Constantine 1 at Brunanburh (937), but 
was nevertheless for two short periods joint ruler in Northumbria 
with his cousin Anlaf Godfreyson. He reigned in Dublin till 980, 
when he was defeated. He died the next year as a monk at Iona. 
Round the name of Anlaf Curan a number of legends rapidly 
gathered, and the legend of the Danish hero probably filtered 
through Celtic channels, as the Welsh names of Argentille and 
Orwain indicate. The close similarity between the Havelok 
saga and the story of Flamlet (Amlethus) as told by Saxo Gram- 
maticus was pointed out long ago by Scandinavian scholars. 
The individual points they have in common are found in other 
legends, but the series of coincidences between the adventurous 
history of Anlaf Curan and the life of Amlethus can hardly be 
fortuitous. Interesting light is thrown on the whole question by 
Professor I. Gollancz {Hamlet in Iceland, 1898) by the identifica- 
tion of Amhlaide — who is said by Queen Gormflaith 2 in the 
Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters to have slain Niall 
Glundubh — with Anlaf's father Sihtric. The exploits of father 
and son were likely to be confused. 

The mythical elements in the Havelok story are numerous. 
Argentille, as II. L. Ward points out, is a disguised Valkyrie. 
Like Svava she inspired a dull and nameless youth, and as Hild 
raised the dead to fight by magic, so Argentille in Havelok and 
Hermuthruda in Amleth prop up dead or wounded men with 
stakes to bluff the enemy. Havelok's royal lineage is betrayed 
by his flame breath when he is asleep, a phenomenon which has 
parallels in the history of Servius Tullius and of Dietrich of Bern. 
Part of the Havelok legend lingers in local tradition. Havelok 
destroyed his enemies in Denmark by casting down great stones 
upon them from the top of a lower, and Grim is said to have 
1 H. L. Ward (Cat. of Romances, i. 426) suggests that it was the 
mention of Constantine in the Havelock legend which led (jaimar 
to place the tale in the 6th century in the days of the Constantine 
who succeeded King Arthur. Gaimar voices more than once an 
Anglo- Danish legend of a Danish dynasty in Britain anterior to the 
Saxon invasion. 

i A different person from the second wife of Anlaf Curan, also 
Gormflaith, who forms another link with Amlethus, as she was a 
woman of the Hermuthruda type and married her husband's 

kicked three of the turrets from the church tower in his efforts to 
destroy the enemy's ships. John Weever (Antient Funerall 
Monuments, 1631, p. 749) says that the privilege of the town in 
Elsinore, where its merchants were free from toll, was due to the 
interest of Havelok, the Danish prince, and the common seal of 
the town of Grimsby represents Grim, with " Habloc " on his 
right hand and Goldeburgh on his left. 

The English MS. of Havelok (MSS. Laud Misc. 108) in the Bodleian 
library is unique. It was edited for the Roxburghe Club by Sir 
F. Madden in 1828. This edition contains, besides the English text, 
the two French versions. There are subsequent editions by W. W. 
Skeat (1868) for the E.E. Text Society, by F. Holthausen (London, 
New York and Heidelberg, 1901), and by W. W. Skeat (Clarendon 
Press, Oxford, 1902, where further bibliographical references will 
be found) ; and a modern English version by Miss E. Hickey (London, 
1902). Gaimar's text and the French lai are edited by Sir T. D. 
Hardy and C. F. Ma,rtin in Rerum Brit. wed. aev. scriptores, vol. i. 
(1888). Sec also the account of the saga by H. L. Ward [Cat. of 
Romances, i. 423-446) ; for the identification of Havelok with 
Anlaf Curan see G. Storm, Euglische Sludien (1880), iii. 533, a 
reprint of an earlier article; E. K. Putnam, The Lambeth Version of 
Havelok (Baltimore, 1900). 

HAVERFORDWEST (Welsh Hwlfordd, the English name 
,being perhaps a corruption of the Scandinavian Hafna-Fjord), 
the chief town of Pembrokeshire, S. Wales, a contributory 
parliamentary and municipal borough, and a county of itself 
with its own lord-lieutenant. Pop. (1901), 6007. It is pictur- 
esquely situated on the slopes overlooking the West Cleddau river, 
which is here crossed by two stone bridges. It has a station on 
the Great Western Railway on the east side of the river, and 
when viewed from this point the town presents an imposing 
appearance with its castle-keep and its many ancient buildings. 
The river is tidal and navigable for vessels of not more than 
150 tons. Coal, cattle, butter and grain are exported, but the 
commercial importance of the place has greatly declined, as the 
many ruined warehouses near the river plainly testify. The 
old walls and fortifications have almost disappeared, but Haver- 
fordwest is still rich in memorials of its past greatness. The huge 
castle-keep, which dominates the town, was probably built by 
Gilbert de Clare, early in the 12th century; formerly used as 
the county gaol, it now serves as the police-station. The large 
church of St Mary, at the top cf the steep High Street, has fine 
clerestory windows, clustered columns and an elaborate carved- 
oak ceiling of the 15th century; it contains several interesting 
monuments of the 17th and 18th centuries, some of which 
commemorate members of the family of Philipps of Picton Castle. 
At the N. corner of the adjacent churchyard stands an ancient 
building with a vaulted roof, once the record office, but now used 
as a fish-market. St Martin's, with a low tower and spire, close 
to the castle, is probably the oldest church in the town, but has 
been much modernized. Near St Thomas's church on the Green 
stands an old Moravian chapel which is closely associated with 
the great scholar and divine, Bishop John Gambold (1711-1771). 
In a meadow on the W. bank of the river are the considerable 
remains of the Augustinian Priory of St Mary and St Thomas, 
built by Robert de Hwlfordd, lord of Haverford, about the year 
1200. On the E. bank are the suburbs of Cartlet and Prender- 
gast, the latter of which contains the ancient parish church of 
St David and the ruins of a large mansion originally built by 
Maurice de Prendergast (12th century) and subsequently the 
seat of the Stepney family. A little to the S. of the town are the 
remains of Haroldstone, once the residence of the powerful 
Perrot family. The charities belonging to the town, which 
include John Perrot's bequest (1579), yielding about £356 
annually for the improvement of the town, and Tasker's charity 
school (1684), are very considerable. 

Haverfordwest owes its origin to the advent of the Flemings, 
who were permitted by Henry I. to settle in the hundred of 
Roose, or Rhos, in the years ito6-no8, in 1111, and again in 
1 1 56. English is exclusively spoken in the town and district, 
and its inhabitants exhibit their foreign extraction by their 
language, customs and appearance. Haverfordwest is, in fact, 
the capital of that English-speaking portion of Pembrokeshire, 
which has been, nicknamed " Little England beyond Wales." 



This new settlement of intruding foreigners had naturally to be 
protected against the infuriated natives, and the castle was 
accordingly built c. 1113 by Gilbert de Clare, first earl of Pem- 
broke, who subsequently conferred the seignory of Haverford 
on his castellan, Richard Fitz-Tancred. On the death of Robert 
de Hwlfordd, the benefactor and perhaps founder of the priory 
of St Mary and St Thomas, in 1213, the lordship of the castle 
reverted to the Crown, and was purchased for 1000 marks from 
King John by William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, who gave 
various privileges to the town. Of the numerous charters the 
earliest known (through an allusion found in a document of 
Bishop Houghton of St Davids, c. 1370) is one from Henry II., 
who therein confirms all former rights granted by his grand- 
father, Henry I. John in 1207 gave certain rights to the town 
concerning the Port of Milford, while William Marshal II., earl 
of Pembroke, presented it with three charters, the earliest of 
which is dated 1210. An important charter of Edward V., as 
prince of Wales and lord of Haverford, enacted that the town 
should be incorporated under a mayor, two sheriffs and two 
bailiffs, duly chosen by the burgesses. In 1536, under Henry 
VIII., Haverfordwest was declared a town and county of itself 
and was further empowered to send a representative burgess to 

The town long played a prominent part in South Welsh 
history. In 1220 Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, prince of North 
Wales, during the absence of William Marshal II., earl of 
Pembroke, attacked and burnt the suburbs, but failed to reduce 
the castle by assault. Several of the Plantagenet kings visited 
the town, including Richard II., who stopped here some time 
on his return from Ireland in 1299, and is said to have performed 
here his last regal act — the confirmation of the grant of a 
burgage to the Friars Preachers. Oliver Cromwell spent some 
days here on his way to Ireland, and his original warrant to the 
mayor and council for the demolition of the castle is still 
preserved in the council chamber. The prosperity and local im- 
portance of Haverfordwest continued unimpaired throughout the 
17th and 18th centuries, and Richard Fenton, the historian of 
Pembrokeshire, describes it in 1810, as " the largest town in the 
county, if not in all Wales." With the rise of Milford, however, 
the shipping trade greatly declined, and Haverfordwest has now 
the appearance of a quiet country town. 

HAVERGAL, FRANCES RIDLEY (1836-1S79), English hymn- 
writer, daughter of the Rev. William Henry Havergal, was born 
at Astley, Worcestershire, on the 14th of December 1836. At 
the age of seven she began to write verse, most of it of a religious 
character. As a hymn-writer she was particularly successful, 
and the modern English Church collections include several of her 
compositions. Her collected Poetical Works were published in 
1884. She died at Caswell Bay, Swansea, on the 3rd of June 

See Memorials of Frances Ridley Havergal (1880), by her sister. 

HAVERHILL, a market town of England, in the Sudbury 
parliamentary division of Suffolk, and the Saffron Walden 
division of Essex. Pop. of urban district (1901), 4862. It is 
55 m. X.X.E. from London by the Great Eastern railway, on 
the Long Melford-Cambridge branch, and is the terminus of 
the Colne Valley railway from Chappel in Essex. The church 
of St Mary is Perpendicular, but extensively restored. There 
are large manufactures of cloth, silk, matting, bricks, and boots 
and shoes, and a considerable agricultural trade. 

HAVERHILL, a city of Essex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 
situated on the Merrimac river, at the head of tide and navigation, 
and on the Boston & Maine railway, 33 m. N. of Boston. Pop. 
(1880) 18,472; (i8qo) 27,412; (iooo) 37.175, of whom 8530 
were foreign-born (including 2403 French Canadians, 165 1 
English Canadians and 2144 Irish), and 15,077 were of foreign 
parentage (both parents foreign -born); (1910 census) 44,115. 
The city, 3 rn. wide and 10 m. long, lies for its entire length 
along the Merrimac river, from which it rises picturesquely, 
its surface being undulating, with several detached round hills 
(maximum 330 ft.). Pike all old New England cities, it is 
imgnlarly laid out. A number of lakes within its limits are the 

source of an abundant and excellent water supply. There arc 
fifteen public parks, the largest of which, Winnikenni Park. 
(214 acres), contiguous to Lake Kenoza, is of great natural 
beauty. The city has three well-equipped hospitals, the beautiful 
Pentucket club house, a children's home, an old ladies' hom< 
and numerous charitable organizations. The schools of tin- 
city, both public and private, are of high standing; they include 
Bradford Academy (1803) for girls and the St James School 
(Roman Catholic). The public library is generously endowed, 
and in 1908 had about 90,000 volumes. Almost from the 
beginning of its history Haverhill was active industrially. 
Thomas Dustin, the husband of Hannah Dustin, manufactured 
bricks, and this industry has been carried on in the same locality 
for more than two hundred years. The large Stevens woollen 
mills are the outgrowth of mills established in 1835. The 
manufacture of woollen hats, established in the middle of the 
1 8th century, is one of the prominent industries. There are 
large morocco factories. By far the leading industry of the 
city is the manufacture of boots, shoes and slippers, chiefly 
of the finer kinds, of which it is one of the largest producers in 
the world. In 1905 Haverhill ranked fourth among the cities 
of the United States in the product value of this manufacture, 
which was 4-8% of the total value of boots and shoes made in 
the United States. This industry began about 1795. In 1905 
Haverhill's manufacturing establishments produced goods valued 
at $24,446,594, 83-9% of this output being represented by 
boots and shoes or their accessories. One of the largest sole- 
leather manufactories in the world is here. 

Haverhill was settled in June 1640 by a small colony from 
Newbury and Ipswich, and its Indian name, Pentucket, was 
replaced by that of Haverhill in compliment to the first minister, 
Rev. John Ward, who was born at Haverhill, England. In its 
earlier years this frontier town suffered severely from the forays 
of the Indians, and in 1690 the abandonment of the settlement 
was contemplated. Two Indian attacks are particularly 
noteworthy — one in 1698, in which Hannah Dustin, her new- 
born babe, and her nurse were carried away to the vicinity of 
Penacook, now Concord, New Hampshire. Here in the night 
Mrs Dustin, assisted by her nurse and by a captive English boy, 
tomahawked and scalped ten Indians (two men, the others 
children and women) and escaped down the river to Haverhill; 
a monument to her stands in City Hall Park. In 1708 250 
French and Indians attacked the village, killing 40 of its 
inhabitants. In 1873 a destructive fire caused the loss of 35 
places of business, and on the 17th of February 1882 almost the 
entire shoe district (consisting of ro acres) was burned, with a 
loss of more than $2,000,000; but a greater business district 
was built on the ruins of the old. Haverhill was the birthplace 
of Whittier, who lived here in 1 807-1 836, and who in his poem 
Haverhill, written for the 250th anniversary of the town in 1890, 
and in many of his other poems, gave the poet's touch to. the 
history, the legends and the scenery of his native city. His 
birthplace, the scene of Snow-Bound in the eastern part of the 
city, is owned by the Whittier Association and is open to 
visitors. A petition from Haverhill to the national House of 
Representatives in 1842, praying for a peaceable dissolution 
of the Union, raised about J. Q. Adams, its presenter, perhaps 
the most violent storm in the long course of his defence of the 
right of petition. Haverhill was incorporated as a town in 
1645 and became a city in 1869. Bradford, a town (largely 
residential) lying on the opposite bank of the river, became 
a part of the city in 1897. In October T908, by popular vote, 
the city adopted a new charter providing for government by 

HAVERSACK, or Havresack (through the French from 
Ger. Habersack, an oat-sack, a nose-bag, Hafer or Haver, oats), 
the bag in which horsemen carried the oats for their horses. 
In Scotland and the north of England haver, meaning oats, is 
still used, as haver-meal or haver-bread. Haversack is now 
used for the strong bag made of linen or canvas, in which soldiers, 
sportsmen or travellers, carry their personal belongings, or more 
usually the provisions for the day. 



HAVERSTRAW, a village of Rockland county, New York, 
U.S.A., in a township of the same name, 32 m. N. of New York 
City, and finely situated on the W. shore of Haverstraw Bay, 
an enlargement of the Hudson river. Pop. of the village (1890), 
5070; (1900) 5935, of whom 1231 were foreign-born and 568 
were negroes; (1905, state census) 6182; (1910) 5669; of the town- 
ship (1910) 9335. Haverstraw is served by the West Shore, 
the New Jersey & New York (Erie), and the New York, Ontario 
& Western railways, and is connected by steamboat lines with 
Peekskill and Newburgh. The village lies at the N. base of 
High Tor (83 2 f t .) . It has a public library, founded by the King's 
Daughters' Society in 1895 and housed in the Fowler library 
building. Excellent clay is found in the township, and Haver- 
straw is one of the largest brick manufacturing centres in the 
world; brick-machines also are manufactured here. The 
Minesceongo creek furnishes water power for silk mills, dye 
works and print works. Haverstraw was settled by the Dutch 
probably as early as 1648. Near the village of Haverstraw 
(in the township of Stony Point), in the Joshua Hett Smith 
House, or " Old Treason House," as it is generally called, 
Benedict Arnold and Major Andre met before daylight on the 
22nd of September 1780 to arrange plans for the betrayal of 
West Point. In 1826 a short-lived Owenite Community (of 
about 80 members) was established near West Haverstraw and 
Garnerville (in the township of Haverstraw). The members 
of the community established a Church of Reason, in which 
lectures were delivered on ethics, philosophy and science. 
Dissensions soon arose in the community, the experiment was 
abandoned within five months, and most of the members joined 
in turn the Coxsackie Community, also in New York, and the 
Kendal Community, near Canton, Ohio, both of which were 
also short-lived. The village of Haverstraw was originally 
known as Warren and was incorporated under that name in 
1854; in 1873 it became officially the village of Haverstraw — 
both names had previously been used locally. The village of 
West Haverstraw (pop. in 1890, 180; in 1900, 2079; an d ' n i 9 io j 
2369), also in Haverstraw township, was founded in 1830, was 
long known as Samsondaie, and was incorporated under its 
present name in 1883. 

See F. B. Green, History of Rockland County (New York, 1886). 
scholar, was born in Paris on the nth of April 1813. Educated 
at the Lycee Saint-Louis and the Ecole Normale, he was for 
many years before his death on the 21st of December 1889 
professor of Latin eloquence at the College de France. His two 
capital works were a commentary on the works of Pascal, Pensies 
de Pascal publiees dans leitr texte authenlique avec un commentaire 
suivi (1852; 2nd ed. 2 vols., 1881), and Le Christianisme el ses 
origincs (4 vols., 1871-1884), the chief thesis of which was that 
Christianity owed more to Greek philosophy than to the writings 
of the Hebrew prophets. His elder son, Pierre Antoine Louis 
Havet (b. 1849), was professor of Latin philology at the College 
de France and a member of the Institute. The younger, Julien, 
is separately noticed. 

HAVET, ' JULIEN (Pierre Eugene) (1853-1893), French 
historian, was born at Vitry-sur-Seine on the 4th of April 1853, 
the second son of Ernest Havet. He early showed a remarkable 
aptitude for learning, but had a pronounced aversion for pure 
rhetoric. His studies at the Ecole des Charles (where he took 
first place both on entering and leaving) and at the Ecole des 
Hautes Etudes did much to develop his critical faculty, and the 
historical method taught and practised at these establishments 
brought home to him the dignity of history, which thenceforth 
became his ruling passion. His valedictory thesis at the Ecole 
des Chart es, Serie chronologique des gardiens el seigneurs des lies 
Normandes (1876), was a definitive work and but slightly affected 
by later research. In 1878 he followed his thesis by a study called 
Lcs Cours royalcs dans les lies Normandes. Both these works were 
composed entirely from the original documents at the Public 
Record Office, London, and the archives of Jersey and Guernsey. 
On the history of Merovingian institutions, Havet's conclusions 
were widely accepted (see La For mule N. rex F rancor., v. inl.. 

1885). His first work in this province was Du sens du mot 
" romain " dans les lots franques (1876), acritical study on atheory 
of Fustel de Coulanges. In this he showed that the status of the 
homo Romanus of the barbarian laws was inferior to that of the 
German freeman; that the Gallo-Romans had been subjected 
by the Germans to a state of servitude; and, consequently, 
that the Germans had conquered the Gallo-Romans. He aimed 
a further blow at Fustel's system by showing that the Frankish 
kings had never borne the Roman title of vir inhister, and that 
they could not therefore be considered as being in the first place 
Roman magistrates; and that in the royal diplomas the king 
issued his commands as rex Francorum and addressed his 
functionaries as viri inlustres. His attention having been drawn 
to questions of authenticity by the forgeries of Vrain Lucas, he 
devoted himself to tracing the spurious documents that en- 
cumbered and perverted Merovingian and Carolingian history. 
In his A propos des decouvertes de Jerome Vignier (1880), he 
exposed the forgeries committed in the 17th century by this 
priest. He then turned his attention to a group of documents 
relating to ecclesiastical history in the Carolingian period and 
bearing on the question of false decretals, and produced Les 
Charles de St-Calais (1887) and Les Actes de I'cveche du Mans 
(1894). On the problems afforded by the chronology of Gerbert's 
(Pope Silvester II.) letters and by the notes in cipher in the MS. 
of his letters, he wrote L'Ecriture secrete de Gerbert (1877), which 
may be compared with his Notes tironiennes dans les diplomes 
mfrovingiens (1885). In 1889 he brought out an edition of 
Gerbert's letters, which was a model of critical sagacity. Each 
new work increased his reputation, in Germany as well as France. 
At the Bibliotheque Nationale, where he obtained a post, he 
rendered great service by his wide knowledge of foreign languages, 
and read voraciously everything that related, however remotely, 
to his favourite studies. He was finally appointed assistant 
curator in the department of printed books. He died pre- 
maturely at St Cloud on the 19th of August 1893. 

After his death his published and unpublished writings were 
collected and published (with the exception of Les Cours royales des 
lies Normandes and Lettres de Gerbert) in two volumes called Questions 
merovingiennes and Opuscules inedits (1896), containing, besides 
important papers on diplomatic and on Carolingian and Merovingian 
history, a large number of short monographs ranging over a great 
variety of subjects. A collection of his articles was published 
by his friends under the title of Melanges Havet (1895), pre- 
fixed by a bibliography of his works compiled by his friend Henri 
Omont. (C. B.*) 

HAVRE, LE, a seaport of north-western France, in the depart- 
ment of Seine-Inferieure, on the north bank of the estuary of the 
Seine, 143 m. W.N.W. of Paris and 55 m. W. of Rouen by the 
Western railway. Pop. (1906), 129,403. The greater part of the 
town stands on the level strip of ground bordering the estuary, 
but on the N. rises an eminence, la Cote, covered by the gardens 
and villas of the richer quarter. The central point of the town 
is the Place de l'hotel de ville in which are the public gardens. 
It is crossed by the Boulevard de Strasbourg, running from the 
sea on the west to the railway station and the barracks on the 
east. The rue de Paris, the busiest street, starts at the Grand 
Quai, overlooking the outer harbour, and, intersecting the Place 
Gambetta, runs north and enters the Place de I'hotel de ville on 
its southern side. The docks start immediately to the east of this 
street and extend over a large area to the south and south-east 
of the town. Apart from the church of Notre-Dame, dating 
from the 16th and 17th centuries, the chief buildings of Havre, 
including the hotel de ville, the law courts, and the exchange, 
are of modern erection. The museum contains a collection of 
antiquities and paintings. Havre is the seat of a sub-prefect, 
and forms part of the maritime arrondissement of Cherbourg. 
Among the public institutions are a tribunal of first instance, a 
tribunal of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a tribunal of 
maritime commerce, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the 
Bank of France. There are lycees for boys and girls, schools of 
commerce and other educational establishments. Havre, which is 
a fortified place of the second class, ranks second to Marseilles 
among French seaports. There are nine basins (the oldest of which 



dates back to 1669) with an area of about 200 acres and more 
than 8 m. of quays. They extend to the east of the outer 
harbour which on the west opens into the new outer harbour, 
formed by two breakwaters converging from the land and leaving 
an entrance facing west. The chief docks (see Dock for plan) 
are the Bassin Bellot and the Bassin de l'Eure. In the latter 
the mail-steamers of the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique are 
berthed; and the Tancarvillc canal, by which river-boats unable 
to attempt the estuary of the Seine can make the port direct, 
enters the harbour by this basin. There are, besides, several 
repairing docks and a petroleum dock for the use of vessels carry- 
ing that dangerous commodity. The port, which is an important 
point of emigration, has regular steam-communication with 
New York (by the vessels of the Compagnie Generale Trans- 
atlantique) and with man}- of the other chief ports of Europe, 
North, South and Central America, the West Indies and Africa. 
Imports in 1907 reached a value of £57,686,000. The chief were 
cotton, for which Havre is the great French market, coffee, 
copper and other metals, cacao, cotton goods, rubber, skins and 
hides, silk goods, dye-woods, tobacco, oil-seeds, coal, cereals and 
wool. In the same year exports were valued at £47,130,000, the 
most important being cotton, silk and woollen goods, coffee, hides, 
leather, wine and spirits, rubber, tools and metal ware, earthen- 
ware and glass, clothes and millinery, cacao and fancy goods. 
In 1907 the total tonnage of shipping (with cargoes) reached its 
highest point, viz. 5,671,975 tons (4018 vessels) compared with 
3,816,340 tons (3832 vessels) in 1898. Forty-two per cent of 
this shipping sailed under the British flag. France and Germany 
were Great Britain's most serious rivals. Havre possesses oil 
works, soap works, saw mills, flour mills, works for extracting 
dyes and tannin from dye-woods, an important tobacco manu- 
factory, chemical works and rope works. It also has metal- 
lurgical and engineering works which construct commercial and 
war-vessels of every kind as well as engines and machinery, 
cables, boilers, &c. 

Until 1 516 Havre was only a fishing village possessing a 
chapel dedicated to Notre-Dame de Grace, to which it owes 
the name. Havre (harbour) de Grace, given to it by Francis I. 
when he began the construction of its harbour. The town in 
1562 was delivered over to the keeping of Queen Elizabeth 
by Louis 1.. prince de Conde, leader of the Huguenots, and the 
command of it was entrusted to Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick; 
but the English were expelled in 1563, after a most obstinate 
siege, which was pressed forward by Charles IX. and his mother, 
Catherine de' Medici, in person. The defences of the town 
and the harbour-works were continued by Richelieu and com- 
pleted by Vauban. In 1694 it was vainly besieged by the 
English, who also bombarded it in 1759, 1794 and 1795. It 
was a port of considerable importance as early as 1572, and 
despatched vessels to the whale and cod-fishing at Spitsbergen 
and Newfoundland. In 1672 it became the entrepot of the 
French East India Company, and afterwards of the Senegal 
and Guinea companies. Napoleon I. raised it to a war harbour 
of the first rank, and under Napoleon III. works begun by Louis 
XVI. were completed. 

See A. E. Borelv, Ilistoire de la ville du Havre (Le Havre, 1880- 

HAWAII (Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands), a Territory of 
the United States of America, consisting of a chain of islands 
in the North Pacific Ocean, eight inhabited and several unin- 
habited. The inhabited islands lie between latitudes 18° 54' 
and 22 15' N., and between longitudes 154° 50' and 160 30' W., 
and extend about 380 m. from E.S.E. to W.N.W.; the unin- 
habited ones, mere rocks and reefs, valuable only for their 
guano deposits and shark-fishing grounds, continue the chain 
several hundred miles farther W.N.W. From Honolulu, the 
capital, which is about 100 m. N.W. of the middle of the inhabited 
group, the distance to San Francisco is about 2100 m.; to 
Auckland, New Zealand, about 3810 m.; to Sydney, New South 
Wales, about 4410 m.; to Yokohama, about 3400 m.; to 
Hong-Kong, about 4920 m.; to Manila, about 4890 m. The 
total area of the inhabited islands is 6651 sq. m., distributed as 

follows: Hawaii, 4210; Maui, 728; Oahu, about 600; Kauai, 
547; Molokai, 261; Lanai, 139; Niihau, 97; Kahoolawe, 69. 

All the islands are of volcanic origin, and have been built up by 
the eruptive process from a base about 15,000 ft. below the sea to a 
maximum height (Mauna Kea) on the largest island (Hawaii) of 
13,823 ft. above the sea; altogether there are forty volcanic peaks. 
Evidence of slight upheaval is occasionally afforded by an elevated 
coral-reef along the shore, and evidence of the subsidence of the S. 
portion of Oahu for several hundred feet has been discovered by 
artesian borings through coral-rock. In some instances, notably 
the high and nearly vertical wall along the N. shore of the E. half 
of Molokai, there is evidence of a fracture followed by the sub- 
mergence of a portion of a volcano. With the exception of the coral 
and a small amount of calcareous sandstone, the rocks are entirely 
volcanic and range from basalt to trachyte, but are mainly basalt. 
Cinder cones and tufa cones abound, but one of the most distinguish- 
ing features of the Hawaiian volcanoes is the great number of 
craters of the engulfment type, i.e. pit-craters which enlarge slowly 
by the breaking off and falling in of their walls, and discharge vast 
lava-flows with comparatively little violence. The age of the several 
inhabited islands, or at least the time since the last eruptions on 
them, decreases from W. to E., and on the most easterly (Hawaii) 
volcanic forces are still in operation. That those to the westward 
have long been inactive is shown by the destruction of craters by 
denudation, by deep ravines, valleys and tall cliffs eroded on the 
mountain sides, especially on the windward side, by the depth of 
soil formed from the disintegrated rocks, and by the amount as well 
as variety of vegetable life. 

Hawaii Island, from which the group and later the Territory 
was named, has the shape of a rude triangle with sides of 90 m., 
75 m. and 65 m. Its coast, unlike that of the other islands of 
the archipelago, has few coral reefs. Its surface consists mainly 
of the gentle slopes of five volcanic mountains which have 
encroached much upon one another by their eruptions. 

Mauna Loa (" Great Mountain "), on the S., is by far the largest 
volcano in the world; from a base measuring at sea-level about 75 in. 
from N. to S. and 50 m. from E. to W., it rises gradually to a height 
of 13,675 ft. On its E.S.E. side, at an elevation of 4000 ft. above 
the sea (300 ft. above the adjoining plain on the W.) is Kilauea, 
from whose lava-flows the island has been extended to form its S.E. 
angle. To the N.N.E. ot Mauna Loa, and blending with it in an 
intervening plateau, is Mauna Kea ("White Mountain," so named 
from the snow on its summit), with a much smaller base. but with 
steeper slopes and a crowning cinder cone 13,823 ft. above the sea, 
the maximum height in the Pacific Ocean; blending with Mauna 
Loa on the N.N.W. is Mauna Hualalai, 8269 ft. in height; and rising 
abruptly from the extreme N.W. shore are the remains of the oldest 
mountains of the island, the Kohala, with a summit 5505 ft. in height. 
On the land side the Kohala Mountains have been covered with lava 
from Mauna Kea, and form the broad plains of Kohala, having a 
maximum elevation of about 3000 ft.; on the ocean side, wherever 
this lava has not extended, erosion has gone on until bluffs 1000 ft. 
in height face the sea and the enormous gorges of Waipio and 
Waimanu, with nearly perpendicular walls as much as 3000 ft. 
high and extending inland 5-6 m., have been formed. Mauna Kea 
is not nearly so old as the Kohala Mountains, but there is no record 
of its eruption, nor have its lavas a modern aspect. The last eruption 
of Mauna Hualalai was in 1801. Mauna Loa and Kilauea are still 
active. Cinder cones are the predominant type of craters on both 
Mauna Kea and the Kohala Mountains, and they are also numerous 
on the upper slopes of Mauna Hualalai ; but the more typically 
Hawaiian pit or engulfment craters also abound on Mauna Hualalai 
and Mokuaweoweo, crowning the summit of Mauna Loa, as well as 
Kilauea, to the S.E. of it, are prominent representatives of this type. 
Kilauea is the largest active crater in the world (8 m. in circum- 
ference) and is easily accessible. Enclosed by a circular wall from 
200 to 700 ft. in height is a black and slightly undulating plain 
having an area of 4-14 sq. m., and within this plain is a pit, Hale- 
maumau, of varying area (about 2000 ft. in diameter in 1905), now 
full of boiling lava, now empty to a depth of perhaps 1000 ft. When 
most active, Halemaumau affords a grand spectacle, especially at 
night : across the crust run glowing cracks, the crust is then broken 
into cakes, the cakes plunge beneath, lakes of liquid lava are formed, 
over whose surface play fire-fountains 10 to 50 ft. in height, the 
surface again solidifies and the process is repeated. 1 According to 
an account of the natives, a violent eruption of Kilauea occurred in 
1789, or about that time, and deposits of volcanic sand, large stones, 
sponge-like scoria (pumice) and ashes for miles around are evidence 
of such an eruption. Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of 
American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized 

1 Among the minor phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the 
delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are 
spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, 
and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater. Pele in 
idolatrous times was the dreaded goddess of Kilauea. 

8 4 


world in 1823, the eruptions have consisted mainly in the quiet 
discharge of lava through a subterranean passage into the sea. In 
the eruptions of 1823, 1832, 1840 and 1868 the floor of the crater 
rose on the eve of an eruption and then sank, sometimes hundreds 
of feet, with the discharge of lava; but since 1868 (in 1879, 1886, 
1891, 1894 and 1907; and once, before 1868, in 1855) this action 
has been confined to Halemaumau and such other pits as at the time 

Mokuaweoweo, on the flat top of Mauna Loa, is a pit crater with 
a floor 3-7 sq. m. in area and sunk 500-600 ft. within walls that 
are almost vertical and that measure 9-47 m. in circumference. 
Formerly, on the eve of a great eruption of Mauna Loa, this crater 
often spouted forth great columns of flame and emitted clouds of 
vapour, but in modern times this action has usually been followed 
by a fracture of the mountain side from the summit down to a point 
1000 ft. or more below where the lava was discharged in great 
streams, the action at the summit diminishing or wholly ceasing 
when this discharge began. The first recorded eruption of_ Mauna 
Loa was in 1832; since then there have been eruptions in 1851, 
1852, 1855, 1859, 1868, 1880-1881, 1887, 1896, 1899 and 1907. The 
eruptions of 1868, 1887 and 1907 were attended by earthquakes; 
in 1868 huge sea waves, 40 ft. in height, were raised, and, as they 
broke on the S. shore, they destroyed the villages of Punaluu, 
Ninole, Kawaa and Honuapo. But the eruptions of Mauna Loa 
have consisted mainly in the quiet discharge of enormous flows of 
lava: in 1859 the lava-stream, which began to run on the 23rd of 
January, flowed N.W., reached the sea, 33 m. distant, eight days 
later, and continued to flow into it until the 25th of November; 
and the average length of the flows from seven other eruptions is 
nearly 14 m. The surface of the upper slopes of Mauna Loa is 
almost wholly of two widely different kinds of barren lava-flows, 
called by the Hawaiians the pahoehoe and the aa. The pahoehoe 
has a smooth but billowy or hummocky surface, and is marked by 
lines which show that it cooled as it flowed. The aa is lava broken 
into fragments having sharp and jagged edges. As the same stream 
sometimes changes abruptly from one kind to the other, the two 
kinds must be due to different conditions affecting the flow, and 
among the conditions which may cause a stream to break up into 
the aa have been mentioned the greater depth of the stream, a 
sluggish current, impediments in its course just as it is granulating, 
and, what is more probable, subterranean moisture which causes it 
to cool from below upward instead of from above downward as in 
the pahoehoe. The natives are in the habit of making holes in the aa, 
and planting in them banana shoots or sweet-potato cuttings, and 
though the holes are simply filled with stones or fern leaves, the 

plants grow and in due time are productive. Another curious feature 
of Mauna Loa, and to some extent of other Hawaiian volcanoes, is 
the great number of caves, some of them as much as 60 to 80 ft. in 
height and several miles in length ; they were produced by the 
escape of lava over which a crust had formed. In the midst of 
barren wastes to the S.E. and S.W. of Kilauea are small channels 
with steam cracks, along which appears the only vegetation of the 

Maui, lying 26 m. N.W. of Hawaii, is composed of two 
mountains connected by an isthmus, Wailuku, 7 or 8 m. long, 
about 6 m. across, and about 160 ft. above the sea in its 
highest part. 

Mauna Haleakala, on the E. peninsula, has a height of 10,032 ft., 
and forms a great dome-like mass, with a circumference at the base 
of 90 m. and regular slopes of only 8° or 9 . It has numerous cinder 
cones on its S.W. slope, is well wooded on the N. and E. slopes, 
and has on its summit an extinct pit-crater which is one of the 
largest in the world. This crater is 7-48 m. long, 2-37 m. wide, 
and covers 19 sq. m. ; the circuit of its walls, which are composed of 
a hard grey clinkstone much fissured, is 20 m. ; its greatest depth 
is 2720 ft. At opposite ends arc breaks in the walls a mile or more 
in width — one about 1000 ft., the other at least 3000 ft. in depth — 
through which poured the lava of probably the last great eruption. 
From the floor of the crater rise sixteen well-preserved cinder-cones, 
which range from more than 400 ft. to 900 ft. in height. Along the 
N. base of the mountain are numerous ravines (several hundred feet 
deep), to the bottom of which small streams of water fall in long 
cascades, but elsewhere on the eastern mountain there is little erosion 
or other mark of age. That the mountainous mass of western Maui 
is much older is shown by the destruction of its crater, by its sharp 
ridges and by deeply eroded gorges or valleys. Its highest peak, 
Puu Kukui, rises 5788 ft. above the sea, and directly under this 
is the head of Iao Valley, 5 m. long and 2 m. wide, which has been cut 
in the mountain to a depth of 4000 ft. This and the smaller valleys 
are noted for the beauty of their tropical scenery. 

Kahoolawe is a small island 6 m. S.W. of Maui. It is 14 m. 
long by 6 m. wide. Its mountains, which rise to a height of 
1472 ft., are rugged and nearly destitute of verdure, but the 
intervening valleys afford pasturage for sheep. 

Lanai is another small island, 7 m. W. of Maui, about 18 m. 
long and 12 m. wide. It has a mountain range which rises to a 



maximum height, S.E. of its centre, of about 3480 ft. The N.E. 
slope is cut by deep gorges, and at the bottom of one of these, 
which is 2000 ft. deep, is the only water-supply on the island. 
On the S. side is a rolling table-land affording considerable 
pasturage for sheep, but over the whole N.W. portion of the 
island the trade winds, driving through the channel between 
Maui and Molokai, sweep the rocks bare. Kahoolawe and Lanai 
are both privately owned. 

Molokai, 8 m. X.W. of Maui, extends 40 m. from E. to W. 
and has an average width of nearly 7 m. From the S.W. ex- 
tremity of the island rises the backbone of a ridge which extends 
E.X.E. about 10 m., where it culminates in the round-topped 
hill of Mauna Loa, 1382 ft. above the sea. Both the northern 
and southern slopes of this ridge are cut by ravines and gulches, 
and along the X. shore is a steep sea-cliff. At the E. extremity 
of the ridge there is a sudden drop to a low and gently rolling 
plain, but farther on the surface rises gradually towards a range 
of mountains which comprises more than one-half the island 
and attains a maximum height of 4958 ft. in the peak of Kama- 
kou. The S. slope of this range is gradual but is cut by many 
straight and narrow ravines, in some instances to a great depth. 
The X. slope is abrupt, with precipices from 1000 to 4000 ft. 
in height. Ex: ending N. from the foot of the precipice, a little 
E. of the centre of the island, is a comparatively low peninsula 
(separated from the mainland by a rock wall 2000 ft. high), 
on which is a famous leper settlement. The peninsula forms a 
separate county, Kalawao. 

Oahit, 23 m. N.W. of Molokai, has an irregular quadrangular 
form. It is traversed from S.E. to N.W. by two roughly parallel 
ranges of hill separated by a plain that is 20 m. long and in some 
parts 9 to 10 m. wide. The highest point in the island is Mauna 
Kaala. 4030 ft., in the Waianae or W. range; but the Koolau 
or E. range is much longer than the other, and its ridge is very 
much broken; on the land side there are many ravines formed 
by lateral spurs, but to the sea for 30 m. it presents a nearly 
vertical wall without a break. The valleys are remarkable for 
beautiful scenery, — peaks, cliffs, lateral ravines, cascades and 
tropical vegetation. There are few craters on the loftier heights, 
but on the coasts there are several groups of small cones with 
craters, some of lava, others of tufa. The greater part of the 
coast is surrounded by a coral reef, often half a mile wide; in 
several localities an old reef upheaved, sometimes 100 ft. high, 
forms part of the land. 

Kauai. 63 m. W.X.W. of Oahu, has an irregularly circular 
form with a maximum diameter of about 25 m. On the N.W. 
is a precipice 2000 ft. or more in height and above this is a 
mountain plain, but elsewhere around the island is a shore- 
plain, from which rises Mount Waialeale to a height of 5250 ft. 
The peaks of the mountain are irregular, abrupt and broken; 
its sides are deeply furrowed by gorges and ravines; the shore 
plain is broken by ridges and by broad and deep valleys; no 
other island of the group is so well watered on all sides by large 
mountain streams; and it is called " garden isle." 

Niihau, the most westerly of the inhabited islands, is 18 m. S.of Kauai. It is 16 m.longand 6 m. wide. The western 
two-thirds consists of a low plain, composed of an uplifted 
coral reef and matter washed down from the mountains; but 
on the E. side the island rises precipitously from the sea and 
attains a maximum height of 1304 ft. at Paniau. There are 
large salt lagoons on the southern coast. 

Climate. — The climate is cooler than that of other regions in the 
same latitude, and is very healthy. The sky is usually cloudless 
or only partly cloudy. The N.E. trades blow with periodic varia- 
tions from March to December; and the leeward coast, being pro- 
tected by high mountains, is refreshed by regular land and sea 
breezes. During January, February and a part of March the wind 
blows strongly from the S. or S.W. ; and at this season an unpleasant 
hot, damp wind is sometimes felt. More rain falls from January to 
May than during the other months; very much more falls on' the 
windward side of the principal islands than on the leeward; and the 
amount increases with the elevation also up to about 4000 ft. The 
greatest recorded extremes of local rainfall for a year within the larger 
islands range from 12 to 300 in. For Honolulu the mean annual 
rainfall (,1884-1899) was 28-18 in.; the maximum 49-82 ; and the 

minimum 13-46. At sea level the daily average temperature for 
July is 76-4° F., for December 70-7° F. : the mean annual tempera- 
ture is about 73° F. — 68° during the night, 8o° during the day — 
and for each 200 ft. of elevation the temperature falls about 1° F., 
and snow lies for most of the time on the highest mountains. 

Flora. — The Hawaiian Islands have a peculiar flora. As a result 
of their isolation, the proportion of endemic plants is greater here 
than in any other region, and the great elevation of the mountains, 
with the consequent variation in temperature, moisture and baro- 
metric pressure, has multiplied the number of species. Towards the 
close of the 19th century William Ilillebrand found 365 genera and 
999 species, and of this number of species 653 were peculiar to this 
part of the Pacific. The number of species is greatest on the older 
islands, particularly Kauai and Oahj, and the total number for the 
group has been constantly increasing, some being introduced, others 
possibly being produced by the varying climatic conditions from 
those already existing. Among the peculiar dicotyledonous plants 
there is not a single annual, and by far the greater number are per- 
ennial and woody. Hawaiian forests are distinctly tropical, and are 
composed for the most part of trees below the medium height. They 
are most common between elevations of 2000 and 8000 ft. ; there 
are only a few species below 2000 ft., and above 8000 ft. the growth 
is stunted. The destruction of considerable portions of the forests 
by cattle, goats, insects, fire and cutting has been followed by re- 
foresting, the planting of hitherto barren tracts, the passage of severe 
forest fire laws, and the establishment of forest reserves, of which 
the area in 1909 was 545,746 acres, of which 357,180 were govern- 
ment land. In regions of heavy rainfall the ohia-lchua (Metrosideros 
pblymorpha), a tree growing from 30 to 100 ft. in height, is predomi- 
nant, and on account of the dense undergrowth chiefly of ferns 
and climbing vines, forms the most impenetrable of the forests; 
its hard wood is used chiefly for fuel. The koa (Acacia koa), from 
the wood of which the natives used to make the bodies of their canoes, 
and the only tree of the islands that furnishes much valuable lumber 
(a hard cabinet wood marketed as " Hawaiian mahogany "), forms 
extensive forests on Hawaii and Maui between elevations of 2000 and 
4000 ft. The mamane (Sophora chrysophylla) , which furnishes the 
best posts, grows principally on the high slopes of Mauna Kea and 
Hualalai. Posts and railway ties are also made from ohia-ha 
(Eugenia sandwicensis). In many districts between elevations of 
2000 and 6000 ft., where there is only a moderate amount of moisture, 
occur mixed forests of koa, koaia (Acacia koaia), kopiko (Straussia 
oncocarpa and 5. hawaiiensis) , kolea (Myrsine kauaiensis and 
M. lanaiensis), naio or bastard sandalwood (Myoporum sandwicense) 
and pua (Olea sandwicensis) ; of these the koaia furnishes a hard 
wood suitable for the manufacture of furniture, and out of it the 
natives formerly made spears and fancy paddles. The wood of 
the naio when dry has a fragrance resembling that of sandalwood, 
and is used for torches in fishing. The kukui (Aleuriles triloba) and 
the algaroba (Prosopis juliflora) are the principal species of forest 
trees that occur below elevations of 2000 ft. The kukui grows along 
streams and gulches ; from its nuts, which are very oily, the natives 
used to make candles, and it is still frequently called the candlenut 
tree. On the leeward side, from near the sea level to elevations 
of 1500 ft., and on ground that was formerly barren, the algaroba 
tree has formed dense forests since its introduction in 1837. Forests 
of iron-wood and blue gum have also been planted. Sandalwood 
(Santalum album or freycinetianum) was once abundant on rugged 
and rather inaccessible heights, but so great a demand arose for it in 
China, 1 where it was used for incense and for the manufacture of 
fancy articles, that the supply was nearly exhausted between 1802 
and 1836; since then some young trees have sprung up, but the 
number is relatively small. Other peculiar trees prized for their 
wood are: the kauila (Alphitonia potiderosa), used for making 
spears, mallets and other tools; the kela (Mezoneuron kauaiense), 
the hard wood of which resembles ebony; the halapepe (Dracaena 
aurea), out of the soft wood of which the natives carved many oi 
their idols; and the wiliwili (Erythrina monosperma), the wood of 
which is as light as cork and is used for outriggers. In 1909, on six 
large rubber plantations, mostly on the windward side of the island of 
Maui, there were planted 444,450 ceara trees, 66,700 hevea trees, and 
600 castilloa trees. About the only indigenous fruit-bearing plants 
are the Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiiensis) and the ohelo berry 
(V actinium reticulatum), both of which grow at high elevations on 
Hawaii and Maui. The ohelo berry is famous in song and story, and 
formerly served as a propitiatory offering to Pele. The number of 
fruit-bearing trees, shrubs and plants that have been introduced and 
are successfully cultivated or grow wild is much greater; among 
them are the mango, orange, banana, pineapple, coconut, palm, grape, 
fig, strawberry, litchi (Nephelium litchi) — the favourite fruit of the 
Chinese — avocado or alligator pear (Persea gratissima), Sapodilla pear 
(Achras sapota), loquat or mcspilus plum (Eriobotrya japonica) , Cape 
gooseberry (Physalis peruviana), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), 
papaw (Carica papaya), resembling in appearance the cantaloupe, 
granadilla (Passiflora quadrangularis) and guava (Psidium guajava). 
Most of the nativ-e grasses are too coarse for grazing, and some of 

1 The Chinese name for the Hawaiian Islands means " Sandalwood 



them, particularly the hilo grass {Paspalum conjugatum), which forms 
a dense mat over the ground, prevent the spread of forests. The pili 
grass (Heteropogon contortus) is also noxious, for its awns get badly 
entangled in the wool of sheep. The native manienie {Stenotaphrum 
americanum) and kukai (Panicum pruriens), however, are relished 
by stock and are found on all the inhabited islands; the Bermuda 
grass (Cynodon dactylon), a June grass (Poa annua), and Guinea grass 
(Panicum jumentorum) have also been successfully introduced. 
The Paspalum orbiculare is the large swamp grass with which the 
natives covered their houses. On the island of Niihau is a fine 
grass {Cyperus laevigatus) , out of which the beautiful Niihau mats 
were formerly made; it is used in making Panama hats. Mats 
were also made of the leaves of the hala tree (Pandanus odoratissi- 
mus). The wauke plant (Broussonetia papyrifera), and to a less 
extent the mamake (Pipturus albidus) and Boehmeria stipularis, 
furnished the bark out of which the famous kapa cloth was made, 
while the olopa {Cheirodendron gaudichaudii) and the koolea (Myrsine 
lessertiana) furnished the dyes with which it was coloured. From 
several species of Cibotium is obtained a glossy yellowish wool, 
used for making pillows and mattresses. Ferns, of which there are 
about 130 species varying from a few inches to 30 ft. in height, 
form a luxuriant undergrowth in the ohia-lehua and the koa forests, 
and the islands are noted for the profusion and beautiful colours 
of their flowering plants. Kalo (Colocasia antiquorum, var., escu- 
lenta), which furnishes the principal food of the natives, and sugar 
cane {Saccharum officinarum) , the cultivation of which has become 
the chief industry of the islands, were introduced before the discovery 
of the group by Captain Cook in 1778. Sisal hemp has been intro- 
duced, and there is a large plantation of it W. of Honolulu. 

Over seventy varieties of seaweeds, growing in the fresh-water 
pools and in the waters near the coast, are used by the natives 
as food. These limus, as they are called by the Kanakas, are 
washed, salted, broken and eaten as a relish or as a flavouring 
for fish or other meat. The culture of such algae may prove of eco- 
nomic importance; gelatine, glue and agar-agar would be valuable 

Fauna. — A day-flying bat, whales and dolphins are about the only 
indigenous mammals ; hogs, dogs and rats had been introduced before 
Cook's discovery. Fish in an interesting variety of colours and 
shapes abound in the sea and in artificial ponds along the coasts. 1 
There are some fine species of birds, and the native avifauna is so 
distinctive that Wallace argued from it that the Hawaiian Archi- 
pelago had long been separated from any other land. There were 
native names for 89 varieties. The most typical family is the 
Drepanidae, so named for the stout sickle-shaped beak with which 
the birds extract insects from heavy-barked trees; Gadow con- 
siders the family American in its origin, and thinks that the Moho 2 
a family of honey-suckers, were later comers and from Australia. 
The mamo (Drepanis pacifica) has large golden feathers on its back ; 
it is now very rare, and is seldom found except on Mauna Loa, 
Hawaii, about 4000 ft. above the sea. The smaller yellow feathers, 
once used for the war cloaks of the native chiefs, were furnished by 
the 00 (Moho nobilis) and the aa (Moho braccatus) , now found only 
occasionally in the valleys of Kauai near Hanalei, on the N. side of 
the island ; scarlet feathers for similar mantles were taken from the 
iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), a black-bodied, scarlet-winged song-bird, 
which feeds on nectar and on insects found in the bark of the koa 
and ohia trees, and from the Fringilla coccinea. In the old times 
birds were protected by the native belief that divine messages were 
conveyed by bird cries, and by royal edict forbidding the killing 
of species furnishing the material for feather cloaks, contributions 
towards which were long almost the only taxes paid. Thus the 
downfall of the monarchy and of the ancient cults have been nearly 
fatal to some of the more beautiful birds; feather ornaments, 
formerly worn only by nobles, came to be a common decoration ; 
and many species (for example the Hawaiian gallinule, Gallinula 
sandwicensis, which, because of its crimson frontal plate and bill, 
was said by the natives to have played the part of Prometheus, 
burning its head with fire stolen from the gods and bestowed on 
mortals) have been nearly destroyed by the mongoose, or have 
been driven from their lowland homes to the mountains, such being 
the fate of the mamo, mentioned above, and of the Sandwich Island 
goose (Bernicla sandwicensis), which is here a remarkable example of 
adaptation, as its present habitat is quite arid. This goose has 
been introduced successfully into Europe. A bird called moho, 
but actually of a different family, was the Pennula ecaudata or 
millsi, which had hardly any tail, and had wings so degenerate 
that it was commonly thought wingless. The turnstone (Strepsilas 
inlerpres) arrives in the islands in August after breeding in Alaska. 
There are no parrots. The only reptiles are three species of skinks 
and four of the gecko ; the islands are famed for their freedom from 

1 Partly described by T. S. Streets, Contributions to the Natural 
History of the Hawaiian and Fanning Islands, Bulletin 7 of U.S. 
National Museum (Washington, 1877). Several new species are 
described in U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Document, No. 623 (Washing- 
ton, 1907). 

2 So Lesson called the family from the native name in 1831; 
Cabanis (1847) suggested Acrulocercus. 

snakes. Land-snails, mostly A chatinellidae, are remarkably frequent 
and diverse; over 300 varieties exist. Insects are numerous, and 
of about 500 species of beetle some 80 % are not known to exist 
elsewhere; cockroaches and green locusts are pests, as are, also, 
mosquitoes, 3 wasps, scorpions, centipedes and white ants, which 
have all been introduced from elsewhere. 

Soil. — The soil of the Territory is almost wholly a decomposition 
of lava, and in general differs much from the soils of the United 
States, particularly in the large amount of nitrogen (often more 
than 1-25% in cane and coffee soil, and occasionally 2-2%) and 
iron, and in the high degree of acidity. High up on the windward 
side of a mountain it is thin, light red or yellow, and of inferior 
quality. Low down on the leeward side it is dark red and fertile, 
but still too pervious to retain moisture well. In the older valleys 
on the islands of Kauai, Oahu and Maui, as well as on the lowland 
plain of Molokai, the soil is deeper and usually, too, the moisture is 
retained by a heavy clay. In some places along the coast there is a 
narrow strip of decomposed coral limestone; often, too, a coral reef 
has served to catch the sediment washed down the mountain 
side until a deep sedimentary soil has been deposited. On the still 
lower levels the soil is deepest and most productive. 

Agriculture. — The tenure by which lands were held before 1838 
was strictly feudal, resembling that of Germany in the I ith century, 
and lands were sometimes enfeoffed to the seventh degree. But 
in the " Great Division " which took place in 1848 and forms the 
foundation of present land titles, about 984,000 acres, nearly one- 
fourth of the inhabited area, were set apart for the crown, about 
1,495,000 acres for the government, and about 1,619,000 acres for 
the several chiefs; and the common people received fee-simple 
titles 4 for their house lots and the pieces of land which they culti- 
vated for themselves, about 28,600 acres, almost entirely in isolated 
patches of irregular shape hemmed in by the holdings of the crown, 
the government or the great chiefs. Generally the chiefs ran into 
debt; many died without heirs; and their lands passed largely 
into the hands of foreigners. At the abolition of the monarchy in 
1893, the crown domains were declared to be public lands, and, 
with the other government lands, were by the terms of annexation 
turned over to the United States in 1898. They had been offered for 
sale or lease in accordance with land acts (of 1884 and 1895 — the 
latter corresponding generally to the land laws of New Zealand) 
designed to promote division into small farms and their immediate 
improvement. In 1909 the area of the public land was about 
1,700,000 acres. In 1900 there were in the Territory 2273 farms, of 
which 1209 contained less than 10 acres, 785 contained between 10 
and 100 acres, and 116 contained 1000 acres or more. The natives 
seldom cultivate more than half an acre apiece, and the Portuguese 
settlers usually only 25 or 30 acres at most. Of the total area of 
the Territory only 86,854 acres, or 2-77%, were under cultivation 
in 1900, and of this 65,687 acres, or 75-6%, were divided into 170 
farms and planted to sugar-cane. In 1909 it was estimated that 
2 13,000 acres (about half of which was irrigated) were planted to sugar, 
one half being cropped each year. The average yield per acre of 
cane-sugar is the greatest in the world, 30 to 40 tons of cane being 
an average per acre, and as much as 10J tons of sugar having been 
produced from a single acre under irrigation. The cultivation of the 
cane was greatly encouraged by the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, 
which established practically free trade between the islands and the 
United States, and since 1879 it has been widely extended by means 
of irrigation, the water being obtained both by pumping from 
numerous artesian wells and by conducting surface water through 
canals and ditches. The sugar farms are mostly on the islands 
of Hawaii, Oahu, Maui and Kauai, at the bases of mountains; those 
on the leeward side have the better soil, but require much more 
irrigating. The product increased from 26,072,429 lb in 1876 
to 259,789,462 lb in 1890, 542,098,500 lb in 1899 and about 
1,060,000,000 lb (valued at more than $40,000,000) in 1909. Nearly 
all of it is exported to the United States. Rice was the second 
product in importance until competition with Japan, Louisiana and 
Texas made the crop a poor investment ; improved culture and 
machinery may restore rice culture to its former importance. It is 
grown almost wholly by Japanese and Chinese on small low farms 
along the coasts, mostly on the islands of Kauai and Oahu. In 
1899 the product amounted to 33,442,400 lb; in 1907 about 12,000 
acres were planted, and the crop was estimated to be worth $2, 500,000. 
Coffee of good quality is grown at elevations ranging between 1000 
to 3000 ft. above the sea; the Hawaiian product is called Kona 
coffee — from Kona, a district of the S. side of Hawaii island, where 
much of it is grown. In 1909 about 4500 acres were in coffee, 
the value of the crop was §350,000; and 1,763,119 lb of coffee, 
valued at $211,535, were exported from Hawaii to the mainland of 
the United States. A few bananas and (especially from Oahu) 
pineapples of fine quality are exported; since 1901 the canning of 

3 The entomological department of the Hawaii Experiment 
Station undertakes " mosquito control," and in 1905-1906 imported 
top-minnows (Poeciliidae) to destroy mosquito larvae. 

4 These and other title-holders received corresponding rights to 
the use of irrigation ditches, and to fish in certain sea areas adjacent 
to their holdings. 



pineapples has been successfully carried on, and in the year ending 
May 31, 1907, 186,700 cases were exported, being packed in nine 
canneries. Oranges, lemons, limes, figs, mangoes, grapes and 
peaches, besides a considerable variety of vegetables, are raised 
in small quantities lor local consumption. In 1909 the exports of 
fruits and nuts to the continental United States were valued at 
81,457,644. An excellent quality of sisal is grown. Rubber trees 
have been planted with some success, particularly on the eastern 
part of the island of Maui; they were not tapped for commercial 
use until 1909. In 1907 there were vanilla plantations in the islands 
of Oahu and Hawaii. Tobacco of a high grade, especially for 
wrappers, has been grown at the Agricultural Experiment Station's 
farm at Hamakua, on the island of Hawaii, where the tobacco is 
practically " shade grown " under the afternoon fogs from Mauna 
Kea. Cotton and silk culture have been experimented with on the 
islands; and the work of the Hawaiian Agricultural Experiment 
Station is of great value, in introducing new crops, in improving 
old, in studying soils and fertilizers and in entomological research. 
Honey is a crop of some importance; in 1908 the yield was about 
950 tons of honey and 15 tons of wax. The small islands of Lanai, 
Niihau and Kahoolawe are devoted chiefly to the raising of sheep 
and cattle — Niihau is one large privately owned sheep-ranch. 
There are large cattle-ranches on the islands supplying nearly all 
the meat for domestic consumption, and cattle-raising is second in 
importance to the sugar industry. It was estimated in 1908 that 
there were about 130,500 cattle and about 99,500 sheep on the 
islands. The " native " cattle, descended from those left on the 
islands by early navigators, are being improved by breeding with 
imported Hereford, Shorthorn, Angus and Holstein bulls, the Here- 
fords being the best for the purpose. In the fiscal year 1908, 
359,413 lb of wool (valued at $58,133) and 928,599 lb of raw hides 
(valued at 887,599) were shipped from the Territory to the United 

Minerals. — The islands have large (unworked) supplies of pumice, 
sandstone, sulphur, gypsum, alum and mineral-paint ochres, and 
some salt, kaolin and sal-ammoniac, but otherwise they are without 
mineral wealth other than lava rocks for building purposes. 

Manufactures. — The manufactures are chiefly sugar, fertilizers, 
and such products of the foundry and machine shop as are required 
for the machinery of the sugar factories. Most of the manufacturing 
industries, indeed, are maintained for supplying the local market, 
there being only three important exceptions — the manufacture of 
sugar, the cleaning of coffee and the cleaning and polishing of rice. 
The manufacture of sugar, which began between 1830 and 1840, 
has long been much the most important of the manufacturing in- 
dustries: thus in 1900 the value of the sugar production was 
$19,254,773, and the total value of all manufactures, including 
custom work and repairing, was only $24,992,068. Next to sugar, 
fertilizers were the most important manufactured product, their value 
being §1,150,625; the products of the establishments for the 
polishing and cleaning cf rice were valued at 8664,300. Of the total 
product in 1900, only 18-5 % (by value) is to be credited to the city 
of Honolulu. The growth of manufacturing is much hampered by 
the lack of labour. Excellent water power is utilized on the island 
of Kauai in an electric plant. 

Communications. — There are good wagon roads on the islands, 
some of them macadamized, built of the hard blue lava rock. 
Hawaii had in 1909 about 200 m. of railway, of which the principal 
line is that of the Oahu Railway & Land Company (about 89 m.), 
extending from Honolulu W. and N. along the coast to Kahuku 
abcut one-half the distance around Oahu; another line from 
Kahuku Mill, the most northerly point of the island, S.E. to Hono- 
lulu, was projected in 1905; on the island of Hawaii is the Hilo 
Railroad (about 46 m.), carrying sugar, pineapples, rubber and 
lumber; other railways arc for the most part short lines on sugar 
estates and in coffee-producing sections of the islands of Hawaii 
and Maui. Each of the larger islands has one or more ports which a 
local steamboat serves regularly, and Honolulu has the regular 
service of seven trans-Pacific lines (the American-Hawaiian Steamship 
Co., the Canadian-Australian Steamship Co., the Matson Navigation 
Co., the Oceanic Steamship Co., the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., the 
Mexican Oriental and the Toyo Kiscn Kaisha) ; it is a midway 
station for vessels between the United States (mainland) and Australia 
and Southern Asia. In 1908 five steamship companies were engaged 
in traffic between island ports and the mainland (including Mexico). 
Honolulu has cable connexion with San Francisco and the East, and 
the several islands of the group are served by wireless telegraph. 

Commerce. — The position of the archipelago, at the " cross-roads " 
of the \orth Pacific, has made it commercially important since the 
days of the whale fishery, and it has a practical monopoly of coaling, 
watering and victualling. Its main disadvantage is the lack of 
harbours — Honolulu and Pearl Harbor are the only ones in the archi- 
pelago; but under the River and Harbour Act of 1905 examinations 
and surveys were made to improve Hilo Bay on the island of Hawaii. 
Pearl Harbor is the U.S. naval station, and a great naval dock, 
nearly 1200 ft. long, was projected for the station in 1908. Within 
recent years commerce has grown greatly in volume; it has always 
been almost entirely with the United States. In 1880 the value of 
imports from the United States was $2,086,000, that of exports 
to the United States was S4,6o6,ooo; in 1907 the value of shipments 

of domestic merchandise from the United States to Hawaii was 
^S^?. 00 ?,. and the value of shipments of domestic merchandise 
from Hawaii to the United States was §31,984,433, of which 
$30.l T l,5 2 4 was the value of brown sugar, $133,133 the value of 
rice, $601,748 the value of canned fruits, $124,146 the value of 
green, ripe or dried fruits, $117,403 the value of hides and skins, 
and $105,515 the value of green or raw coffee. The shipments of 
foreign merchandise each way are relatively insignificant. In the 
fiscal year 1908 the exports from Hawaii to foreign countries were 
valued at $597,640, ten times as much as in 1905 ($59,541); the 
imports into Hawaii from foreign countries were valued at $4,682,399 
in the fiscal year 1908, as against $3,014,964 in 1905. 

Population. — The total population of the islands in 1890 was 
89,990; in 1900 it was 154,001, an increase within the decade 
of 71-13%; in 1910 it was 191,909. In 1908 there were about 
72,000 Japanese, 18,000 Chinese, 5000 Koreans, 23,000 Portu- 
guese, 2000 Spanish, 2000 Porto Ricans, 35,000 Hawaiians and 
part Hawaiians and 12,000 Teutons. Of the total for 1900 
there were 61,111 Japanese, 25,767 Chinese and 233 negroes; 
of the same total there were 90,780 foreign-born, of whom 
56,234 were natives of Japan, and 6512 were natives of Portugal. 
There were in all in 1900, 106,369 males (69-1%; a preponder- 
ance due to the large number of Mongolian labourers, whose 
wives are left in Asia) and only 47,632 females. About three- 
fifths of the Hawaiians and nearly all of American, British or 
North European descent are Protestants. Most of the Portuguese 
and about one-third of the native Hawaiians are Roman Catholics. 
The Mormons claim more than 4000 adherents, whose principal 
settlement is at Laie, on the north-east shore of Oahu; the first 
Mormon missionaries came to the islands in 1850. The popula- 
tion of 1910 was distributed among the several islands as follows: 
Oahu, 82,028; Hawaii, 55,382; Kauai and Niihau, 23,952; Kalawao, 
785; and Maui, Lanai, Kahoolawe and Molokai, 29,762. The 
population of Honolulu district, the entire urban population of the 
Territory, was 22,907 in 1890, 39,306 in 1900, and 52,183 in 1910. 
The aboriginal Hawaiians (sometimes called Kanakas, from 
a Hawaiian word kanaka, meaning " man ") belong to the 
Malayo-Polynesian race; they probably settled in 
Hawaii in the 10th century, having formerly lived in nooufa- 
Samoa, and possibly before that in Tahiti and the tion. 
Marquesas. Their reddish-brown skin has been com- 
pared in hue to tarnished copper. Their hair is dark brown or 
black, straight, wavy or curly; the beard is thin, the face broad, 
the profile not prominent, the eyes large and expressive, the 
nose somewhat flattened, the lips thick, the teeth excellent in 
shape and of a pearly whiteness. The skull is sub-brachycephalic 
in type, with an index of 82-6 from living " specimens " and 79 
from a large collection of skulls; it is never prognathous. Most 
of the people are of moderate stature, but the chiefs and the 
women of their families have been remarkable for their height, 
and 400 pounds was formerly not an unusual weight for one of 
this class. This corpulence was due not alone to over-feeding but 
to an almost purely vegetable diet; stoutness was a part of the 
ideal of feminine beauty. The superiority in physique of the 
nobles to the common people may have been due in part to a 
system of massage, the lotni-lomi; it is certainly contrary 
to the belief in the bad effects of inbreeding — among the upper 
classes marriage was almost entirely between near relatives. 

The Rev. William Ellis, an early English missionary, described 
the natives as follows: " The inhabitants of these islands are, 
considered physically, amongst the finest races in the Pacific, 
bearing the strongest resemblance to the New Zealanders in 
stature, and in their well-developed muscular limbs. The tattoo- 
ing of their bodies is less artistic than that of the New Zealanders, 
and much more limited than among some of the other islanders. 
They are also more hardy and industrious than those living 
nearer the equator. This in all probability arises from their 
salubrious climate, and the comparative sterility of their soil 
rendering them dependent upon the cultivation of the ground 
for the yam, the arum, and the sweet potato, their chief articles 
of food. Though, like all undisciplined races, the Sandwich 
Islanders [Hawaiians] have proved deficient in firm and steady 
perseverance, they manifest considerable intellectual capability. 
Their moral character, when first visited by Europeans, was n<u 



superior to that of other islanders; and excepting when improved 
and preserved by the influence of Christianity, it has suffered 
much from the vices of intemperance and licentiousness 
introduced by foreigners. Polygamy prevailed among the chiefs 
and rulers, and women were subject to all the humiliations of 
the tabu system, which subjected them to many privations, and 
kept them socially in a condition of inferiority to the other sex. 
Infanticide was practised to some extent, the children destroyed 
being chiefly females. Though less superstitious than the 
Tahitians, the idolatry of the .Sandwich Islanders was equally 
barbarous and sanguinary, as, in addition to the chief objects 
of worship included in the mythology of the other islands, the 
supernatural beings supposed to reside in the volcanoes and 
direct the action of subterranean fires rendered the gods objects 
of peculiar terror. Human sacrifices were slain on several 
occasions, and vast offerings presented to the spirits supposed to 
preside over the volcanoes, especially during the periods of 
actual eruptions. The requisitions of their idolatry were severe 
and its rites cruel and bloody. Grotesque and repulsive wooden 
figures, animals and the bones of chiefs were the objects of 
worship. Human sacrifices were offered whenever a temple 
was to be dedicated, or a chief was sick, or a war was to be under- 
taken; and these occasions were frequent. The apprehensions 
of the people with regard to a future state were undefined, but 
fearful. The lower orders expected to be slowly devoured by 
evil spirits, or to dwell with the gods in burning mountains. 
The several trades, such as that of fisherman, the tiller of the 
ground, and the builder of canoes and houses, had each their pre- 
siding deities. Household gods were also kept, which the natives 
worshipped in their habitations. One merciful provision, 
however, had existed from time immemorial, and that was 
[the puuhonuas] sacred inclosures, places of refuge, into which 
those who fled in time of war, or from any violent pursuer, 
might enter and be safe. To violate their sanctity was one of 
the greatest crimes of which a man could be guilty." The native 
religion was an admixture of idolatry and hero-worship, of some 
ethical but little moral force. The king was war chief, priest and 
god in one, and the shocking licence at the death of a king was 
probably due to the feeling that all law or restraint was annulled 
by the death of the king — incarnate law. The mythic and 
religious legends of the people were preserved in chants, handed 
down from generation to generation; and in like poetic form 
was kept the knowledge of the people of botany, medicine and 
other sciences. Name-songs, written at the birth of a chief, 
gave his genealogy and the deeds of his ancestors; dirges and 
love-songs were common. These were without rhyme or rhythm, 
but had alliteration and a parallelism resembling Hebrew poetry. 
Drums, gourd and bamboo flutes,and a kind of guitar, were known 
before Cook's day. 

When the islands first became known to Europeans, the 
Hawaiian family was in a stage including both polyandry 
and polygyny, and, according to Morgan, older than either: 
two or more b ethers, with their wives, or two or more sisters 
with their husbands, cohabited with seeming promiscuity. 
This system called pimalua (a word which in the modern verna- 
cular means merely " dear friend ") was first brought to the 
attention of ethnologists in 1871 by Lewis H. Morgan (who 
was incorrect in many of his premises) and was. made the basis 
of his second stage, the punaluan, in the evolution of the family. 
These conditions did not last long after the coming of the mission- 
aries. Descent was more commonly traced through the female 
line. As regard cannibalism, it appears that the heart and liver 
of the human victims offered in the temples were eaten as a 
religious rite, and that the same parts of any prominent warrior 
slain in battle were devoured by the victor chiefs, who believed 
that they would thereby inherit the valour of the dead man. 
Under taboo as late as 1819 women were to be put to death if they 
ate bananas, cocoa-nuts, pork, turtles or certain fish. In the 
days of idolatry the only dress worn by the men was a narrow 
strip of cloth wound around the loins and passed between the 
legs. Women wore a short petticoat made of kapa cloth (already 
referred to), which reached from the waist to the knee. But now 

the common class of men wear a shirt and trousers; the better 
class are attired in the European fashion. The women are clad 
in the holoka, a loose white or coloured garment with sleeves, 
reaching from the neck to the feet. A coloured handkerchief 
is twisted around the head or a straw hat is worn. Both sexes 
delight in adorning themselves with garlands (lets) of flowers and 
necklaces of coloured seeds. The Hawaiians are a good-tempered, 
light-hearted and pleasure-loving race. They have many games 
and sports, including boxing, wrestling (both in and out of water), 
hill-sliding, spear-throwing, and a game cf bowls played with 
stone discs. Both sexes are passionately fond of riding. They 
delight to be in the water and swim with remarkable skill and 
ease. In the exciting sport of surf-riding, which always astonishes 
strangers, they balance themselves lying, kneeling or standing 
on a small board which is carried landwards on the curling crest 
of a great roller. All games were accompanied by gambling. 
Dances, especially the indecent hula, " danse du ventre," were 
favourite entertainments. 

Even at the time when they were first known to Europeans, 
they had stone and lava hatchets, shark's-tooth knives, hard- 
wood spades, kapa cloth or paper, mats, fans, fish-hooks and nets, 
woven baskets, &c, and they had introduced a rough sort 01 
irrigation of the inland country with long canals from highlands 
to plains. They derived their sustenance chiefly from pork 
and fish (both fresh and dried), from seaweed (limn), and from 
the kalo (Colocasia antiquorum, var. esculenta), the banana, 
sweet potato, yam, bread-fruit and cocoa-nut. From the root 
of the kalo is made the national dish called poi; after having been 
baked and well beaten on a board with a stone pestle it is made 
into a paste with water and then allowed to ferment for a few 
days, when it is ready to be eaten. One of the table delicacies 
of former days was a particular breed of dog which was fed 
exclusively on poi before it was killed, cooked and served. Like 
other South Sea Islanders they made an intoxicating drink, 
awa or kava, from the roots of the Macropipcr laiifolium or 
Piper methysticum; in early times this could be drunk only by 
nobles and priests. The native dwellings are constructed of 
wood, or occasionally are huts thatched with grass at the sides 
and top. What little cooking is undertaken among the poorer 
natives is usually done outside. The oven consists of a hole 
in the ground in which a fire is lighted and stones made hot; 
and the fire having been removed, the food is wrapped up in 
leaves and placed in the hole beside the hot stones and covered 
up until ready; or else, as is now more common, the cooking 
is done in an old kerosene-oil can over a fire. 

The Hawaiian language is a member of the widely-diffused 
Malayo-Polynesian group and closely resembles the dialect of 
the Marquesas; Hawaiians and New Zealanders, although 
occupying the most remote regions north and south at which 
the race has been found, can understand each other without 
much difficulty. Various unsuccessful attempts have been made 
to prove the language Aryan in its origin. It is soft and har- 
monious, being highly vocalic in structure. Every syllable is 
open, ending in a vowel sound, and short sentences may be 
constructed wholly of vocalic sounds. The only consonants are 
k, I, m, 11 and p, which with the gently aspirated h, the five vowels, 
and the vocalic w, make up all the letters in use. The letters r 
and t have been discarded in favour of I and k, as expressing 
more accurately the native pronunciation, so that, for example, 
tcro, the former name of the Colocasia plant, is now kalo. The 
language was not reduced to a written form until after the 
arrival of the missionaries. A Hawaiian spelling book was" 
printed in 1822; in 1834 two newspapers were founded; and in 
1839 the first translation of the Bible was published. 

In spite of moral and material progress — indeed largely because 
of changes in their food, clothing, dwellings and of other " advan- 
tages " of civilization — the race is probably dying out. Captain 
Cook estimated the number of natives at 400,000, probably an 
over-estimate; in 1823 the American missionaries estimated 
their number at 142,000; the census of 1832 showed the popula- 
tion to be 130,313; the census of 1878 proved that the number 
of natives was no more than 44,088. In 1890 they numbered 



34,436; in 1900, 29,834, a decrease of 4602 or 13-3% within 
the decade. To account for this it is said that the blood of the 
race has become poisoned by the introduction of foreign dis- 
eases. The women are much less numerous than the men; and 
the married ones have few children at the most; two out of 
three have none. Moreover, the mothers appear to have little 
maternal instinct and neglect their offspring. It is, however, 
thought by some that these causes are now diminishing in force, 
and that the " fittest " of the race may survive. The part- 
Hawaiians, the offspring of intermarriage between Hawaiian 
women and men of other races, increased from 3420 in 1878 to 
6186 in 1890 and 7835 in 1900. 

The pressing demand for labour created by the Reciprocity Treaty 
of 1875 with the United States led to great changes in the population 
of the Hawaiian Islands. It became the policy of the 
Immigra- government to assist immigrants from different countries. 
""'' In 1877 arrangements were made for the importation of 

Portuguese families from the Azores and Madeira, and during the 
next ten years about 7000 of these people were brought to the 
islands; in 1906-1907 there was a second immigration from the 
Azores and Madeira of 1325 people. In 1900 the total number of 
Portuguese in the islands, including those born there, was not far 
from 1 6,000, about 2400 of whom were employed in sugar plantations. 
They have shown themselves to be industrious, thrifty and law- 
abiding. In 1907 2201 Spanish immigrants from the sugar district 
about Malaga arrived in Hawaii, and about the same number of 
Portuguese immigrated in the same year. The Board of Immigration, 
using funds contributed by planters, was very active in its efforts to 
encourage the immigration of suitable labourers, but the general im- 
migration law of 1907 prohibited the securing of such immigration 
through contributions from corporations. Persistent efforts have 
also been made to introduce Polynesian islanders, as being of a 
cognate race with the Hawaiians, but the results have been wholly 
unsatisfactory. About 2000, mainly from the Gilbert Islands, 
were brought in at the expense of the government between 1878 and 
1884; but they did not give satisfaction either as labourers or as 
citizens, and most of them have been returned to their homes. 
There never existed any treaty or labour convention between Hawaii 
and China. In early days a limited number of Chinese settled in 
the islands, intermarried with the natives and by their industry 
and economy generally prospered. About 750 of them were natural- 
ized under the monarchy. The first importation of Chinese labourers 
was in 1852. In 1878 the number of Chinese had risen to 5916. 
During the next few years there was such a steady influx of Chinese 
free immigrants that in the spring of 1881 the Hawaiian government 
sent a despatch to the governor of Hong Kong to stop this invasion. 
Again, in April 1883, it was suddenly renewed, and within twenty 
days five steamers arrived from Hong Kong bringing 2253 Chinese 
passengers, followed the next month by 1 100 more, with the news 
that several thousand more were ready to embark. Accordingly, 
the Hawaiian government sent another despatch to the governor of 
Hong Kong, refusing to permit any further immigration of male 
Chinese from that port. Various regulations restricting Chinese 
immigration were enacted from time to time, until in 1886 the 
landing of any Chinese passenger without a passport was prohibited. 
The number of Chinese in the islands had then risen to 21,000. 
The consent of the Japanese government to the immigration of its 
subjects to Hawaii was obtained with difficulty in 1884, and in 1886 
a labour convention was ratified. Subsequently the increase of 
the Japanese element in the population was rapid. It rose from 116 
in 1884 to 12,360 in 1890 and 24,400 in 1896. Most of these were 
recruited from the lowest classes in Japan. Unlike the Chinese, they 
show no inclination to intermarry with the Hawaiians. The effect 
of making Hawaii a Territory of the United States was to put an 
end to all assisted immigration, of whatever race, and to exclude 
all Chinese labourers. No Chinese labourer is allowed to enter any 
other Territory of the Union from Hawaii; and the act of Congress 
of the 26th of February 1885, " to prohibit the importation and 
migration of foreigners and aliens under contract or agreement to 
perform labour in the United States, its Territories and the District 
of Columbia," and the amending and supplementary acts, are 
extended to it. But in the treaty of 1894 between the United States 
and Japan there is nothing to limit the free immigration of Japanese; 
and several companies have been formed to promote it. The system 
of contract labour, which was abolished by the act of Congress in 
1900, and under which labourers had been restrained from leaving 
their work before the end of the contract term, concerned few 
labourers except the Japanese. Various methods of co-operation 
or profit-sharing are in successful operation on some plantations. 

An interesting sociological problem is raised by the presence of 
the large Asiatic element in the population. The Japanese and 
Koreans, and in less measure the Chinese, act as domestic servants, 
work under white contractors on irrigating ditches and reservoirs, 
do most of the plantation labour and compete successfully with 
whites and native islanders in all save skilled urban occupations, 
-ueh as printing and the manufacture of machinery. The " Yellow 

Peril " is considered less dangerous in Hawaii than formerly, although 
it was used as a political cry in the campaign for American annexa- 
tion. No success met the apparently well-meaning efforts of the 
Central .Japanese League which was organized in November and 
December 1903 to promote the observance of law and order by the 
Japanese in the islands, who assumed a too independent attitude and 
felt themselves free from governmental control whether Japanese 
or American; indeed, after the League had been in operation 
for a year or more, it almost seemed that it contributed to industrial 
disorders among the Japanese. At about the same time Japanese 
immigration to Hawaii fell off upon the opening of new fields for 
colonization by the Russo-Japanese War, and Korean immigration 
was promoted by employers on the islands. From the first of 
January 1903 to the 30th of June 1905 Japanese immigrants num- 
bered 18,027; Koreans 7388 (four Koreans to every ten Japanese); 
but in the last twelve months of this same period there were 4733 
Koreans to 5941 Japanese (eight Koreans to every ten Japanese). 
Another fact which is possibly contributing to the solution of the 
problem is that the Japanese are leaving the islands in large numbers 
as compared with the Koreans. The Japanese leaving Hawaii 
between the 14th of June 1900 and the 31st of December 1905 
numbered 42,313, o 4284 more than the number of Japanese 
immigrants airiving during the same period. The corresponding 
figures for Koreans during the same period are as follows: number 
leaving between the 14th of June 1900 and the 31st of December 
1905, 721, or 6673 less than the Korean immigrants for the same 
period. The acceleration of the departure of the Japanese is shown 
by the fact that in the eighteen months (July 1904 to January 1906) 
occurred 19,114 of the 42,313 departures in the sixty-six months 
from July 1900 to January 1906. 1 After 1906, owing to restrictions 
by the Japanese government, immigration to Hawaii greatly de- 
creased. At the same time the number of departures was decreasing 
rapidly. The change in the character of the immigration of Japanese 
is shown by the fact that in the fiscal year 1906-1907 the ratio of 
female immigrants to males was as I to 8, in the fiscal year 1907- 
1908 it was as I to 2, and in the latter year, of 4593 births in the 
Territory, 2445 were Japanese. 

Administration. — The Hawaiian Islands are governed under 
an Act of Congress, signed by the president on the 30th of April 
1900, which first organized them as a Territory of the United 
States. The legislature, which meets biennially at Honolulu, 
consists of a Senate of 15 members holding office for four years, 
and a House of Representatives of 30 members holding office 
for two years. In order to vote for Representatives or Senators, 
the elector must be a male citizen of the United States who has 
attained the age of twenty-one years, has lived in the Territory 
not less than one year preceding, and is able to speak, read and 
write the English or Hawaiian language. No person is allowed 
to vote by reason of being in or attached to the army or navy. 
The executive power is vested in a governor, appointed by the 
president and holding office for four years. He must not be 
less than thirty-five years of age and must be a citizen of the 
Territory. The secretary of the Territory is appointed in like 
manner for a term of the same length. The governor appoints, 
by and with the consent of the Senate of the Territory, an 
attorney-general, treasurer, commissioner of public lands, 
commissioner of agriculture and forestry, superintendent of 
public works, superintendent of public instruction, commissioners 
of public instruction, auditor and deputy-auditor, surveyor, 
high sheriff, members of the board of health, board of prison 
inspectors, board of registration, inspectors of election, &c. 
All such officers are appointed for four years except the com- 
missioners of public instruction and the members of the said 

1 Large numbers of Japanese immigrants have used the Hawaiian 
Islands merely as a means of gaining admission at the mainland 
ports of the United States. For, as the Japanese government 
would issue only a limited number of passports to the mainland but 
would quite readily grant passports to Honolulu, the latter were 
accepted, and after a short stay on some one of the islands the im- 
migrants would depart on a " coastwise " voyage to some mainland 
port. The increasing numbers arriving by this means, however, 
provoked serious hostility in the Pacific coast states, especially in 
San Francisco, and to remedy the difficulty Congress inserted a 
clause in the general immigration act of the 20th of Februarv 1007 
which provides that whenever the president is satisfied that passports 
issued by any foreign government to any other country than the 
United States, or to any of its insular possessions, or to the Canal 
Zone, " are being used for the purpose of enabling the holders to 
come to che continental territory of the United States to the detri- 
ment of labour conditions therein," he may refuse to admit them. 
This provision has been successful in reducing the number of Japanese 
coming to the mainland from Hawaii. 



boards, whose terms are as provided by the laws of the Territory ; 
all must be citizens of the Territory. The judicial power is 
vested in a supreme court, 5 circuit courts, and 29 district 
courts, each having a jurisdiction corresponding to similar 
courts in each state in the Union; and, entirely distinct from 
these territorial courts, Hawaii has a United States district 
court. A Supplementary Act of the 3rd of March 1905 provides 
that writs of error and appeals may be taken from the Supreme 
Court of Hawaii to the Supreme Court of the United States 
" in all cases where the amount involved exclusive of costs or 
value exceeds the sum of five thousand dollars." The Territory 
was without the forms of local government common to the 
United States until 1905, when the Territorial legislature divided 
it into five counties 1 without, however, giving to them the 
usual powers of taxation. Each county has the following 
officers: a board of supervisors, a clerk, a treasurer, an auditor, 
an assessor and tax-collector, a sheriff and coroner, and an 
attorney. The members (from five to nine) of the board of 
supervisors are elected by districts into which the county is 
divided, usually only one from each. All county officers are 
elected for a term of two years. The act of 1900 provides for 
the election of a delegate to Congress, and prescribes that the 
delegate shall have the qualifications necessary for membership 
in the Hawaiian Senate, and shall be elected by voters qualified 
to vote for members of the House of Representatives of Hawaii. 
As usual, the delegate has a right to take part in the debates in 
the national House of Representatives, but may not vote. 

Charities. — The principal public charity of the Territory is the leper 
asylum on a peninsula almost 10 sq. m. in area on the N. side of the 
island of Molokai. A steep precipice forms a natural wall between 
it and the rest of the island. The place became an asylum for lepers 
and the caring for them began to be a charity under government 
charge in 1866; but conditions here were at first unspeakably 
unhygienic, their improvement being largely due to Father Damien, 
who devoted himself to this work in 1873. The patients are almost 
exclusively native Hawaiians, and their number is slowly but steadily 
decreasing; in 1908 they numbered 791, and there were at Molokai 
46 non-leprous helpers and 27 officers and assistants, including the 
Roman Catholic brothers and sisters in charge of the homes. In 
1905 the United States government appropriated $100,000 for a 
hospital station and laboratory " for the study of the methods of 
transmission, cause and treatment of leprosy," and $50,000 a year 
for their maintenance; the station and laboratory to be established 
when the territorial government should have ceded to the United 
States a tract of 1 sq. m. on the leper reservation. The cession was 
made soon afterward by the territorial government. In 1907-1908 
a home for non-leprous boys of leprous parents was established at 
Honolulu. Another public charity of Hawaii is the general free 
dispensary maintained by the territorial government at Honolulu. 

Education. — Education is universal, compulsory and free. Every 
child between the ages of six and fifteen must attend either a public 
school or a duly authorized private school. Consequently the per- 
centage of illiteracy is extremely low. The school system is essenti- 
ally American in its text-books and in its methods, thanks to the 
foundations laid by American missionaries. Between 1820 and 1824 
the missionaries taught about 2000 natives to read. Several im- 
portant schools were founded before 1840, when the first written 
laws were published. Among these was a law providing for com- 

Culsory education, and decreeing that no illiterate born after the 
eginning of Liholiho's reign should hold office, and that no illiterate 
man or woman, born after the same date, could marry. The first 
Hawaiian minister of public instruction was the Rev. William 
Richards (1792-1847), who held office from 1843 to 1847, and was 
followed by Richard Armstrong (1805-1860), an American Presby- 
terian missionary, the father of General S. C. Armstrong. He laid 
stress on the importance of manual and industrial training during 
his term of office (1847-1855), and was succeeded by a board of 
education (1855-1865), of which he was first president; then an 
inspector-general of schools was appointed, Judge Abraham For- 
nander being the first inspector; in 1896 an executive department 
was created under a minister of public instruction and six com- 

1 These are : the county of Hawaii, consisting of the island of the 
same name; the county of Maui, including the islands of Maui, 
Lanai and Kahoolawe, and the greater part of Molokai ; the county 
of Kalawao, being the leper settlement on Molokai; the city and 
county of Honolulu (created from the former county of Oahu by 
an act of 1907, which came into effect in 1909), consisting of the 
island of Oahu and various small islands, of which the only ones of 
any importance are the Midway Islands, 1232 m. from Honolulu, 
a Pacific cable relay station and a post of the U.S. navy marines; 
and the county of Kauai, including Kauai and Niihau islands. 

missioners; in 1900 a superintendent of public instruction was 
first appointed. English is by law the medium of instruction in all 
schools, both public and private, although other languages may be 
taught in addition. Formal instruction in Hawaiian ceased in 1898. 
The schools are in session forty weeks during the year. In 1908 there 
were 154 public schools with 18,564 pupils (27-06% of whom were 
Japanese, 20-89% Hawaiian, 13-54% part Hawaiian, 18-72% 
Portuguese and 10-63% Chinese) and 51 private schools with 
4881 pupils. A normal school has been established at Honolulu, 
with a practice school attached to it. The territorial legislature of 
1907 established the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts of the 
Territory of Hawaii, and also founded a public library. The Hono- 
lulu high school does excellent work and has beautiful buildings and 
grounds. The Lahainaluna Seminary on west Maui, founded in 
1 83 1 as a training school for teachers, furnishes instruction to 
Hawaiian boys in agriculture, carpentry, printing and mechanical 
drawing. The boys in the industrial school (1902) at Waialee, 
on the island of Oahu, are taught useful trades. The teaching of 
sewing in the public schools has met with great success, and a simple 
form of the Swedish sloid was introduced into many of the schools 
in 1894. Lace work was introduced into the public schools in 1903. 
But the best industrial instruction is furnished by the independent 
schools, among which the Kamehameha schools take the first place. 
They were founded by Mrs Bernice Pauahi Bishop (1831-1884), 
the last lineal descendant of Kamehameha I., who left her extensive 
landed estates in the hands of trustees for their support. They furnish 
a good manual and technical training to Hawaiian boys and girls, 
in addition to a primary and grammar school course of study, and 
exert a strong religious influence. There are six boarding schools for 
Hawaiian girls, supported by private resources. The most advanced 
courses of study are offered by Oahu College, which occupies a 
beautiful site near the beach just E. of Honolulu; it was founded 
in 1841 as the Punahou School for missionaries' children, and was 
chartered as Oahu College in 1852. It is well equipped with build- 
ings and apparatus, and iias an endowment of about $300,000. 

Finance. — -The revenue of the Territory for the fiscal year ending 
the 30th of June 1908 amounted to $2,669,748-32, of which 
$640,051-42 was the proceeds of the tax on real estate, $635,265-81 
was the proceeds of the tax on personal property; and among the 
larger of the remaining items were the income tax ($266,241-74), 
waterworks ($141,898-04), public lands (sales, $37,585-75; revenue, 
$122,541-71) and licences ($206,374-28). On the 30th of June 1908 
the bonded debt of the Territory was $3,979,000 ; there was on hand 
net cash, without floating debt, $677,648-48. 

History. — The history of the islands before their discovery 
by Captain James Cook, in 1778, is obscure. 2 This famous 
navigator, who named the islands in honour of the earl of Sand-- 
wich, was received by the natives with many demonstrations 
of astonishment and delight; and offerings and prayers were 
presented to him by their priest in one of the temples; and 
though in the following year he was killed by a native when he 
landed in Kealakekua Bay in Hawaii, his bones were preserved 
by the priests and continued to receive offerings and homage 
from the people until the abolition of idolatry. At the time of 
Cook's visit the archipelago seems to have been divided into 
three distinct kingdoms: Hawaii; Oahu and Maui; and Lanai 
and Molokai. On the death of the chief who ruled Hawaii at 
that time there succeeded one named Kamehameha (1736-1819), 
who appears to have been a man of quick perception and great 
force of character. When Vancouver visited the islands in 1792, 
he left sheep and neat cattle, 3 protected by a ten years' taboo, 
and laid down the keel of a European ship for Kamehameha. 
Ten or twelve years later Kamehameha had 20 vessels (of 25 
to 50 tons), which traded among the islands. He afterwards 
purchased others from foreigners. Having encouraged a warlike 
spirit in his people and having introduced firearms, Kamehameha 
attacked and overcame the chiefs of the other kingdoms one after 
another, until (in 1795) he became undisputed master of the whole 
group. He made John Young (c. 1775-1835) and Isaac Dayis, 
Americans from one of the ships of Captain Metcalf which visited 
the island in 1789, his advisers, encouraged trade with foreigners, 

2 Their discovery in the 16th century (in 1542 or 1555 by Juan 
Gaetan, or in 1528 when two of the vessels of Alvaro de Saavedra 
were shipwrecked here and the captain of one, with his sister, sur- 
vived and intermarried with the natives) seems probable, because 
there are traces of Spanish customs in the islands; and they are 
marked in their correct latitude on an English chart of 1687, which 
is apparently based on Spanish maps; a later Spanish chart (1743) 
gives a group of islands io° E. of the true position of the Hawaiian 

8 The first horses were left by Captain R. J. Cleveland in 1803. 


9 1 

and derived from its profits a large increase of revenue as well 
as the means of consolidating his power. He died in 1819, and 
was succeeded by his son, Lilohilo, or Kamehameha II., a mild 
and well-disposed prince, but destitute of his father's energy. 
One of the first acts of Kamehameha II. was, for vicious and 
selfish reasons, to abolish taboo and idolatry throughout the 
islands. Some disturbances were caused thereby, but the 
insurgents were defeated. 

On the 31st of March 1820 missionaries of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions — two clergymen, two 
teachers, a physician, a farmer, and a printer, each with his 
wife — and three Hawaiians educated in the Cornwall (Con- 
necticut) Foreign Missionary School, arrived from America 
and began their labours at Honolulu. A short time afterwards 
the British government presented a small schooner to the king, 
and this afforded an opportunity for the Rev. William Ellis, 
the well-known missionary, to visit Honolulu with a number 
of Christian natives from the Society Islands. Finding the 
language of the two groups nearly the same, Mr Ellis, who had 
spent several years in the southern islands, was able to assist 
the American missionaries in reducing the Hawaiian language 
to a written form. In 1825 the ten commandments were recog- 
nized by the king as the basis of a code of laws. In the years 
1 830-1 84 5 the educational work of the American missionaries 
was so successful that hardly a native was unable to read and 
write. A law prohibiting drunkenness (1835) was followed in 
1838 by a licence law and in 1839 by a law prohibiting the 
importation of spirits and taxing wines fifty cents a gallon; in 
1840 another prohibitory law was enacted; but licence laws 
soon made the sale of liquor common. Missionary effort was 
particularly fruitful in Hilo, where Titus Coan (1801-1882), sent 
out in 1835 by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, worked in repeated revivals, induced most of his 
church members to give up tobacco even, and received prior to 
18S0 more than 12,000 members into a church which became 
self-supporting and sent missions to the Gilbert Islands and the 
Marquesas. In 1823 Keopuolani, the king's mother, was baptized; 
and on a single Sunday in 1838 Coan baptized 1705 converts at 
Hilo. In 1S64 the American Board withdrew its control of 
evangelical work. 

In 1824 the king and queen of the Hawaiian Islands paid a 
visit to England, and both died there of measles. His successor, 
Kamehameha III. ruled from 1823 to 1854. In 1830 Kame- 
hameha III. signed a Bill of Rights and in 1840 he promulgated 
the first constitution of the realm; in 1842 a code of laws was 
proclaimed; by 1848 the feudal system of land tenure was 
completely abolished; the first legislature met in 1845 and full 
suffrage was granted in 1852, but in 1864 suffrage was restricted. 
Progress was at times interrupted by the conduct of the officers 
of foreign powers. On one occasion (July 1839) French officers 
abrogated the laws (particularly against the importation of 
liquor), dictated treaties, extorted $20,000 and by force of arms 
procured privileges for Roman Catholic J priests in the country; 
and at another time (February r843) a British officer, Captain 
Paulet of the " Carysfort," went so far as to take possession of 
Oahu and establish a commission for its government. The act 
of the British officer was disavowed by his superiors as soon as 

These incidents led to a representation on the part of the 
native sovereign to the governments of Great Britain, France 
and the United States, and the independence of the islands 
(recognized by the United States in 1842) was recognized in 
1844 by France and Great Britain. In 1844 John Ricord, an 
American lawyer, became the first minister of foreign affairs. 
A new constitution came into effect in 1852. It was the aim 
of Kamehameha III. and his advisers to combine the native 
and the foreign elements under one government; to make 
the king the sovereign not of one race or class, but of all; and to 
extend equal and impartial laws over all inhabitants of the 

1 The first Roman Catholic priests came in 1827 and were banished 
in 1831, but returned in 1837. An edict of toleration in 1839 shortly 
preceded the visit of the " Artemise." 

country. Kamehameha IV. and his queen, Emma, ruled from 
1855 to 1863 and were succeeded by his brother, Kamehameha 
V., who died in 1872, and in whose reign a third (and a re- 
actionary) constitution went into effect in 1864, by mere royal 
proclamation. Lunalilo, a grandson of Kamehameha I., was 
king for two years, and in 1874, backed by American influence, 
Kalakaua was elected his successor, in preference to Queen 
Emma, a member of the Anglican Church and the candidate 
of the pro-British party. Kalakaua considered residents of 
European or American descent as alien invaders, and he aimed 
to restore largely the ancient system of personal government, 
under which he should have control of the public treasury. On 
the 2nd of July 1878, and again on the 14th of August 1880, 
he dismissed a ministry without assigning any reason, after 
it had been triumphantly sustained by a test vote of the legis- 
lature. On the latter occasion he appointed C. C. Moreno, 
who had come to Honolulu in the interest of a Chinese steam- 
ship company, as Premier and minister of foreign affairs. This 
called forth the protest of the representatives of Great Britain, 
France and the United States, and aroused such opposition 
on the part of both the foreigners and the better class of natives 
that the king was obliged, after four days of popular excitement, 
to remove the obnoxious minister. During the king's absence 
on a tour round the world in 1881, his sister, Mrs Lydia Dominis 
(b. 1838), also styled Liliuokalani, acted as regent. After his 
return the contest was renewed between the so-called National 
party, which favoured absolution, and the Reform party, which 
sought to establish parliamentary government. The king took 
an active part in the elections, and used his patronage to the 
utmost to influence legislation. For three successive sessions 
a majority of the legislature was composed of office-holders, 
dependent on the favour of the executive. Among the measures 
urged by the king and opposed by the Reform party were the 
project of a ten-million dollar loan, chiefly for military purposes; 
the removal of the prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquor to 
Hawaiians, which was carried in 1882; the licensing of the sale 
of opium; the chartering of a lottery company; the licensing 
of kahunas, or medicine men, &c. Systematic efforts were 
made to turn the constitutional question into a race issue, and 
the party cry was raised of " Hawaii for Hawaiians." Adroit 
politicians flattered the king's vanity, defended his follies and 
taught him how to violate the spirit of the constitution while 
keeping the letter of the law. From 1882 till 1887 his prime 
minister was Walter Murray Gibson (T823-1888), a singular and 
romantic genius, a visionary adventurer and a shrewd politician, 
who had been imprisoned by the Dutch government in Batavia 
in 1852 on a charge of inciting insurrection in Sumatra, and had 
arrived at Honolulu in 1861 with the intention of leading a 
Mormon colony to the East Indies. To exalt his royal dignity, 
which was lowered, he thought, by his being only an elected 
king, Kalakaua caused himself to be crowned with imposing 
ceremonies on the ninth anniversary of his election (Feb. 12, 

Kalakaua was now no longer satisfied with being merely 
king of Hawaii, but aspired to what was termed the " Primacy 
of the Pacific." Accordingly Mr Gibson addressed a protest to 
the great powers, deprecating any further annexation of the 
islands of the Pacific Ocean, and claiming for Hawaii the ex- 
clusive right " to assist them in improving their political and 
social condition." In pursuance of this policy, two commissioners 
were sent to the Gilbert Islands in 1883 to prepare the way for 
a Hawaiian protectorate. On the 23rd of December 1886 Mr 
J. E. Bush was commissioned as minister plenipotentiary to the 
king of Samoa, the king of Tonga and the other independent 
chiefs of Polynesia. He arrived in Samoa on the 3rd of January 
1887, and remained there six months, during which time he 
concluded a treaty of alliance with Malietoa, which was ratified 
by his government. The " Explorer," a steamer of 170 tons, 
which had been employed in the copra trade, was purchased for 
$20,000, and refitted as a man-of-war, to form the " nest-egg " 
of the future Hawaiian navy. She was renamed the " Kaim- 
iloa," and was despatched to Samoa on the 17th of May 1887 



to strengthen the hands of the embassy. As R. L. Stevenson 
wrote: " The history of the ' Kaimiloa ' is a story of debauchery, 
mutiny and waste of government property." At length the 
intrigues of the Hawaiian embassy gave umbrage to the German 
government, and it was deemed prudent to recall it to Honolulu 
in July 1887. Meanwhile a reform league had been formed to 
stop the prevailing misrule and extravagance; it was supported 
by a volunteer military force, the " Honolulu Rifles." The 
king carried through the legislature of 1886 a bill for an opium 
licence, as well as a Loan Act, under which a million dollars were 
borrowed in London. Under his influence the Hale Naua 
Society was organized in 1886 for the spread of idolatry and 
king-worship; and in the same year a "Board of Health" 
was formed which revived the vicious practices of the kahunas 
or medicine-men. 

The king's acceptance of two bribes — one of $75,000 and 
another of $80,000 for the assignment of an opium licence — 
precipitated the revolution of 1887. An immense mass meeting 
was held on the 30th of June, which sent a committee to the 
king with specific demands for radical reforms. Finding himself 
without support, he yielded without a struggle, dismissed his 
ministry and signed a constitution on the 7th of July 1887, 
revising that of 1864, and intended to put an end to personal 
government and to make the cabinet responsible only to 
the legislature; this was called the " bayonet constitution," 
because it was so largely the result of the show of force made by 
the Honolulu Rifles. By its terms office-holders were made 
ineligible for seats in the legislature, and no member of the 
legislature could be appointed to any civil office under the 
government during the term for which he had been elected. 
The members of the Upper House, instead of being appointed 
by the king tor life, were henceforth to be elected for terms of 
six years by electors possessing a moderate property qualification. 
The remainder of Kalakaua's reign teemed with intrigues 
and conspiracies to restore autocratic rule. One of these 
came to a head on the 30th of July 1889, but this " Wilcox 
rebellion," led by R. W. Wilcox, a half-breed, educated in 
Italy, and a friend of the king and of his sister, was promptly 
suppressed. Seven of the insurgents were killed and a large 
number wounded. For his health the king visited California 
in the United States cruiser " Charleston " in November 1890, 
and died on the 20th of January 1891 in San Francisco. On 
the 29th of January at noon his sister, the regent, took the oath 
to maintain the constitution of 1887, and was proclaimed queen, 
under the title of Liliuokalani. 

The history of her reign shows that it was her constant purpose 
to restore autocratic government. The legislative session of 
1892, during which four changes of ministry took place, was 
protracted to eight months chiefly by her determination to 
carry through the opium and lottery bills and to have a pliable 
cabinet. She had a new constitution drawn up, practically 
providing for an absolute monarchy, and disfranchising a large 
class of citizens who had voted since 1887; this constitution 
(drawn up, so the royal party declared, in reply to a petition 
signed by thousands of natives) she undertook to force on the 
country after proroguing the legislature on the 14th of January 
1803, but her ministers shrank from the responsibility of so 
revolutionary an act, and with difficulty prevailed upon her to 
postpone the execution of her design. An uprising similar to 
that of 1887 declared the monarchy forfeited by its own act. 
A third party proposed a regency during the minority of the 
heir-apparent, Princess Kaiulani, but in her absence this scheme 
found few supporters. A Committee of Safety was appointed 
at a public meeting, which formed a provisional government 
and reorganized the volunteer military companies, which had 
been disbanded in 1890. Its leading spirits were the "Sons of 
Missionaries " (as E. L. Godkin styled them), who were accused 
of using their knowledge of local affairs and their inherited 
prestige among the natives for private ends — of founding a 
" Gospel Republic " which was actually a business enterprise. 
The provisional government called a mass meeting of citizens, 
which met on the afternoon of the 6th and ratified its action. 

The United States steamer " Boston," which had unexpectedly 
arrived from Hilo on the 14th, landed a small force on the 
evening of the 16th, at the request of the United States minister, 
Mr J. L. Stevens, and a committee of residents, to protect the 
lives and property of American citizens in case of riot or in- 
cendiarism. On the 17th the Committee of Safety took possession 
of the government building, and issued a proclamation declaring 
a monarchy to be abrogated, and establishing a provisional 
government, to exist " until terms of union with the United 
States of America shall have been negotiated and agreed upon." 
Meanwhile two companies of volunteer troops arrived and 
occupied the grounds. By the advice of her ministers, and to 
avoid bloodshed, the queen surrendered under protest, in view 
of the landing of United States troops, appealing to the govern- 
ment of the United States to reinstate her in authority. A 
treaty of annexation was negotiated with the United States 
during the next month, just before the close of President 
Benjamin Harrison's administration, but it was withdrawn 
on the 9th of March 1893 by President Harrison's successor, 
President Cleveland, who then despatched James H. Blount 
1837-1903) of Macon, Georgia, as commissioner paramount, 
to investigate the situation in the Hawaiian Islands. On 
receiving Blount's report to the effect that the revolution had 
been accomplished by the aid of the United States minister 
and by the landing of troops from the " Boston," President 
Cleveland sent Albert Sydney Willis (1843-1897) of Kentucky 
to Honolulu with secret instructions as United States minister. 
Willis with much difficulty and delay obtained the queen's 
promise to grant an amnesty, and made a formal demand on the 
provisional government for her reinstatement on the 19th of 
December 1893. On the 23rd President Sanford B. Dole sent 
a reply to Willis, declining to surrender the authority of the 
provisional government to the deposed queen. The United 
States Congress declared against any further intervention by 
adopting on the 3 1st of May 1894 the Turpie Resolution. On the 
30th of May 1894 a convention was held to frame a constitution 
for the republic of Hawaii, which was proclaimed on the 4th of 
July following, with S. B. Dole as its first president. Toward 
the end of the same year a plot was formed to overthrow the 
republic and to restore the monarchy. A cargo of arms and 
ammunition from San Francisco was secretly landed at a point 
near Honolulu, where a company of native royalists were 
collected on the 6th of January 1895, intending to capture the 
government buildings by surprise that night, with the aid of 
their allies in the city. A premature encounter with a squad 
of police alarmed the town and broke up their plans. There 
were several other skirmishes during the following week, resulting 
in the capture of the leading conspirators, with most of their 
followers. The ex-queen, on whose premises arms and am- 
munition and a number of incriminating documents were 
found, was arrested and was imprisoned for nine months in the 
former palace. On the 24th of January 1895 she formally 
renounced all claim to the throne and took the oath of allegiance 
to the republic. The ex-queen and forty-eight others were 
granted conditional pardon on the 7th of September, and on 
the following New Year's Day the remaining prisoners were 
set at liberty. 

On the inauguration of President McKinlcy, in March 1897, 
negotiations with the United States were resumed, and on the 
16th of June a new treaty of annexation was signed at Washington. 
As its ratification by the Senate had appeared to be uncertain, 
extreme measures were taken: the Newlands joint resolution, 
by which the cession was "accepted, ratified and confirmed," 
was passed by the Senate by a vote of 42 to 21 and by the 
House of Representatives by a vote of 209 to 91, and was 
signed by the president on the 7th of July 1898. The formal 
transfer of sovereignty took place on the 12th of August 1898, 
when the flag of the United States (the same flag hauled down 
by order of Commissioner Blount) was raised over the Executive 
Building with impressive ceremonies. 

The sovereigns of the monarchy, the president of the republic 
and the governors of the Territory up to 19 10 were as follows: 



Sovereigns: Kamehameha I., 1795-1819; Kamehameha II., 
1819-1824; Kaahumanu (regent), 1824-1832; Kamehameha 
III., 1832-1854; Kamehameha IV., 1855-1863; Kamehameha 
V., 1863-187 2; Lunalilo, 1873-1874; Kalakaua, 1874-1891; 
Liliuokalani, 1891-1893. President: Sanford B. Dole, 1893- 
1898. Governors: S. B. Dole, 1898-1904; George R. Carter, 
1904-1907; W. F. Frear, 1907. 

Authorities. — Consult the bibliography in Adolf Marcuse, Die 
hawaiischen Inseln (Berlin, 1894); A. P. C. Griffen, List of Books 
relating to Hawaii (Washington, 1898); C. E. Dutton, Hawaiian 
Volcanoes, in the fourth annual report of the United States Geological 
Survev (Washington, 1884); J. D. Dana, Characteristics of Volcanoes 
■aith Contribution of Facts and Principles from the. Hawaiian Islands 
(New York, 1890); W. H. Pickering, Lunar and Hawaiian Physical 
Features compared (1906) ; C. H. Hitchcock, Hawaii and its Volcanoes 
(Honolulu, 1909) ; Augustin Kramer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien 
und Samoa (Stuttgart, 1906); Sharp, Fauna (London, 1899); 
Walter Maxwell, Lavas and Soils of the Hawaiian Islands 
(Honolulu, 1898); W. Hillcbrand, Flora of the Hawaiian Islands 
(London, 1888); G. P. Wilder, Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands 
(3 vols., Honolulu, 1907); H. W. Henshaw, Birds of the Hawaiian 
Islands (Washington, 1902) ; A. Fornandcr, Account of the Poly- 
nesian Race and the Ancient History of the Hawaiian People to the 
Times of Kamehameha I. (3 vols., London, 1878-1885); W. D. 
Alexander, A Brief History of the Hawaiian People (New York, 
1899); C. H. Forbes-Lindsay, American Insular Possessions (Phila- 
delphia, 1906); Jose de Olivares, Our Islands and their People (New 
York, 1899); J. A. Owen, Story of Hawaii (London, 1898); E. J. 
Carpenter, America in Hawaii (Boston, 1899); W. F. Blackman, 
The Making of Hawaii, a Study in Social Evolution (New York, 
1899), with bibliography; T. G. Thrum, Hawaiian Almanac and 
Annual (Honolulu); Lucien Young, The Real Hawaii (New York, 
1899), written by a lieutenant of the " Boston," an ardent defender 
of Stevens; Liliuokalani, Hawaii's Story (Boston, 1898); C. T. 
Rodgers, Education in the Hawaiian Islands (Honolulu, 1897); 
Henry E. Chambers, Constitutional History of Hawaii (Baltimore, 
1896), in Johns Hopkins University Studies; W. Ellis, Tour Around 
Hawaii (London, 1829); J. J. Jarves, History of the Sandwich Islands 
(Honolulu, 1847); H. Bingham, A Residence of Twenty-one Years 
in the Sandwich Islands (Hartford, 1848); Isabella Bird, Six Months 
in the Sandwich Islands (New York, 1881); Adolf Bastian, Zur 
Kenntnis Hawaiis (Berlin, 1883) ; the annual Reports of the governor 
of Hawaii, of the Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, of the 
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station, of the Board of 
Commissioners on Agriculture and Forestry, and of the Hawaii 
Promotion Committee; and the Papers of the Hawaiian Historical 

HAWARDEN (pronounced Harden, Welsh Penarldg), a 
market-town of Flintshire, North Wales, 6 m. W. of Chester, 
on a height commanding an extensive prospect, connected 
by a branch with the London & North-Western railway. Pop. 
(1901), 5372. It lies in a coal district, with clay beds near. 
Coarse earthenware, draining tiles and fire-clay bricks are the 
chief manufactures. The Maudes take the title of viscount 
from the town. Hawarden castle — built in 1752, added to and 
altered in the Gothic style in 181 4 — stands in a fine wooded 
park near the old castle of the same name, which William the 
Conqueror gave to his nephew, Hugh Lupus. It was taken in 
1282 by Dafyckl, brother of Llewelyn, prince of Wales, destroyed 
by the Parliamentarians in the Civil War, and came into the 
possession of Sergeant Glynne, lord chief justice of England 
under Cromwell. The last baronet, Sir Stephen R. Glynne, 
dying in 1S74, Castell Penarlag passed to his brother-in-law, 
William Ewart Gladstone. St Deiniol church, early English, 
was restored in 1857 and 1878. There are also a grammar 
school (1606). a Gladstone golden-wedding fountain (1889), and 
St Deiniol's Hostel (with accommodation for students and an 
Anglican clerical warden) ; west of the church, on Truman's 
hill, is an old British camp. 

HAWAWIR (Hauhauin), an African tribe of Semitic origin, 
dwelling in the Bayuda desert, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. They 
are found along the road from Debba to Khartum as far as 
Bir Gamr, and from Ambigol to Wadi Bishara. They have 
adopted none of the negro customs, such as gashing the cheeks 
or elaborate hairdressing. They own large herds of oxen, sheep 
and camels. 

HAWEIS, HUGH REGINALD (1838-1901), English preacher 
and writer, was born at Egham, Surrey, on the 3rd of April 
183S. On leaving Trinity College, Cambridge, he travelled in 

Italy and served under Garibaldi in i860. On his return to 
England he was ordained and held various curacies in London, 
becoming in 1866 incumbent of St James's, Marylebone. His 
unconventional methods of conducting the service, combined 
with his dwarfish figure and lively manner, soon attracted 
crowded congregations. He married Miss M. E. Joy in 1866, 
and both he and Mrs Haweis (d. 1898) contributed largely to 
periodical literature and travelled a good deal abroad. Haweis 
was Lowell lecturer at Boston, U.S.A., in 1885, and represented 
the Anglican Church at the Chicago Parliament of Religions in 
1893. He was much interested in music, and wrote books on 
violins and church bells, besides contributing an article to the 
9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Briiannica on bell-ringing. 
His best-known book was Music and Morals (3rd ed., 1873); 
and for a time he was editor of Cassell's Magazine. He also 
wrote five volumes on Christ and Christianity (a popular church 
history, 1886-1887). Other writings include Travel and Talk 
(1896), and similar chatty and entertaining books. He died on 
the 29th of January 1901. 

HAWES, STEPHEN (fl. 1502-1521), English poet, was probably 
a native of Suffolk, and, if his own statement of his age may be 
trusted, was born about 1474. He was educated at . Oxford, 
and travelled in England, Scotland and France. On his return 
his various accomplishments, especially his " most excellent 
vein " in poetry, procured him a place at court, He was groom 
of the chamber to Henry VII. as early as 1502. He could repeat 
by heart the works of most of the English poets, especially the 
poems of John Lydgate, whom he called his master. He was 
still living in 1521, when it is stated in Henry VIII. 's household 
accounts that £6, 13s. 4d. was paid " to Mr Hawes for his 
play," and he died before 1530, when Thomas Field, in his 
" Conversation between a Lover and a Jay," wrote " Yong 
Steven Hawse, whose soule God pardon, Treated of love so 
clerkly and well." His capital work is The Passetyme of Pleasure, 
or the History of Graunde Amour and la Bel Pucel, conteining 
the knowledge of the Seven Sciences and the Course of Man's Life 
in this Worlde, printed by Wynkyn de W'orde, 1509, but finished 
three years earlier. It was also printed with slightly varying 
titles by the same printer in 1517, by J. Way land in 1554, by 
Richard Tottel and by John Waley in 1555. Tottel's edition 
was edited by T. Wright and reprinted by the Percy Society 
in 1845. The poem is a long allegory in seven-lined stanzas of 
man's life in this world. It is divided into sections after the 
manner of the Morte Arthur and borrows the machinery of 
romance. Its main motive is the education of the knight, 
Graunde Amour, based, according to Mr W. J. Courthope 
{Hist, of Eng. Poetry, vol. i. 382), on the Marriage of Mercury and 
Philology, by Martianus Capella, and the details of the description 
prove Hawes to have been well acquainted with medieval systems 
of philosophy. At the suggestion of Fame, and accompanied 
by her two greyhounds, Grace and Governance, Graunde Amour 
starts out in quest of La Bel Pucel. He first visits the Tower of 
Doctrine or Science where he acquaints himself with the arts of 
grammar, logic, rhetoric and arithmetic. After a long dis- 
putation with the lady in the Tower of Music he returns to his 
studies, and after sojourns at the Tower of Geometry, the Tower 
of Doctrine, the Castle of Chivalry, &c, he arrives at the Castle 
of La Bel Pucel, where he is met by Peace, Mercy, Justice, 
Reason and Memory. His happy marriage does not end the 
story, which goes on to tell of the oncoming of Age, with the 
concomitant evils of Avarice and Cunning. The admonition 
of Death brings Contrition and Conscience, and it is only when 
Remembraunce has delivered an epitaph chiefly dealing with 
the Seven Deadly Sins, and Fame has enrolled Graunde Amour's 
name with the knights of antiquity, that we are allowed to part 
with the hero. This long imaginative poem was widely read 
and esteemed, and certainly exercised an influence on the genius 
of Spenser. 

The remaining works of Hawes are all ol them bibliographical 
rarities. The Conversyon of Swerers (1509) and A Joy full Medy- 
tncyon to all Englonde, a coronation poem (1509), was edited by 
David Laing for the Abbotsford Club (Edinburgh, 1865). A 



Compendyous Story . . . called the Example of Vertu (pr. 1512) and 
the Comfort of Lovers (not dated) complete the list of his extant 

See also G. Saintsbury, The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of 
Allegory (Edin. and Lond., 1897) ; the same writer's Hist, of English 
Prosody (vol. i. 1906); and an article by W. Murison in the Cam- 
bridge History of English Literature (vol. ii. 1908). 

HAWES, WILLIAM (1785-1846), English musician, was born 
in London in 1785, and was for eight years (1793-1801) a chorister 
of the Chapel Royal, where he studied music chiefly under Dr 
Ayrtoa. He subsequently held various musical posts, being in 
18 1 7 appointed master of the children of the Chapel Royal. 
He also carried on the business of a music publisher, and was 
for many years musical director of the Lyceum theatre, then 
devoted to English opera. In the last-named capacity (July 
23rd, 1824), he introduced Weber's Der Freischiitz for the first 
time in England, at first slightly curtailed, but soon afterwards 
in its entirety. Winter's Interrupted Sacrifice, Mozart's Cosi 
fan tutte, Marschner's Vampyre and other important works 
were also brought out urider his auspices. Hawes also wrote 
or compiled the music for numerous pieces. Better were his 
glees and madrigals, of which he published several collections. 
He also superintended a new edition of the celebrated Triumph 
of Oriana. He died on the 18th of February 1846. 

HAWFINCH, a bird so called from the belief that the fruit 
of the hawthorn {Crataegus Oxyacantha) forms its chief food, 
the Loxia coccothraustes of Linnaeus, and the Coccothraustes 
vulgaris of modern ornithologists, one of the largest of the finch 
family (Fringillidae), and found over nearly the whole of Europe, 
in Africa north of the Atlas and in Asia from Palestine to Japan. 
It was formerly thought to be only an autumnal or winter- 
visitor to Britain, but later experience has proved that, though 
there may very likely be an immigration in the fall of the year, 
it breeds in nearly all the English counties to Yorkshire, and 
abundantly in those nearest to London. In coloration it bears 
some resemblance to a chaffinch, but its much larger size and 
enormous beak make it easily recognizable, while on closer 
inspection the singular bull-hook form of some of its wing-feathers 
will be found to be very remarkable. Though not uncommonly 
frequenting gardens and orchards, in which as well as in woods 
it builds its nest, it is exceedingly shy in its habits, so as seldom 
to afford opportunities for observation. (A. N.) 

HAWICK, a municipal and police burgh of Roxburghshire, 
Scotland. Pop. (1891), 19,204; (1901), 1.7,303. It is situated 
at the confluence of the Slitrig (which flows through the town) 
with the Teviot, 10 m. S.W. of Jedburgh by road and 52! m. 
S.E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. The name 
has been derived from the O. Eng. heaih-wic, " the village on the 
flat meadow," or haga-wic, " the fenced-in dwelling," the Gadeni 
being supposed to have had a settlement at this spot. Hawick is 
a substantial and flourishing town, the prosperity of which dates 
from the beginning of the 19th century, its enterprise having 
won for it the designation of " The Glasgow of the Borders." 
The municipal buildings, which contain the free library and 
reading-room, stand on the site of the old town hall. The 
Buccleuch memorial hall, commemorating the 5th duke of 
Buccleuch, contains the Science and Art Institute and a museum 
rich in exhibits illustrating Border history. The Academy 
furnishes both secondary and technical education. The only 
church of historical interest is that of St Mary's, the third of 
the name, built in 1763. The first church, believed to have been 
founded by St Cuthbert (d. 687), was succeeded by one dedicated 
in 1 214, which was the scene of the seizure of Sir Alexander 
Ramsay of Dalhousie in 1342 by Sir William Douglas. The 
modern Episcopal church of St Cuthbert was designed by Sir 
Gilbert Scott. The Moat or Moot hill at the south end of the 
town — an earthen mound ^o ft. high and 300 ft. in circumference 
— is conjectured to have been the place where formerly the court 
of the manor met; though some authorities think it was a 
primitive form of fortification. The Baron's Tower, founded in 
1 155 by the Lovels, lords of Branxholm and Hawick, and after- 
wards the residence of the Douglases of Drumlanrig, is said to 
have been the only building that was not burned down during 

the raid of Thomas Radcliffe, 3rd earl of Sussex, in April 1570. 
At a later date it was the abode of Anne, duchess of Buccleuch 
and Monmouth, after the execution of her husband, James, 
duke of Monmouth in 1585, and finally became the Tower Hotel. 
Bridges across the Teviot connect Hawick with the suburb of 
Wilton, in which a public park has been laid out, and St Leonard's 
Park and race-course are situated on the Common, 2 m. S.W. 
The town is governed by a provost, bailies and council, and 
unites with Selkirk and Galashiels (together known as the 
Border burghs) to send a member to parliament. The leading 
industries are the manufacture of hosiery, established in 1771, 
and woollens, dating from 1830, including blankets, shepherd's 
plaiding and tweeds. There are, besides, tanneries, dye works, 
oil-works, saw-mills, iron-founding and engineering works, 
quarries and nursery gardens. The markets for live stock and 
grain are also important. 

In 1537 Hawick received from Sir James Douglas of Drum- 
lanrig a charter which was confirmed by the infant Queen Mary 
in 1545, and remained in force until 1S61, when the corporation 
was reconstituted by act of parliament. Owing to its situation 
Hawick was often imperilled by Border warfare and maraud- 
ing freebooters. Sir Robert Umfraville (d. 1436), governor of 
Berwick, burned it about 141 7, and in 1562 the regent Moray 
had to suppress the lawless with a strong hand. Neither of 
the Jacobite risings aroused enthusiasm. In 171 5 the dis- 
contented Highlanders mutinied on the Common, 500 of them 
abandoning their cause, and in 1745 Prince Charles Edward's 
cavalry passed southward through the town. In 1514, the year 
after the battle of Hodden, in which the burghers had suffered 
severely, a number of young men surprised an English force at 
Hornshole, a spot on the Teviot 2 m. below the town, routed 
them and bore away their flag. This event is celebrated every 
June in the ceremony of " Riding the Common " — in which a 
facsimile of the captured pennon is carried in procession to the 
accompaniment of a chorus " Teribus, ye Teri Odin," supposed 
to be an invocation to Thor and Odin — a survival of Northum- 
brian paganism. Two of the most eminent natives of the burgh 
were Dr Thomas Somerville (i74i-i83o),the historian, and James 
Wilson (1805-1860), founder of the Economist newspaper and 
the first financial member of the council for India. 

Minto House, 5 m. N.E., is the seat of the earl of Minto. Denholm, 
about midway between Hawick and Jedburgh, was the birthplace 
of John Leyden the poet. The cottage in which Leyden was born 
is now the property of the Edinburgh Border Counties Association, 
and a monument to his memory has been erected in the centre of 
Denholm green. Cavers, nearer Hawick, was once the home of 
a branch of the Douglases, and it is said that in Cavers House are 
still preserved the pennon that was borne before the Douglas at 
the battle of Otterburn (Chevy Chase), and the gauntlets that were 
then taken from the Percy (1388). Two m. S.W. of Hawick is the 
massive peel of Goldielands — the " watch-tower of Branxholm," a 
well-preserved typical Border stronghold. One mile beyond it, 
occupying a commanding site on the left bank of the Teviot, stands 
Branxholm Castle, the Branksome Hall of The Lay of the Last 
Minstrel, once owned by the Lovels, but since the middle of the 15th 
century the property of the Scotts of Buccleuch, and up to 1756 
the chief seat of the duke. It suffered repeatedly in English in- 
vasions and was destroyed in 1570. It was rebuilt next year, the 
peel, finished five years later, forming part of the modern mansion. 
About 3 m. W. of Hawick, finely situated on high ground above 
Harden Burn, a left-hand affluent of Borthwick Water, is Harden, 
the home of Walter Scott (1550-1629), an ancestor of the novelist. 

HAWK (O. Eng. hafec or heafoc, a common Teutonic word, 
cf. Dutch havik, Ger. Habicht; the root is hob-, haf-, to hold, 
cf. Lat. accipiter, from capere), a word of somewhat indefinite 
meaning, being often used to signify all diurnal birds-of-prey 
which are neither vultures nor eagles, and again more exclusively 
for those of the remainder which are not buzzards, falcons, 
harriers or kites. Even with this restriction it is comprehensive 
enough, and will include more than a hundred species, which have 
been arrayed in genera varying in number from a dozen to above 
a score, according to the fancy of the systematizer. Speaking 
generally, hawks may be characterized by possessing compara- 
tively short wings and long legs, a bill which begins to decurve 
directly from the cere (or soft bare skin that covers its base), 
I and has the cutting edges of its maxilla (or upper mandible) 



sinuated 1 but never notched. To these may be added as 
characters, structurally perhaps of less value, but in other 
respects quite as important, that the sexes differ very greatly in 
size, that in most species the irides are yellow, deepening with 
age into orange or even red, and that the immature plumage is 
almost invariably more or less striped or mottled -with heart- 

with which they are often classed. The differences between all 
the forms above named and the much larger number here 
unnamed are such as can be only appreciated by the specialist. 
The so-called " sparrow-hawk " of New Zealand (Hieracidca) 
does not belong to this group of birds at all, and by many 
authors has been deemed akin to the falcons. For hawking 

shaped spots beneath, while that of the adults is generally much see Falconry. 

(A. N.) 

barred, though the old males have in many instances the breast 
and belly quite free from markings. Nearly all are of small 
or moderate size — the largest among them being the gos-hawk 
(q.v.) and its immediate allies, and the male of the smallest, 
Accipiter tinus, is not bigger than a song-thrush. They are all 
birds of great boldness in attacking a quarry, but if foiled in 
the first attempts they are apt to leave the pursuit. Thoroughly 
arboreal in their habits, they seek their prey, chiefly consisting 
of birds (though reptiles and small mammals are also taken), 
among trees or bushes, patiently waiting for a victim to shew 

European Sparrow-Hawk (Male and Female). 

itself, and gliding upon it when it appears to be unwary with a 
rapid swoop, clutching it in their talons, and bearing it away to 
eat it in some convenient spot. 

Systematic ornithologists differ as to the groups into which 
the numerous forms known as hawks should be divided. There is 
at the outset a difference of opinion as to the scientific name 
which the largest and best known of these groups should bear — 
some authors terming it Nisus, and others, who seem to have the 
most justice on their side, Accipiter. In Europe there are two 
species — first,.-!, nisus, the common sparrow-hawk, which has a 
wide distribution from Ireland to Japan, extending also to 
northern India, Egypt and Algeria, and secondly, A. brevipes 
(by some placed in the group Micronisus and by others called 
an Astur), which only appears in the south-east and the adjoining 
parts of Asia Minor and Persia. In North America the place of 
the former is taken by two very distinct species, a small one, 
A.fuscus, usually known in Canada and the United States as the 
sharp-shinned hawk, and Stanley's or Cooper's hawk, A. cooperi 
(by some placed in another genus, Cooperastur), which is larger 
and has not so northerly a range. In South America there are 
four or five more, including A. tinus, before mentioned as the 
smallest of all, while a species not much larger, A. minullus, 
together with several others of greater size, inhabits South 
Africa. Madagascar and its neighbouring islands have three 
or four species sufficiently distinct, and India has A. badlus. 
A good many more forms are found in south-eastern Asia, 
in the Indo-Malay Archipelago, and in Australia three or four 
species, of which A . cirrhoccplialus most nearly represents the 
sparrow-hawk of Europe and northern Asia, while A. radiatus 
and A. approximans show some affinity to the gos-hawks {Astur) 

1 In one form, Nisoides, which on that account has been generically 
separated, they are said to be perfectly straight. 

HAWKE, EDWARD HAWKE, Baron (1705-1781), British 
admiral, was the only son of Edward Hawke, a barrister. On 
his mother's side he was the nephew of Colonel Martin Bladen 
( 1 680-1 746), a politician of some note, and was connected with 
the family of Fairfax. Edward Hawke entered the navy on the 
20th of February 1720 and served the time required to qualify 
him to hold a lieutenant's commission on the North American 
and West Indian stations. Though he passed his examination 
on the 2nd of June 1725, he was not appointed to a ship to act in 
that rank till 1729, when he was named third lieutenant of the 
" Portland " in the Channel. The continuance of peace allowed 
him no opportunities of distinction, but he was fortunate in 
obtaining promotion as commander of the " Wolf " sloop in 
1733, and as post captain of the " Flamborough " (20) in 1734. 
When war began with Spain in 1739, he served as captain of the 
" Portland " (50) in the West Indies. His ship was old and rotten. 
She nearly drowned her captain and crew, and was broken up 
after she was paid off in 1742. In the following year Hawke was 
appointed to the " Berwick " (70), a fine new vessel, and was 
attached to the Mediterranean fleet then under the command 
of Thomas Mathews. The " Berwick " was manned badly, and 
suffered severely from sickness, but in the ill-managed battle of 
Toulon on the nth of January 1744 Hawke gained great dis- 
tinction by the spirit with which he fought his ship. The only 
prize taken by the British fleet, the Spanish " Poder " (74), 
surrendered to him, and though she was not kept by the admiral, 
Hawke was not in any degree to blame for the loss of the only 
trophy of the fight. His gallantry attracted the attention of 
the king. There is a story that he was dismissed the service for 
having left the line to engage the " Poder," and was restored 
by the king's order. The legend grew not unnaturally out of the 
confusing series of courts martial which arose out of the battle, 
but it has no foundation. There is better reason to believe that 
when at a later period the Admiralty intended to pass over 
Hawke's name in a promotion of admirals, the king, George II., 
did insist that he should not be put on the retired list. 

He had no further chance of making his energy and ability 
known out of the ranks of his own profession, where they were 
fully realized, till 1747. In July of that year he attained flag 
rank, and was named second in command of the Channel fleet. 
Owing to the ill health of his superior he was sent in command of 
the fourteen ships detached to intercept a French convoy on its 
way to the West Indies. On the 14th of October 1747 he fell in 
with it in the Bay of Biscay. The French force, under M. Desher- 
biers de l'fitenduere, consisted of nine ships, which were, how- 
ever, on the average larger than Hawke's. He attacked at once. 
The French admiral sent one of his liners to escort the merchant 
ships on their way to the West Indies, and with the other eight 
fought a very gallant action with the British squadron. Six 
of the eight French ships were taken. The French admiral did 
for a time succeed in saving the trading vessels under his charge, 
but most of them fell into the hands of the British cruisers in 
the West Indies. Hawke was made a knight of the Bath for 
this timely piece of service, a reward which cannot be said to 
have been lavish. " . 

In 1747 Hawke had been elected M.P. for Portsmouth, which 
he continued to represent for thirty years, though he can seldom 
have been in his place, and it does not appear that he often spoke. 
A seat in parliament was always valuable to a naval officer at 
that time, since it enabled him to be useful to ministers, and 
increased his chances of obtaining employment. Hawke had 
married a lady of fortune in Yorkshire, Catherine Brook, in 1737, 
and was able to meet the expenses entailed by a seat in parlia- 
ment, which were considerable at a time when votes were openly 
paid for by money down. In the interval between the war of 

9 6 


the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, Hawke was 
almost always on active service. From 1748 till 1752 he was 
in command at home, and he rehoisted his flag in 1755 as admiral 
in command of the Western Squadron. Although war was not 
declared for some time, England and France were on very hostile 
terms, and conflicts between the officers of the two powers in 
America had already taken place. Neither government was 
scrupulous in abstaining from the use of force while peace was 
still nominally unbroken. Hawke was sent to sea to intercept a 
French squadron which bad been cruising near Gibraltar, but 
a restriction was put on the limits within which he might cruise, 
and he failed to meet the French. The fleet was much weakened 
by ill-health. In June 1756 the news of John Byng's retreat 
from Minorca reached England and aroused the utmost indigna- 
tion. Hawke was at once sent out to relieve him in the Mediter- 
ranean command, and to send him home for trial. He sailed 
in the ''Antelope," carrying, as the wits of the day put it, "a 
cargo of courage " to supply deficiencies in that respect among 
the officers then in the Mediterranean. Minorca had fallen, 
from want of resources rather than the attacks of the French, 
before he could do anything for the assistance of the garrison of 
Fort St Philip. In winter he was recalled to England, and he 
reached home on the 14th of January 1757. On the 24th of 
February following he was promoted full admiral. 

It is said, but on no very good authority, that he was not 
on good terms with Pitt (afterwards earl of Chatham), and it is 
certain that when Pitt's great ministry was formed in June 
1757, he was not included in the Board of Admiralty. Yet as 
he was continued in command of important forces in the Channel, 
it is obvious that his great capacity was fully recognized. In 
the late summer of 1757 he was entrusted with the naval side 
of an expedition to the coast of France. These operations, 
which were scoffingly described at the time as breaking windows 
with guineas, were a favourite device of Pitt's for weakening 
the French and raising the confidence of the country. The 
expedition of 1757 was directed against Rochefort, and it 
effected nothing. Hawke, who probably expected very little 
geod from it, did his own work as admiral punctually, but he 
cannot be said to have shown zeal, or any wish to inspirit the 
military officers into making greater efforts than they were 
disposed naturally to make. The expedition returned to Spit- 
head by the 6th of October. No part of the disappointment of 
the public, which was acute, was visited on Hawke. During 
the end of 1757 and the beginning of 1758 he continued cruising 
in the Channel in search of the French naval forces, without 
any striking success. In May of that year he was ordered to 
detach a squadron under the command of Howe to carry out 
further combined operations. Hawke considered himself as 
treated with a want of due respect, and was at the time in bad 
humour with the Admiralty. He somewhat pettishly threw 
up his command, but was induced to resume it by the board, 
which knew his value, and was not wanting in flattery. He re- 
tired in June for a time on the ground of health, but happily 
for his own glory and the service of the country he was able to 
hoist his flag in May 1759, the " wonderful year " of Garrick's 

France was then elaborating a scheme of invasion which bears 
much resemblance to the plan afterwards formed by Napoleon. 
An army of invasion was collected at the Morbihan in Brittany, 
and the intention was to transport it under the protection of a 
powerful fleet which was to be made up by uniting the squadron 
at Brest with the ships at Toulon. The plan, like Napoleon's, 
had slight chance of success, since the naval part of the invading 
force must necessarily be brought together from distant points 
at the risk of interruption by the British squadrons. The 
naval forces of England were amply sufficient to provide what- 
ever was needed to upset the plans of the French government. 
But the country was not so confident in the capacity of the 
navy to serve as a defence as it was taught to be in later genera- 
tions. It had been seized by a most shameful panic at the 
beginning of the war in face of a mere threat of invasion. There- 
fore the anxiety of Pitt to baffle the schemes of the French 

decisively was great, and the country looked on at the develop 
ment of the naval campaign with nervous attention. The 
proposed combination of the French fleet was defeated by the 
annihilation of the Toulon squadron on the coast of Portugal by 
Boscawen in May, but the Brest fleet was still untouched and 
the troops were still at Morbihan. It was the duty of Hawke 
to prevent attack from this quarter. The manner in which he 
discharged his task marks an epoch in the history of the navy. 
Until his time, or very nearly so, it was still believed that there 
was rashness in keeping the great ships out after September. 
Hawke maintained his blockade of Brest till far into November. 
Long cruises had always entailed much bad health on the crews, 
but by the care he took to obtain fresh food, and the energy he 
showed in pressing the Admiralty for stores, he was able to keep 
his men healthy. Early in November a series of severe gales 
forced him off the French coast, and he was compelled to anchor 
in Torbay. His absence was brief, but it allowed the French 
admiral, M. de Conflans (i6oo?-i777), time to put to sea, 
and to steer for the Morbihan. Hawke, who had left Torbay 
on the 13th of November, learnt of the departure of the French 
at sea on the 17th from a look-out ship, and as the French 
admiral could have done nothing but steer for the Morbihan, he 
followed him thither. The news that M. de Conflans had got to sea 
spread a panic through the country, and for some days Hawke 
was the object of abuse of the most irrational kind. There was 
in fact no danger, for behind Hawke's fleet there were ample 
reserves in the straits of Dover, and in the North Sea. Following 
his enemy as fast as the bad weather, a mixture of calms and 
head winds would allow, the admiral sighted the French about 
40 m. to the west of Belleisle on the morning of the 20th of 
November. The British fleet was of twenty-one sail, the French 
of twenty. There was also a small squadron of British ships 
engaged in watching the Morbihan as an inshore squadron, 
which was in danger of being cut off. M. de Conflans had a 
sufficient force to fight in the open sea without rashness, but 
after making a motion to give battle, he changed his mind and 
gave the signal to his fleet to steer for the anchorage at Quiberon. 
He did not believe that the British admiral would dare to follow 
him, for the coast is one of the most dangerous in the world, 
and the wind was blowing hard from the west and rising to a 
storm. Hawke, however, pursued without hesitation, though 
it was well on in the afternoon before he caught up the rear of 
the French fleet, and dark by the time the two fleets were in the 
bay. The action, which was more a test of seamanship than of 
gunnery, or capacity to manoeuvre in order, ended in the destruc- 
tion of the French. Five ships only were taken or destroyed, 
but others ran ashore, and the French navy as a whole lost all 
confidence. Two British vessels were lost, but the price was 
little to pay for such a victory. No more fighting remained to be 
done. The fleet in Quiberon Bay suffered from want of food, 
and its distress is recorded in the lines: — 

" Ere Hawke did bang 
Mounseer Conflang 

You sent us beef and beer; 
Now Mounseer's beat 
We've nought to eat, 

Since you have nought to fear." 

Hawke returned to England in January 1760 and had no 
further service at sea. He was not made a peer till the 20th of 
May 1776, and then only as Baron Hawke of Towton. From 
1776 to i77r he was first lord of the Admiralty. His administra- 
tion was much criticized, perhaps more from party spirit than 
because of its real defects. Whatever his relations with Lord 
Chatham may have been he was no favourite with Chatham's 
partizans. It is very credible that, having spent all his life at 
sea, his faculty did not show in the uncongenial life of the shore. 
As an admiral at sea and on his own element Hawke has had 
no superior. It is true that he was not put to the test of having 
to meet opponents of equal strength and efficiency, but then 
neither has any other British admiral since the Dutch wars of 
the 17th century. On his death on the 17th of October 1781 
his title passed to his son, Martin Bladen (1744-1805), and it is 



still held by his descendants, the 7th Baron (b. i860) being 
best known as a great Yorkshire cricketer. 

There is a portrait of Hawke in the Painted Hall at Greenwich. 
His Life by Montagu Burrows (1883) has superseded all other 
authorities; it is supplemented in a few early particulars by Sir 
J. K. Laughton's article in the Diet. Nat. Biog. (1891). 

HAWKER, ROBERT STEPHEN (1803-1874), English anti- 
quary and poet, was born at Stoke Damerel, Devonshire, 
on the 3rd of December 1803. His father, Jacob Stephen 
Hawker, was at that time a doctor, but afterwards curate and 
vicar of Stratton, Cornwall. Robert was sent to Liskeard 
grammar school, and when he was about sixteen was apprenticed 
to a solicitor. He was soon removed to Cheltenham grammar 
school, and in April 1823 matriculated at Pembroke College, 
Oxford. In the same year he married Charlotte I'Ans, a lady 
much older than himself. On returning to Oxford he migrated 
to Magdalen Hall, where he graduated in 1828, having already 
won the Newdigate prize for poetry in 1827. He became 
vicar of Morwenstow, a village on the north Cornish coast, 
in 1S34. Hawker described the bulk of his parishioners as a 
" mixed multitude of smugglers, wreckers and dissenters of 
various hues." He was himself a high churchman, and carried 
things with a high hand in his parish, but was much beloved 
by his people. He was a man of great originality, and numerous 
stories were told of his striking sayings and eccentric conduct. 
He was the original of Mortimer Collins's Canon Tremaine in 
Surd and Twenty. His first wife died in 1863, and in 1864 he 
married Pauline Kuczynski, daughter of a Polish exile. He died 
in Plymouth on the 15th of August 1875. Before his death 
he was formally received into the Roman Catholic Church, a 
proceeding which aroused a bitter newspaper controversy. 
The best of his poems is The Quest of the Sangraal: Chant the 
First ("Exeter, 1864). Among his Cornish Ballads (1869) the 
most famous is on " Trelawny," the refrain of which, " And 
shall Trelawny die," &c, he declared to be an old Cornish saying. 

See The Vicar of Morwenstow (1875; later and corrected editions, 
I1S76 and 1886), by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, which was severely 
criticized by Hawker's friend, \V. Maskell, in the Athenaeum (March 
26, 1876); Memorials of the late Robert Stephen Hawker (1876), 
by the late Dr F. G. Lee. These were superseded in 1905 by The 
Life and Letters of R. S. Hawker, by his son-in-law, C. fi. Byles, 
which contains a bibliography of his works, now very valuable to 
collectors. See also Boase and Courtney, Bibliolheca Cornubiensis. 
His Poetical Works (1879) and his Prose Works (1893) were edited 
by J. (',. Godwin. Another edition of his Poetical Works (1899) has 
a preface and bibliography by Alfred Wallis, and a complete edition 
of his poems by C. E. Byles, with the title Cornish Ballads and other 
Poems, appeared in 1904. 

HAWKERS and PEDLARS, the designation of itinerant 
dealers who convey their goods from place to place to sell. 
The word " hawker " seems to have come into English from the 
tier. Hiikcr or Dutch heuker in the early 16th century. In an 
act of 1533 (25 Henry VIII. c. 9, § 6) we find " Sundry evill 
disposed persons which commonly beene called haukers . . . 
buying and selling of Brasse and Pewter." The earlier word 
for -urn an itinerant dealer is " huckster," which is found in 
t.'oo. " For that they have turned God's house infill huckstercss 
bothe " (Ormulum. 15,817). The base of the two words is the 
same, and is probably to be referred to German hocken, to squat, 
crouch; cf. " hucklebone." the hip-bone; and the hawkers or 
hucksters were so called either because they stooped under 
I heir packs, or squatted at booths in markets, &c. Another 
derivation finds the origin in the Dutch hock, a hole, corner. 
It may be noticed that the termination of " huckster " is 
feminine; though there are examples of its application to women 
it was always applied indiscriminately to either sex. 

" Pedlar " occurs much earlier than the verbal form " to 
peddle." which is therefore a derivative from the substantive. 
The origin is to be found in the still older word "pedder," one 
who carries about goods for sale in a " ped," a basket or hamper. 
This is now only used dialectically and in Scotland. In the 
Ancren Rhde (c. 1225), peoddare is found with the meaning of 
" pedlar," though the Promptorium parvulorum (c. 1440) defines 
it a> culathdsiits, i.e. a maker of panniers or baskets. 

The French term for a hawker or pedlar of books, colporteur 
(col, neck, porter, to carry), has been adopted by the Bible 
Society and other English religious bodies as a name for itinerant 
vendors and distributors of Bibles and other religious literature. 

The occupation of hawkers and pedlars has been regulated in 
the United Kingdom, and the two classes have also been technically 
distinguished. The Pedlars Act 1871 defines a pedlar as " any 
hawker, pedlar, petty chapman, tinker, caster of metals, mender 
of chairs, or other person who, without any horse or other beast 
bearing or drawing burden, travels and trades on foot and goes 
from town to town or to other men's houses, carrying to sell or 
exposing for sale any goods, wares or merchandise ... or selling or 
offering for sale his skill in handicraft." Any person who acts as a 
pedlar must have a certificate, which is to be obtained from the chief 
officer of police of the police district. in which the person applying 
for the certificate has resided during one month previous to his 
application. Hl- must satisfy the officer that he is above seventeen 
years of age, is of good character, and in good faith intends to carry 
on the trade of a pedlar. The fee for a pedlar's certificate is five 
shillings, and the certificate remains in force for a year from the 
date of issue. The act requires a register of certificates to be kept 
in each district, and imposes a penalty for the assigning, borrowing 
or forging of any certificate. It does not exempt any one from 
vagrant law, and requires the pedlar to show his certificate on 
demand to certain persons. It empowers the police to inspect a 
pedlar's pack, and provides for the arrest of an uncertificated pedlar 
or one refusing to show his certificate. A pedlar's certificate is not 
required by commercial travellers, sellers of vegetables, fish, fruit or 
victuals, or sellers in fairs. The Hawkers Act 1888 defines a 
hawker as " any one who travels with a horse or other beast of 
burden, selling goods," &c. An excise licence (expiring on the 31st 
of March in each year) must be taken out by every hawker in the 
United Kingdom. The duty imposed upon such licence is £2. 
A hawker's licence is not granted, otherwise than by way of licence, 
except on production of a certificate signed by a clergyman and two 
householders of the parish or place wherein the applicant resides, 
or by a justice of the county or place, or a superintendent or inspector 
of police for the district, attesting that the person is of good character 
and a proper person to be licenced as a hawker. There are certain 
exemptions from taking out a licence — commercial travellers, 
sellers of fish, coal, &c, sellers in fairs, and the real worker or maker 
of any goods. The act also laj's down certain provisions to be 
observed by hawkers and others, and imposes penalties for infringe- 
ments. In the United States hawkers and pedlars must take out 
licences under State laws and Federal laws. 

HAWKESWORTH, JOHN (c. 1715-1773), English miscellaneous 
writer, was born in London about 171 5. He is said to have been 
clerk to an attorney, and was certainly self-educated. In 1744 
he succeeded Samuel Johnson as compiler of the parliamentary 
debates for the Gentleman's Magazine, and from 1746 to 1749 
he contributed poems signed Greville, or H. Greville, to that 
journal. In company with Johnson and others he started a 
periodical called Tlie Adventurer , which ran to 140 numbers, 
of which 70 were from the pen of Hawkesworth himself. On 
account of what was regarded as its powerful defence of morality 
and religion, Hawkesworth was rewarded by the archbishop 
of Canterbury with the degree of LL.D. In 1754-1755 he pub- 
lished an edition (r2 vols.) of Swift's works, with a life prefixed 
which Johnson praised in his Lives of the Poets. A larger edition 
(27 vols.) appeared in 1766-1779. He adapted Dryden's 
Amphitryon for the Drury Lane stage in 1756, and Southerne's 
Oronooko in 1759. He wrote the libretto of an oratorio Zimri 
in 1760, and the next year Edgar and Emmeline: a Fairy Tale, 
was produced at Drury Lane. His Almoran and Hamet (2 vols., 
1 761! was first of all drafted as a play, and a tragedy founded 
on it by S. J. Pratt, The Fair Circassian (1781), met with some 
success. He was commissioned by the admiralty to edit Captain 
Cook's papers relative to his first voyage. For this work, An 
Account of the Voyages undertaken . . . for making discoveries 
in the Southern Hemisphere and performed by Commodore Byrone, 
Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret and Captain Cook (from 1764 
to 1771) drawn up from the Journals ... (3 vols., 1773), 
Hawkesworth is said to have received from the publishers the 
sum of £6000. His descriptions of the manners and customs 
of the South Seas were, however, regarded by many critics 
as inexact and hurtful to the interests of morality, and the 
severity of their strictures is said to have hastened his death, 
which took place on the i6lh of November 1773. He was buried 

9 8 


at Bromley. Kent, where he and his wife had kept a school. 
Hawkesworth was a close imitator of Johnson both in style and 
thought, and was at one time on very friendly terms with him. 
It is said that he presumed on his success, and lost Johnson's 
friendship as early as 1756. 

HAWKHURST, a town in the southern parliamentary divi- 
sion of Kent, England, 47 m. S.E. of London, on a branch 
of the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1001), 3136. 
It lies mainly on a ridge above the valley of the Kent Ditch, 
a tributary of the Rother. The neighbouring country is hilly, 
rich and well wooded, and the pleasant and healthy situation 
has led to the considerable extension of the old village as a 
residential locality. The Kent Sanatorium and one of the 
Barnardo homes are established here. The church of St Lawrence, 
founded from Battle Abbey in Sussex, is Decorated and Per- 
pendicular and its east window, of the earlier period, is specially 

HAWKINS, CAESAR HENRY (1798-1884), British surgeon, 
son of the Rev. E. Hawkins and grandson of the Sir Caesar 
Hawkins (1711-1786), who was serjeant-surgeon to Kings 
George II. and George III., was born at Bisley, Gloucestershire, 
on the 1 9th of September 1798, was educated at Christ's Hospital, 
and entered St George's Hospital, London, in 1818. He was 
surgeon to the hospital from 1829 to 1861, and in 1862 was made 
serjeant-surgeon to Queen Victoria. He was president of 
the College of Surgeons in 1852, and again in 1861; and he 
delivered the Hunterian oration in 1849. His success in complex 
surgical cases gave him a great reputation. For long he was 
noted as the only surgeon who had succeeded in the operation 
of ovariotomy in a London hospital. This occurred in 1846, 
when anaesthetics were unknown. He did much to popularize 
colotomy. A successful operator, he nevertheless was attached 
to conservative surgery, and was always more anxious to teach 
his pupils how to save a limb than how to remove it. He re- 
printed his contributions to the medical journals in two volumes, 
1874, the more valuable papers being on Tumours, Excision of 
the Ovarium. Hydrophobia and Snake-biles, Stricture of the Colon, 
and Tlie Relative Claims of Sir Charles Bell and Magendie to the 
Discovery of the Functions of the Spinal Nerves. He died on the 
20th of July 1884. His brother, Edward Hawkins (1789-1882), 
was the well-known provost of Oriel, Oxford, who played so 
great a part in the Tractarian movement. 

HAWKINS, or Hawkyns, SIR JOHN (1532-1595), British 
admiral, was born at Plymouth in 1532, and belonged to a 
family of Devonshire shipowners and skippers — occupations 
then more closely connected than is now usual. His father, 
William Hawkins (d. 1553), was a prosperous freeman of Ply- 
mouth, who thrice represented that town in parliament, and is 
described by Hakluyt as one of the principal sea-captains in the 
west parts of England; his elder brother, also called William 
(d. 1589), was closely associated with him in his Spanish expedi- 
tions, and took an active part in fitting out ships to meet the 
Armada; and his nephew, the eldest son of the last named and 
of the same name, sailed with Sir Francis Drake to the South 
Sea in 1577, and served as lieutenant under Edward Fenton 
(q.v.) in the expedition which started for the East Indies and 
China in 1582. His son, Sir Richard Hawkins, is separately 

Sir John Hawkins was bred to the sea in the ships of his 
family. When the great epoch of Elizabethan maritime 
adventure began, he took an active part by sailing to the Guinea 
coast, where he robbed the Portuguese slavers, and then smuggled 
the negroes he had captured into the Spanish possessions in the 
New World. After a first successful voyage in 1562-1563, two 
vessels which he had rashly sent to Seville were confiscated by 
the Spanish government. With the help of friends, and the 
open approval of the queen, who hired one of her vessels to him, 
he sailed again in 1564, and repeated his voyage with success, 
trading with the Creoles by force when the officials of the king 
endeavoured to prevent him. These two voyages brought him 
reputation, and he was granted a coat of arms with a dcmi-Moor, 
or negro, chained, as his crest. The rivalry with Spain was now 

becoming very acute, and when Hawkins sailed for the third 
time in 1567, he went in fact, though not technically, on a 
national venture. Again he kidnapped negroes, and forced his 
goods on the Spanish colonies. Encouraged by his discovery 
that these settlements were small and unfortified, he on this 
occasion ventured to enter Vera Cruz, the port of Mexico, after 
capturing some Spaniards at sea to be held as hostages. He 
alleged that he had been driven in by bad weather. The falsity 
of the story was glaring, but the Spanish officers on the spot were 
too weak to offer resistance. Hawkins was allowed to enter 
the harbour, and to refit at the small rocky island of San Juan de 
Ulloa by which it is formed. Unfortunately for him, and for a 
French corsair whom he had in his company, a strong Spanish 
force arrived, bringing the new viceroy. The Spaniards, who 
were no more scrupulous of the truth than himself, pretended 
to accept the arrangement made before their arrival, and then 
when they thought he was off his guard attacked him on the 
24th of September. Only two vessels escaped, his own, the 
" Minion," and the " Judith," a small vessel belonging to his 
cousin Francis Drake. The voyage home was miserable, and 
the sufferings of all were great. 

For some years Hawkins did not return to the sea, though he 
continued to be interested in privateering voyages as a capitalist. 
In the course of 1572 he recovered part of his loss by pretending 
to betray the queen for a bribe to Spain. He acted with the 
knowledge of Lord Burleigh. In 1573 he became treasurer of 
the navy in succession to his father-in-law Benjamin Gonson. 
The office of comptroller was conferred on him soon after, and 
for the rest of his life he remained the principal administrative 
officer of the navy. Burleigh noted that he was suspected of 
fraud in his office, but the queen's ships were kept by him in 
good condition. In 1588 he served as rear-admiral against the 
Spanish Armada and was knighted. In 1590 he was sent to 
the coast of Portugal to intercept the Spanish treasure fleet, but 
did not meet it. In giving an account of his failure to the queen 
he quoted the text " Paul doth plant, Apollo doth water, but 
God giveth the increase," which exhibition of piety is said to 
have provoked the queen into exclaiming, " God's death ! 
This fool went out a soldier, and has come home a divine," In 
1595 he accompanied Drake on another treasure-hunting' voyage 
to the West Indies, which was even less successful, and he died 
at sea off Porto Rico on the 12th of November 1595. 

Hawkins was twice married, first to Katharine Gonson and 
then to Margaret Vaughan. He was counted a puritan when 
Puritanism meant little beyond hatred of Spain and popery, 
and when these principles were an ever-ready excuse for voyages 
in search of slaves and plunder. In the course of one of his 
voyages, when he was becalmed and his negroes were dying, he 
consoled himself by the reflection that God would not suffer 
His elect to perish. Contemporary evidence can be produced to 
show that he was greedy, unscrupulous and rude. But if he had 
been a more delicate man he would not have risked the gallows 
by making piratical attacks on the Portuguese and by appearing 
in the West Indies as an armed smuggler; and in that case he 
would not have played an important part in history by setting 
the example of breaking down the pretension of the Spaniards 
to exclude all comers from the New World. His morality was 
that of the average stirring man of his time, whether in England 
or elsewhere. 

See R. A. J. Walling, A Sea-dog of Devon (1907); and Southey in 
his British Admirals, vol. iii. The original accounts of his voyages 
compiled by Hakluyt have been reprinted by the Hakluyt Society, 
with a preface by Sir C. R. Markham. 

HAWKINS, SIR JOHN (1719-1789), English writer on music, 
was born on the 30th of March 1719, in London, the son of an 
architect who destined him for his own profession. Ultimately, 
however, Hawkins took to the law, devoting his leisure hours 
to his favourite study of music. A wealthy marriage in 1753 
enabled him to indulge his passion for acquiring rare works of 
music, and he bought, for example, the collection formed by 
Dr Pepusch, and subsequently presented by Hawkins to the 
British Museum. It was on such materials that Hawkins 



founded his celebrated work on the General History of the Science 
and Practice of Music, in 5 vols, (republished in 2 vols., 1876). 
It was brought out in 1776, the same year which witnessed the 
appearance of the first volume of Burney's work on the same 
subject. The relative merits of the two works were eagerly 
discussed by contemporary critics. Burney no doubt is in- 
finitely superior as a literary man, and his work accordingly 
comes much nearer the idea of a systematic treatise on the 
subject than Hawkins's, which is essentially a collection of rare 
and valuable pieces of music with a more or less continuous 
commentary. But by rescuing these from oblivion Hawkins has 
given a permanent value to his work. Of Hawkins's literary 
efforts apart from music it will be sufficient to mention his 
occasional contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine, his 
edition (1760) of the Complete Angler (1787) and his biography 
of Dr Johnson, with whom he was intimately acquainted. 
He was one of the original members of the Ivy Lane Club, and 
ultimately became one of Dr Johnson's executors. If there were 
any doubt as to his intimacy with Johnson, it would be settled 
by the slighting way in which Boswell refers to him. Speaking 
of the Ivy Lane Club, he mentions amongst the members " Mr 
John Hawkins, an attorney," and adds the following footnote, 
which at the same time may serve as a summary of the remaining 
facts of Hawkins's life: " He was for several years chairman 
of the Middlesex justices, and upon presenting an address to 
the king accepted the usual offer of knighthood (1772). He 
is the author of a History of Music in five volumes in quarto. 
By assiduous attendance upon Johnson in his last illness he 
obtained the office of one of his executors — in consequence of 
which the booksellers of London employed him to publish an 
edition of Dr Johnson's works and to write his life." Sir John 
Hawkins died on the 21st of May 1789, and was buried in the 
cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 

HAWKINS, or Hawkyns, SIR RICHARD (c. 1562-1622), 
British seaman, was the only son of Admiral Sir John Hawkins 
(q.v.) by his first marriage. He was from his earliest days 
familiar with ships and the sea, and in 1582 he accompanied 
his uncle, William Hawkins, to the West Indies. In 1585 he was 
captain of a galliot in Drake's expedition to the Spanish main, 
in 1588 he commanded a queen's ship against the Armada, and in 
1 590 served with his father's expedition to the coast of Portugal. 
In 1593 he purchased the " Dainty," a ship originally built for 
his father and used by him in his expeditions, and sailed for the 
West Indies, the Spanish main and the South Seas. It seems 
clear that his project was to prey on the oversea possessions of 
the king of Spain. Hawkins, however, in an account of the 
voyage written thirty years afterwards, maintained, and by that 
time perhaps had really persuaded himself, that his expedition 
was undertaken purely for the purpose of geographical discovery. 
After visiting the coast of Brazil, the " Dainty " passed through 
the Straits of Magellan, and in due course reached Valparaiso. 
Having plundered the town, Hawkins pushed north, and in June 
1594, a year after leaving Plymouth, arrived in the bay of San 
Mateo. Here the "Dainty" was attacked by two Spanish ships. 
Hawkins was hopelessly outmatched, but defended himself with 
great courage. At last, when he himself had been severely 
wounded, many of his men killed, and the " Dainty " was nearly 
sinking, he surrendered on the promise of a safe-conduct out of 
the country for himself and his crew. Through no fault of the 
Spanish commander this promise was not kept. In 1597 Hawkins 
was sent to Spain, and imprisoned first at Seville and subse- 
quently at Madrid. He was released in 1602, and, returning to 
England, was knighted in 1603. In 1604 he became member of 
parliament for Plymouth and vice-admiral of Devon, a post 
which, as the coast was swarming with pirates, was no sinecure. 
In 1620-162 1 he was vice-admiral, under Sir Robert Mansell, 
of the fleet sent into the Mediterranean to reduce the Algerian 
corsairs. He died in London on the 17th of April 1622. 

See his Observations in his Voiage into the South Sea (1622), re- 
published by the Halduyt Society. 

HAWKS, FRANCIS LISTER (1798-1866), American clergyman, 
was born at Newbern, North Carolina, on the 10th of June 1798, 

and graduated at the university of his native state in 1815. 
After practising law with some distinction he entered the 
Episcopalian ministry in 1827 and proved a brilliant and im- 
pressive preacher, holding livings in New Haven, Philadelphia, 
New York and New Orleans, and declining several bishoprics. 
On his appointment as historiographer of his church in 1835, 
he went to England, and collected the abundant materials 
afterwards utilized in his Contributions to the Ecclesiastical 
History of U.S.A. (New York, 1836-1839). These two volumes 
dealt with Maryland and Virginia, while two later ones (1863- 
1864) were devoted to Connecticut. He was the first president 
of the university of Louisiana (now merged in Tulane). He 
died in New York on the 26th of September 1866. 

HAWKSHAW, SIR JOHN (1811-1891), English engineer, was 
born in Yorkshire in 181 1, and was educated at Leeds grammar 
school. Before he was twenty-one he had been engaged for six or 
seven years in railway engineering and the construction of roads 
in his native county, and in the year of his majority he obtained 
an appointment as engineer to the Bolivar Mining Association 
in Venezuela. But the climate there was more than his health 
could stand, and in 1834 he was obliged to return to England. 
He soon obtained employment under Jesse Hartley at the 
Liverpool docks, and subsequently was made engineer in charge 
of the railway and navigation works of the Manchester, Bury 
and Bolton Canal Company. In 1845 he became chief engineer 
to the Manchester & Leeds railway, and in 1847 to its successor, 
the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway, for which he constructed a 
large number of branch lines. In 1850 he removed to London 
and began to practise as a consulting engineer, at first alone, 
but subsequently in partnership with Harrison Hayter. In that 
capacity his work was of an extremely varied nature, embracing 
almost every branch of engineering. He retained his connexion 
with the Lancashire & Yorkshire Company until his retirement 
from professional work in 1888, and was consulted on all the 
important engineering points that affected it in that long period. 
In London he was responsible for the Charing Cross and Cannon 
Street railways, together with the two bridges which carried 
them over the Thames; he was engineer of the East London 
railway, which passes under the Thames through Sir M. I. 
Brunei's well-known tunnel; and jointly with Sir J. Wolfe 
Barry he constructed the section of the Underground railway 
which completed the " inner circle " between the Aldgate and 
Mansion House stations. In addition, many railway works 
claimed his attention in all parts of the world — Germany, 
Russia, India, Mauritius, &c. One noteworthy point in his 
railway practice was his advocacy, in opposition to Robert 
Stephenson, of steeper gradients than had previously been 
thought desirable or possible, and so far back as 1838 he expressed 
decided disapproval of the maintenance of the broad gauge on 
the Great Western, because of the troubles he foresaw it would 
lead to in connexion with future railway extension, and because 
he objected in general to breaks of gauge in the lines of a country. 
The construction of canals was another branch of engineering 
in which he was actively engaged. In 1862 he became engineer 
of the Amsterdam ship-canal, and in the succeeding year he may 
fairly be said to have been the saviour of the Suez Canal. About 
that time the scheme was in very bad odour, and the khedive 
determined to get the opinion of an English engineer as to its 
practicability, having made up his mind to stop the works if that 
opinion was unfavourable. Hawkshaw was chosen to make the 
inquiry, and it was because his report was entirely favourable that 
M. de Lesseps was able to say at the opening ceremony thatvto 
him he owed the canal. As a member of the International 
Congress which considered the construction of an interoceanic 
canal across central America, he thought best of the Nicaraguan 
route, and privately he regarded the Panama scheme as im- 
practicable at a reasonable cost, although publicly he expressed 
no opinion on the matter and left the Congress without voting. 
Sir John Hawkshaw also had a wide experience in constructing 
harbours (e.g. Holyhead) and docks (e.g. Penarth, the Albert 
Dock at Hull, and the south dock of the East and West India 
Docks in London), in river-engineering, in drainage and sewerage, 



in water-supply, &c. He was engineer, with Sir James Brunlees, 
of the original Channel Tunnel Company from 1872, but many 
years previously he had investigated for himsself the question of 
a tunnel under the Strait of Dover from an engineering point of 
view, and had come to a belief in its feasibility, so far as that 
could be determined from borings and surveys. Subsequently, 
however, he became convinced that the tunnel would not be to 
the advantage of Great Britain, and thereafter would have 
nothing to do with the project. He was also engineer of the 
Severn Tunnel, which, from its magnitude and the difficulties 
encountered in its construction, must rank as one of the most 
notable engineering undertakings of the 19th century. He died 
in London on the 2nd of June 1891. 

HAWKSLEY, THOMAS (1807-1893), English engineer, was 
born on the 12th of July 1807, at Arnold, near Nottingham. 
He was at Nottingham grammar school till the age of fifteen, but 
was indebted to his private studies for his knowledge of mathe- 
matics, chemistry and geology. In 1822 he was articled to an 
architect in Nottingham, subsequently becoming a partner in 
the firm, which also undertook engineering work; and in 1852 
he removed to London, where he continued in active practice 
till he was well past eighty. His work was chiefly concerned with 
water and gas supply and with main-drainage. Of water- 
works he used to say that he had constructed 150, and a long 
list rnight be drawn up of important towns that owe their water 
to his skill, including Liverpool, Sheffield, Leicester, Leeds, 
Derby, Darlington, Oxford, Cambridge and Northampton in 
Engla'nd, and Stockholm, Altona and Bridgetown (Barbados) 
in other countries. To his native town of Nottingham he was 
water engineer for fifty years, and the system he designed for 
it was noteworthy from the fact that the principle of constant 
supply was adopted for the first time. The gas-works at Notting- 
ham, a;id at many other towns for which he provided water 
supolies were also constructed by him. He designed main- 
drainage systems for Birmingham, Worcester and Windsor among 
other places, and in 1857 he was called in, together with G. P. 
Bidder and Sir J. Bazalgette, to report on the best solution of the 
vexed question of a main-drainage scheme for London. In 1872 
he was president of the Institution of Civil Engineers — an office 
in which his son Charles followed him in 1001. He died in 
London on the 23rd of September 1893. 

HAWKSMOOR, NICHOLAS (1661-1736), English architect, of 
Nottinghamshire birth, became a pupil of Sir Christopher Wren 
at the age of eighteen, and his name is intimately associated 
with those of Wren and Sir J. Vanbrugh in the English archi- 
tecture of his time. Through Wren's influence he obtained 
various official posts, as deputy-surveyor at Chelsea hospital, 
clerk of the works and deputy-surveyor at Greenwich hospital, 
clerk of the works at Whitehall, St James's and Westminster, 
and he succeeded Wren as surveyor-general of Westminster 
Abbey. He took part in much of the work done by Wren and 
Vanbrugh, and it is difficult often to assign among them the 
credit for the designs of various features. Hawksmoor appears, 
however, to have been responsible for the early Gothic designs 
of the two towers of All Souls' (Oxford) north quadrangle, and 
the library and other features at Queen's College (Oxford). 
At the close of Queen Anne's reign he had a principal part in 
the scheme for building fifty new churches in London, and 
himself designed five or six of them, including St Mary Woolnoth 
(1716-1719) and St George's, Bloomsbury (1720-1730). A 
number of his drawings have been preserved. He died in 
London on the 25th of March 1736. 

HAWKWOOD, SIR JOHN (d. 1394), an English adventurer 
who attained great wealth and renown as a condottiere in the 
Italian wars of the 14th century. His name is variously spelt 
as Haccoude, Aucud, Aguto, &c, by contemporaries. It is said 
that he was the son of a tanner of Hedingham Sibil in Essex, 
and was apprenticed in London, whence he went, in the English 
army, to France under Edward III. and the Black Prince. It 
is said also that he obtained the favour of the Black Prince, and 
received knighthood from King Edward III., but though it is 
certain that he was of knightly rank, there is no evidence as to 

the time or place at which he won it. On the peace of Bretigny 
in 1360, he collected a band of men-at-arms, and moved south- 
ward to Italy, where we find the White Company, as his men 
were called, assisting the marquis of Monferrato against Milan 
in 1362-63, and the Pisans against Florence in 1364. After 
several campaigns in various parts of central Italy, Hawkwood 
in 1368 entered the service of Bernabo Visconti. In 1369 he 
fought for Perugia against the pope, and in 1370 for the Visconti 
against Pisa, Florence and other enemies. In 1372 he defeated 
the marquis of Monferrato, but soon afterwards, resenting the 
interference of a council of war with his plans, Hawkwood 
resigned his command, and the White Company passed into the 
papal service, in which he fought against the Visconti in 1373- 
1375. In 1375 the Florentines entered into an agreement with 
him, by which they were to pay him and his companion 130,000 
gold florins in three months on condition that he undertook 
no engagement against them; and in the same year the priors 
of the arts and the gonfalonier decided to give him a pension 
of 1200 florins per annum for as long as he should remain in 
Italy. In 1377, under the orders of the cardinal Robert of 
Geneva, legate of Bologna, he massacred the inhabitants of 
Cesena, but in May of the same year, disliking the executioner's 
work put upon him by the legate, he joined the anti-papal league, 
and married, at Milan, Donnina, an illegitimate daughter of 
Bernabo Visconti. In 1378 and 1379 Hawkwood was constantly 
in the field; he quarrelled with Bernabo in 1378, and entered 
the service of Florence, receiving, as in 1375, 130,000 gold florins. 
He rendered good service to the republic up to 1382, when for a 
time he was one of the English ambassadors at the papal court. 
He engaged in a brief campaign in Naples in 1383, fought for 
the marquis of Padua against Verona in 1386, and in 1388 made 
an unsuccessful effort against Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who had 
murdered Bernabo. In 1390 the Florentines took up the war 
against Gian Galeazzo in earnest, and appointed Hawkwood 
commander-in-chief. His campaign against the Milanese army 
in the Veronese and the Bergamask was reckoned a triumph 
of generalship, and in 1392 Florence exacted a satisfactory 
peace from Gian Galeazzo. His latter years were spent in a 
villa in the neighbourhood of Florence. On his death in 1394 
the republic gave him a public funeral of great magnificence, and 
decreed the erection of a marble monument in the cathedral. 
This, however, was never executed; but Paolo Uccelli painted 
his portrait in terre-verte on the inner facade of the building, 
where it still remains, though damaged by removal from the 
plaster to canvas. Richard II. of England, probably at the 
instigation of Hawkwood's sons, who returned to their native 
country, requested the Florentines to let him remove the good 
knight's bones, and the Florentine government signified its 

Of his children by Donnina Visconti, who appears to have been 
his second wife, the eldest daughter married Count Brezaglia 
of Porciglia, podesta of Ferrara, who succeeded him as Florentine 
commander-in-chief, and another a German condottiere named 
Conrad Prospergh. His son, John, returned to England and 
settled at Hedingham Sibil, where, it is supposed, Sir John 
Hawkwood was buried. The children of the first marriage 
were two sons and three daughters, and of the latter the youngest 
married John Shelley, an ancestor of the poet. 

Aut horities. — M uratori, Rerum Italicarum scriptores, and supple- 
ment by Tartinius and Manni; Archivio slonco italiano; Temple- 
Leader and Marcotti, Giovanni Acuta (Florence, 1889; Eng. transl., 
Leader Scott, London, 1889); Nichol, Bibliotheca topographka 
Britannica, vol. vi.; J. G. Alger in Register and Magazine of Bio- 
graphy, v. 1.; and article in Diet. Nat. Biog. 

HAWLEY, HENRY (c. 1670-1750), British lieut.-general, 
entered the army, it is said, in 1694. He saw service in the War 
of Spanish Succession as a captain of Erie's (the 19th) foot. 
After Almanza he returned to England, and a few years later 
had become lieut. -colonel of the 19th. With this regiment he 
served at Sheriffmuir in 1715, where he was wounded. After this 
for some years he served in the United Kingdom, obtaining pro- 
motion in the usual course, and in 1739 he arrived at the grade 
of major general. P'our years later he accompanied George 11. 



and Stair to Germany, and, as a general officer of cavalry 
under Sir John Cope, was present at Dettingen. Becoming 
lieut. -general somewhat later, he was second-in-command of 
the cavalry at Fontenoy, and on the 20th of December 1745 
became commander-in-chief in Scotland. Less than a month 
later Hawley suffered a severe defeat at Falkirk at the hands of 
the Highland insurgents. This, however, did not cost him his 
command, for the duke of Cumberland, who was soon afterwards 
sent north, was captain-general. Under Cumberland's orders 
Hawley led the cavalry in the campaign of Culloden, and at that 
battle his dragoons distinguished themselves by their ruthless 
butchery of the fugitive rebels. After the end of the " Forty- 
Five " he accompanied Cumberland to the Low Countries and led 
the allied cavalry at Lauffeld (Val). He ended his career as 
governor of Portsmouth and died at that place in 1759. James 
Wolfe, his brigade-major, wrote of General Hawley in no flattering 
terms. " The troops dread his severity, hate the man and hold 
his military knowledge in contempt," he wrote. But, whether it 
be true or false that he was the natural son of George II., Hawley 
was always treated with the greatest favour by that king and 
by his son the duke of Cumberland. 

HAWLEY, JOSEPH ROSWELL (1826-1905), American 
political leader, was born on the 31st of October at Stewartsville,. 
Richmond county, North Carolina, where his father, a native of 
Connecticut, was pastor of a Baptist church. The father returned 
to Connecticut in 1S37 and the son graduated at Hamilton 
College (Clinton, N.Y.)in 1847. He was admitted to the bar in 
1850, and practised at Hartford, Conn., for six years. An ardent 
opponent of slavery, he became a Free Soiler, was a delegate 
to the National Convention which nominated John P. Hale 
for the presidency in 1852, and subsequently served as chairman 
of the State Committee, having at the same time editorial control 
of the Charter Oak, the party organ. In 1856 he took a leading 
part in organizing the Republican party in Connecticut, and 
in 1857 became editor of the Hartford Evening Press, a newly 
established Republican- newspaper. He served in the Federal 
army throughout the Civil War, rising from the rank of captain 
CApril 22, 1861) to that of brigadier-general of volunteers (Sept. 
1864); took part in the Port Royal Expedition, in the capture 
of Fort Pulaski (April 1862), in the siege of Charleston and the 
capture of Fort Wagner (Sept. 1863), in the battle of Olustee 
(Feb. 20, 1864), in the siege operations about Petersburg, and 
in General W. T. Sherman's campaign in the Carolinas; and 
in September 1865 received the brevet of major-general of 
volunteers. From April 1866 to April 1867 he was governor 
of Connecticut, and in 1867 he bought the Hartford Courant, 
with which he combined the Press, and which became under his 
editorship the most influential newspaper in Connecticut and 
one of the leading Republican papers in the country. He was 
the permanent chairman of the Republican National Convention 
in 1868, was a delegate to the conventions of 1872, 1876 and 
1880, was a member of Congress from December 1872 until 
March 1875 and again in 1879-1881, and was a United States 
senator from i8Sr until the 3rd of March 1905, being one of the 
Republican leaders both in the House and the Senate. From 
1873 to 1876 he was president of the United States Centennial 
Commission, the great success of the Centennial Exhibition 
being largely due to him. He died at Washington, D.C., on the 
17th of March 1905. 

HAWORTH, an urban district in the Keighley parliamentary 
division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 10 m. N.W. 
of Bradford, on a branch of the Midland railway. Pop. (1901), 
7492. It is picturesquely situated on a steep slope, lying high, 
and surrounded by moorland. The Rev. Patrick Bronte (d.1861) 
was incumbent here for forty-one years, and a memorial near 
the west window of St Michael's church bears his name and the 
names of his gifted daughters upon it. The grave of Charlotte 
and Emily Bronte is also marked by a brass. In 1895 a museum 
was opened by the Bronte society. There is a large worsted 

HAWSER (in sense and form as if from " hawse," which, 
from the 16th-century form halse, is derived from Teutonic 

hals, neck, of which there is a Scandinavian use in the sense of 
the forepart of a ship; the two words are not etymologically 
connected; " hawser " is from an O. Fr. haucier, hausser, to 
raise, tow, hoist, from the Late Lat. altiare, to lift, alius, high), 
a small cable or thick rope used at sea for the purposes of mooring 
or warping, in the case of large vessels made of steel. When a 
cable or tow line is made of three or more small ropes it is said 
to be " hawser-laid." The " hawse " of a ship is that part of the 
bows where the " hawse-holes " are made. These are two holes 
cut in the bows of a vessel for the cables to pass through, having 
small cast-iron pipes, called " hawse-pipes," fitted into them to 
prevent abrasion. In bad weather at sea these holes are plugged 
up with " hawse-plugs " to prevent the water entering. The 
phrase to enter the service by the " hawse-holes " is used of 
those who have risen from before the mast to commissioned 
rank in the navy. When the ship is at anchor the space between 
her head and the anchor is called " hawse," as in the phrase 
" athwart the hawse." The term also applies to the position 
of the ship's anchors when moored; when they are laid out in a 
line at right angles to the wind it is said to be moored with an 
" open hawse "; when both cables are laid out straight to their 
anchors without crossing, it is a " clear hawse." 

HAWTHORN, a city of Bourke county, Victoria, Australia, 
4i m. by rail E. of and suburban to Melbourne. Pop. (1901), 
2I >339- It is the seat of the important Methodist Ladies' 
College. The majority of the inhabitants are professional and 
business men engaged in Melbourne- and their residences are 
numerous at Hawthorn. 

HAWTHORN (O. Eng. haga-, h<zg-, or hege-thorn, i.e. " hedge- 
thorn "), the common name for Crataegus, in botany, a genus 
of shrubs or small trees belonging to the natural order Rosaceae, 
native of the north temperate regions, especially America. It 
is represented in the British Isles by the hawthorn, white-thorn 
or may (Ger. Hagedorn and Christdorn; Fr. aubepine), C. 
Oxyacantha, a small, round-headed, much-branched tree, 10 to 
20 ft. high, the branches often ending in single sharp spines. 
The leaves, which are deeply cut, are 1 to 2 in. long and very 
variable in shape. The flowers are sweet-scented, in flat- topped 
clusters, and § to f in. in diameter, with five spreading white 
petals alternating with five persistent green sepals, a large 
number of stamens with pinkish-brown anthers, and one to three 
carpels sunk in the cup-shaped floral axis. The fruit, or haw, 
as in the apple, consists of the swollen floral axis, which is usually 
scarlet, and forms a fleshy envelope surrounding the hard stone. 
The crjmmon hawthorn is a native of F^urope as far north as 
6o-|° in Sweden, and of North Africa, western Asia and Siberia, 
and has been naturalized in North America and Australia. It 
thrives best in dry soils, and in height varies from 4 or 5 to 12, 15 
or, in exceptional cases, as much as between 20 and 30 ft. It 
may be propagated from seed or from cuttings. The seeds 
must be from ripe fruit, and if fresh gathered should be freed 
from pulp by maceration in water. They germinate only in the 
second year after sowing; in the course of their first year the 
seedlings attain a height of 6 to 12 in. Hawthorn has been for 
many centuries a favourite park and hedge plant in Europe, and 
numerous varieties have been developed by cultivation; these 
differ in the form of the leaf, the white, pink or red, single or 
double flowers, and the yellow, orange or red fruit. In England 
the hawthorn, owing to its hardiness and closeness of growth, 
has been employed for enclosure of land since the Roman occupa- 
tion, but for ordinary field hedges it is believed it was generally 
in use till about the end of the 17th century. James" L of 
Scotland, in his Quair, ii. 14 (early 15th century), mentions the 
" hawthorn hedges knet " of Windsor Castle. The first hawthorn 
hedges in Scotland are said to have been planted by soldiers 
of Cromwell at Inch Buckling Brae in East Lothian and Finlarig 
in Perthshire. Annual pruning, to which the hawthorn is par- 
ticularly amenable, is necessary if the hedge is to maintain its 
compactness and sturdiness. When the lower part shows 
a tendency to go bare the strong stems may be " plashed," i.e. 
split, bent over and pegged to the ground so that new growths 
may start. The wood of the hawthorn is white in colour, with 



a yellowish tinge. Fresh cut it weighs 68 lb 12 oz. per cubic foot, 
and dry 57 lb 3 oz. It can seldom be obtained in large portions, 
and has the disadvantage of being apt to warp; its great hard- 
ness, however, renders it valuable for the manufacture of various 
articles, such as the cogs of mill-wheels, flails and mallets, and 
handles of hammers. Both green and dry it forms excellent 
fuel. The bark possesses tanning properties, and in Scotland 
in past times yielded with ferrous sulphate a black dye for wool. 
The leaves are eaten by cattle, and have been employed as a 
substitute for tea. Birds and deer feed upon the haws, which are 
used in the preparation of a fermented and highly intoxicating 
liquor. The hawthorn serves as a stock for grafting other trees. 
As an ornamental feature in landscapes, it is worthy of notice; 
and the pleasing shelter, it affords and the beauty of its blossoms 
have frequently been alluded to by poets. The custom of 
employing the flowering branches for decorative purposes on 
the i st of May is of very early origin; but since the alteration 
in the calendar the tree has rarely been in full bloom in England 
before the second week of that month. In the Scottish Highlands 
the flowers may be seen as late as the middle of June. The 
hawthorn has been regarded as the emblem of hope, and its 
branches are stated to have been carried by the ancient Greeks 
in wedding processions, and to have been used by them to deck 
the altar of Hymen. The supposition that the tree was the 
source of Christ's crown of thorns gave rise doubtless to the 
tradition current among the French peasantry that it utters 
groans and cries on Good Friday, and probably also to the old 
popular superstition in Great Britain and Ireland that ill-luck 
attended the uprooting of hawthorns. Branches of the Glaston- 
bury thorn, C. Oxyacantha, var. praecox, which flowers both in 
December and in spring, were formerly highly valued in England, 
on account of the legend that the tree was originally the staff of 
Joseph of Arimathea. 

The number of species in the genus is from fifty to seventy, 
according to the view taken as to whether or not some of the 
forms, especially of those occurring in the United States, repre- 
sent distinct species. C. coccinea, a native of Canada and the 
eastern United States, with bright scarlet fruits, was introduced 
into English gardens towards the end of the 17th century. 
C. Crus-Galli, with a somewhat similar distribution and intro- 
duced about the same time, is a very decorative species with 
showy, bright red fruit, often remaining on the branches till 
spring, and leaves assuming a brilliant scarlet and orange in the 
autumn; numerous varieties are in cultivation. C. Pyracantha, 
known in gardens as pyracantha, is evergreen and has white 
flowers, appearing in May, and fine scarlet fruits of the size of 
a pea which remain on the tree nearly all the winter. It is a 
native of south Europe and was introduced into Britain early 
in the 17th century. 

HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL (1804-1864), American writer, 
son of Nathaniel Hathorne (1 776-1808), was born at Salem, 
Massachusetts, on the 4th of July 1804. The head of the 
American branch of the family, William Hathorne of Wilton, 
Wiltshire, England, emigrated with Winthrop and his company, 
and arrived at Salem Bay, Mass., on the 12th of June 1630. He 
had grants of land at Dorchester, where he resided for upwards 
of six years, when he was persuaded to remove to Salem by the 
tender of further grants of land there, it being considered a public 
benefit that he should become an inhabitant of that town. He 
represented his fellow-townsmen in the legislature, and served 
them in a military capacity as a captain in the first regular troop 
organized in Salem, which he led to victory through an Indian 
campaign in Maine. Originally a determined " Separatist," 
and opposed to compulsion for conscience, he signalized himself 
when a magistrate by the active part which he took in the Quaker 
persecutions of the time (1657-1662), going so far on one occasion 
as to order the whipping of Anne Coleman and four other Friends 
through Salem, Boston and Dedham. He died, an old man, in 
the odour of sanctity, and left a good property to his son John, 
who inherited his father's capacity and intolerance, and was in 
turn a legislator, a magistrate, a soldier and a bitter persecutor 
of witches. Before the death of Justice Hathorne in 171 7, the 

destiny of the family suffered a sea-change, and they began to 
be noted as mariners. One of these seafaring Hathornes figured 
in the Revolution as a privateer, who had the good fortune to 
escape from a British prison-ship; and another, Captain Daniel 
Hathorne, has left his mark on early American ballad-lore. 
He too was a privateer, commander of the brig " Fair American," 
which, cruising off the coast of Portugal, fell in with a British 
scow laden with troops for General Howe, which scow the bold 
Hathorne and his valiant crew at once engaged and fought for 
over an hour, until the vanquished enemy was glad to cut the 
Yankee grapplings and quickly bear away. The last of the 
Hathornes with whom we are concerned was a son of this 
sturdy old privateer, Nathaniel Hathorne. He was born in 
1776, and about the beginning of the 19th century married Miss 
Elizabeth Clarke Manning, a daughter of Richard Manning of 
Salem, whose ancestors emigrated to America about fifty years 
after the arrival of William Hathorne. Young Nathaniel took 
his hereditary place before the mast, passed from the forecastle 
to the cabin, made voyages to the East and West Indies, Brazil 
and Africa, and finally died of fever at Surinam, in the spring of 
1808. He was the father of three children, the second of whom 
was the subject of this article. The form of the family name was 
changed by the latter to " Hawthorne " in his early manhood. 

After the death of her husband Mrs Hawthorne removed to 
the house of her father with her little family of children. Of 
the boyhood of Nathaniel no particulars have reached us, except 
that he was fond of taking long walks alone, and that he used to 
declare to his mother that he would go to sea some time and 
would never return. Among the books that he is known to have 
read as a child were Shakespeare, Milton, Pope and Thomson, 
The Castle of Indolence being an especial favourite. In the 
autumn of 1818 his mother removed to Raymond, a town in 
Cumberland county, Maine, where his uncle, Richard Manning, 
had built a large and ambitious dwelling. Here the lad resumed 
his solitary walks, exchanging the narrow streets of Salem for 
the boundless, primeval wilderness, and its sluggish harbour 
for the fresh bright waters of Sebago lake. He roamed the 
woods by day, with his gun and rod, and in the moonlight nights 
of winter skated upon the lake alone till midnight. When he 
found himself away from home, and wearied with his exercise, 
he took refuge in a log cabin where half a tree would be burning 
upon the hearth. He had by this time acquired a taste for 
writing, that showed itself in a little blank-book, in which he 
jotted down his woodland adventures and feelings, and which 
was remarkable for minute observation and nice perception of 

After a year's residence at Raymond, Nathaniel returned 
to Salem in order to prepare for college. He amused himself 
by publishing a manuscript periodical, which he called the 
Spectator, and which displayed considerable vivacity and talent. 
He speculated upon the profession that he would follow, with a 
sort of prophetic insight into his future. " I do not want to be 
a doctor and live by men's diseases," he wrote to his mother, 
" nor a minister to live by their sins, nor a lawyer and live by 
their quarrels. So I don't see that there is anything left for me 
but to be an author. How would you like some day to see a 
whole shelf full of books, written by your son, with ' Hawthorne's 
Works' printed on their backs?" 

Nathaniel entered Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, in 
the autumn of 1821, where he became acquainted with two 
students who were destined to distinction — Henry W. Longfellow 
and Franklin Pierce. He was an excellent classical scholar, 
his Latin compositions, even in his freshman year, being remark- 
able for their elegance, while his Greek (which was less) was good. 
He made graceful translations from the Roman poets, and 
wrote several English poems which were creditable to him. 
After graduation three years later (1825) he returned to Salem, 
and to a life of isolation. He devoted his mornings to study, 
his afternoons to writing, and his evenings to long walks along 
the rocky coast. He was scarcely known by sight to his towns- 
men, and he held so little communication with the members 
of his own family that his meals were frequently left, at his 



locked door. He wrote largely, but destroyed many of his 
manuscripts, his taste was so difficult to please. He thought 
well enough, however, of one of his compositions to print it 
anonymously in 1828. A crude melodramatic story, entitled 
Fanshawe, it was unworthy even of his immature powers, and 
should never have been rescued from the oblivion which speedily 
overtook it. The name of Nathaniel Hawthorne finally became 
known to his countrymen as a writer in The Token, a holiday 
annual which was commenced in 1828 by Mr S. G. Goodrich 
(better known as "Peter Parley "), by whom it was conducted 
for fourteen years. This forgotten publication numbered among 
its contributors most of the prominent American writers of the 
time, none of whom appear to have added to their reputation 
in its pages, except the least popular of all — Hawthorne, who 
was for years the obscurest man of letters in America, though 
he gradually made admirers in a quiet way. His first public 
recognition came from England, where his genius was discovered 
in 1835 by Henry F. Chorley, one of theeditors of the Athenaeum, 
in which he copied three of Hawthorne's most characteristic 
papers from The Token. He had but little encouragement to 
continue in literature, for Mr Goodrich was so much more a 
publisher than an author that he paid him wretchedly for his 
contributions, and still more wretchedly for his work upon an 
American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, which 
he persuaded him to edit. This author-publisher consented, 
however, at a later period (18,37) to bring out a collection of 
Hawthorne's writings under the title of Twice-told Tales. A 
moderate edition was got rid of, but the great body of the reading 
public ignored the book altogether. It was generously reviewed 
in the North American Review by his college friend Longfellow, 
who said it came from the hand of a man of genius, and praised 
it for the exceeding beauty of its style, which was as clear as 
running waters. 

The want of pecuniary success which had so far attended 
his authorship led Hawthorne to accept a situation which was 
tendered him by George Bancroft, the historian, collector of 
the port of Boston under the Democratic rule of President 
Van Buren. He was appointed a weigher in the custom-house 
at a salary of about $1 200 a year, and entered upon the duties 
of his office, which consisted for the most part in measuring 
coal, salt and other bulky commodities on foreign vessels. 
It was irksome employment, but faithfully performed for two 
years, when he was superseded through a change in the national 
administration. Master of himself once more, he returned to 
Salem, where he remained until the spring of 1841, when he 
wrote a collection of children's stories entitled Grandfather's 
Chair, and joined an industrial association at West Roxbury, 
Mass. Brook Farm, as it was called, was a social Utopia, 
composed of a number of advanced thinkers, whose object was 
so to distribute manual labour as to give its members time for 
intellectual culture. The scheme worked admirably — on paper; 
but it was suited neither to the temperament nor the taste of 
Hawthorne, and after trying it patiently for nearly a year he 
returned to the everyday life of mankind. 

One of Hawthorne's earliest admirers was Miss Sophia Peabody , 
a lady of Salem, whom he married in the summer of 1842. He 
made himself a new home in an old manse, at Concord, Mass., 
situated on historic ground, in sight of an old revolutionary 
battlefield, and devoted himself diligently to literature. He 
was known to the few by his Twice-told Tales, and to the many 
by his papers in the Democratic Review. He published in 1842 
a further portion of Grandfather's Chair, and also a second 
volume of Twice-told Tales. He also edited, during 1845, 
the African Journals of Horatio Bridge, an officer of the navy, 
who had been at college with him; and in the following year he 
published in two volumes a collection of his later writings, under 
the title of Mosses from an Old Manse. 

After a residence of nearly four years at Concord, Hawthorne 
returned to Salem, having been appointed surveyor of the 
custom-house of that port by a new Democratic administration. 
He filled the duties of this position until the incoming of the 
Whig administration again led to his retirement. lie seems to 

have written little during his official term, but, as he had leisure 
enough and to spare, he read much, and pondered over subjects 
for future stories. His next work, The Scarlet Letter, which was 
begun after his removal from the custom-house, was published 
in 1850. If there had been any doubt of his genius before, it 
was settled for ever by this powerful romance. 

Shortly after the publication of The Scarlet Letter Hawthorne 
removed from Salem to Lenox, Berkshire, Mass., where he wrote 
The House of the Seven Gables (1851) and The Wonder-Book 
(1851). From Lenox he removed to West Newton, near Boston, 
Mass., where he wrote The Blithedale Romance (1852) and The 
Snow Image and other Twice-told Tales (1852). In the spring 
of 1852 he removed back to Concord, where he purchased an 
old house which he called The Wayside, and where he wrote a 
Life of Franklin Pierce (1852) and Tanglewood Tales (1853). 
Mr Pierce was the Democratic candidate for the presidency, 
and it was only at his urgent solicitation that Hawthorne 
consented to become his biographer. He declared that he 
would accept no office in case he were elected, lest it might 
compromise him; but his friends gave him such weighty reasons 
for reconsidering his decision that he accepted the consulate 
at Liverpool, which was understood to be one of the best gifts 
at the disposal of the president. 

Hawthorne departed for Europe in the summer of 1853, and 
returned to the United States in the summer of i860. Of the 
seven years which he passed in Europe five were spent in attending 
to the duties of his consulate at Liverpool, and in little journeys 
to Scotland, the Lakes and elsewhere, and the remaining two 
in France and Italy. They were quiet and uneventful, coloured 
by observation and reflection, as his note-books show, but 
productive of only one elaborate work, Transformation, or The 
Marble Faun, which he sketched out during his residence in 
Italy, and prepared for the press at Leamington, England, 
whence it was despatched to America and published in i860. 

Hawthorne took up his abode at The Wayside, not much richer 
than when he left it, and sat down at his desk once more with a 
heavy heart. He was surrounded by the throes of a great civil 
war, and the political party with which he had always acted 
was under a cloud. His friend ex-President Pierce was stig- 
matized as a traitor, and when Hawthorne dedicated his next 
book to him — a volume of English impressions entitled Our Old 
Home (1863)— it was at the risk of his own popularity. His pen 
was soon to be laid aside for ever; for, with the exception of 
the unfinished story of Septimius Felton, which was published 
after his death by his daughter Una (1872), and the fragments 
of The Dolliver Romance, the beginning of which was published 
in the Atlantic Monthly in July 1864, he wrote no more. His 
health gradually declined, his hair grew white as snow, and 
the once stalwart figure that in early manhood flashed along the 
airy cliffs and glittering sands sauntered idly on the little hill 
behind his house. In the beginning of April 1864 he made a short 
southern tour with his publisher Mr William D.Ticknor, and was 
benefited by the change of scene until he reached Philadelphia, 
where he was shocked by the sudden death of Mr Ticknor. 
He returned to The Wayside, and after a short season of rest 
joined his friend ex-President Pierce. He died at Plymouth, 
New Hampshire, on the 19th of May 1864, and five days later 
was buried at Sleepy Hollow, a beautiful cemetery at Concord, 
where he used to walk under the pines when he was living at the 
Old Manse, and where his ashes moulder under a simple stone, 
inscribed with the single word " Hawthorne." 

The writings of Hawthorne are marked by subtle imagination, 
curious power of analysis and exquisite purity of diction. He 
studied exceptional developments of character, and was fond of 
exploring secret crypts of emotion. His shorter stories are re- 
markable for originality and suggestiveness, and his larger ones 
are as absolute creations as Hamlet or Undine. Lacking the 
accomplishment of verse, he was in the highest sense a poet. 
His work is pervaded by a manly personality, and by an almost 
feminine delicacy and gentleness. He inherited the gravity of 
his Puritan ancestors without their superstition, and learned in 
his solitary meditations a knowledge of the night-side of life 



which would have filled them with suspicion. A profound 
anatomist of the heart, he was singularly free from morbidness, 
and in his darkest speculations concerning evil was robustly 
right-minded. He worshipped conscience with his intellectual 
as well as his moral nature; it is supreme in all he wrote. Besides 
these mental traits, he possessed the literary quality of style — 
a grace, a charm, a perfection of language which no other 
American writer ever possessed in the same degree, and which 
places him among the great masters of English prose. 

His Complete Writings (22 vols., Boston, 1901) were edited, with 
introduction, including a bibliography, by H. S. Scudder. The 
standard authority for Hawthorne's biography is Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne and his Wife (2 vols., Boston, 1884), by his son Julian Haw- 
thorne (b. 1846), himself a novelist and critic of distinction. See 
also Henry James, Hawthorne (London, 1879), in the " English Men 
','(, Letters" series; Julian Hawthorne, Hawthorne and 'his Circle 
(.New \ork, 1903); a paper in R. H. Hutton's Essays Theological 
and Literary (London, 1871); George B. Smith, Poets and Novelists 
London, 1875); Moncure D. Conway, Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne 
(London, 1890, in the "Great Writers" series); Horatio Bridge, 
Personal Recollections of Nathaniel Hawthorne (New York, 189-5); 
Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, Memories of Hawthorne (Boston, 1897)' 
\\. C. Lawton, The New England Poets (New York, 1898)- Sir L 
Stephen, Hours in a Library (1874); Annie Fields, Nathaniel 
Hawthorne (Boston, 1899); G. E. Woodberry, Life of Hawthorne 
(1902) ; and oibhography by N. E. Browne (1905). (R. H. S.) 

HAWTREY, CHARLES HENRY (1858- ), English actor, 
was born at Eton, where his father was master of the lower 
school, and educated at Rugby and Oxford. He took to the stage 
in 1 88 1, and in 1883 adapted von Moser's Bibliothekar as The 
Private Secretary, which had an enormous success. He then 
appeared in London in a number of modern plays, in which he 
was conspicuous as a comedian. He was unapproachable for 
parts in which cool imperturbable lying constituted (he leading 
characteristic. Among his later successes A Message from Mars 
was particularly popular in London and in America. 

HAWTREY, EDWARD CRAVEN (1789-1862), English educa- 
tionalist, was born at Burnham on the 7th of May 1789, the son 
of the vicar of the parish. He was educated at Eton and King's 
College, Cambridge, and in 1814 was appointed assistant, master 
at Eton under Dr Keate. In 1834 he became headmaster of the 
college, and his administration was a vigorous one. New 
buildings were erected, including the school library and the 
sanatorium, the college chapel was restored, the Old Christopher 
Inn was closed, and the custom of " Montem," the collection by 
street begging of funds for the university expenses of the captain 
of the school, was suppressed. He is supposed to have suggested 
the prince consort's modern language prizes, while the prize for 
English essay he founded himself. In 1852 he became provost of 
Eton, and in 1854 vicar of Mapledurham. He died on the 27th 
of January 1862, and was buried in the Eton College chapel. 
On account of his command of languages ancient and modern, 
he was known in London as " the English Mezzofanti," and 
he was a book collector of the finest taste. Among his own books 
arc some excellent translations from the English into Italian, 
German and Greek. He had a considerable reputation as 
a writer of English hexameters and as a judge of Homeric 

French general and military engineer, was born at Luneville 
on the 24th of June 1774, and entered the Engineers in 1793. 
He remained unknown, doing duty as a regimental officer for 
many years, until, as major, he had his first chance of distinction 
in the second siege of Saragossa in 1800, after which Napoleon 
made him a colonel. Haxo took part in the campaign of Wagram, 
and then returned to the Peninsula to direct the siege operations 
of Suchet's army in Catalonia and Valencia. In 1810 he was 
made general of brigade, in 181 1 a baron, and in the same year 
he was employed in preparing the occupied fortresses of Germany 
against a possible Russian invasion. In 181 2 he was chief 
engineer of Davout's I. corps, and after the retreat from Moscow 
he was made general of division. In 1813 he constructed the 
works around Hamburg which made possible the famous defence 
of t hat fortress by Davout, and commanded the Guard Engineers 
nut il he fe!i into the enemy's hands at Kulm. After the Restora- 

tion Louis XVIII. wished to give Haxo a command in the Royal 
Guards, but the general remained faithful to Napoleon, and in the 
Hundred Days laid out the provisional fortifications of Paris 
and fought at Waterloo. It was, however, after the second 
Restoration that the best work of his career as a military engineer 
was done. As inspector-general he managed, though not without 
meeting considerable opposition, to reconstruct in accordance 
with the requirements of the time, and the designs which he 
had evolved to meet them, the old Vauban and Ccrmontaigne 
fortresses which had failed to check the invasions of 1814 and 
1815. For his services he was made a peer of France by Louis 
Philippe (1832). Soon after this came the French intervention in 
Belgium and the famous scientific siege of Antwerp citadel. 
Under Marshal Gerard Haxo directed the besiegers and com- 
pletely outmatched the opposing engineers, the fortress being 
reduced to surrender afterasiegeof alittlemorethan three weeks 
(December 23, 1832). He was after this regarded as the first 
engineer in Europe, and his latter years were spent in urging 
upon the government and the French people the fortification of 
Paris and Lyons, a project which was partly realized in his time 
and after his death fully carried out. General Haxo died at 
Paris on the 25th of June 1838. He wrote Memoir e sur le figure 
du terrain dans les cartes topographiques (Paris, N.D.), and a 
memoir of General Dejean (1824). 

Freiherr von (1792-1866), German political economist, was 
born near Paderborn in Westphalia on the 3rd of February 
1 792- Having studied at the school of mining at Klausthal, and 
having served in the Hanoverian army, he entered the university 
of Gottingen in 1815. Finishing his course there in i8r8 he was 
engaged in managing his estates and in studying the land laws. 
The result of his studies appeared in 1829 when he published 
Uber die Agrarverfassung in den Fiirstentumern Paderborn und 
Corvey, a work which attracted much attention and which 
procured for its author a commission to investigate and report 
upon the land laws of the Prussian provinces with a view to a new 
code. After nine years of labour he published in 1839 an 
exhaustive treatise, Die landliche Verfassung in der Provinz 
Preussen, and in 1843, at the request of the emperor Nicholas, 
he undertook a similar work for Russia, the fruits of his in- 
vestigations in that country being contained in his Studien iibcr 
die mnern Zustande des Volkslebens, und insbesondere die land- 
lichen Einrichtungen Russlands (Hanover, 1847-1852). He 
received various honours, was a member of the combined diet 
in Berlin in 1847 and 1848, and afterwards of the Prussian upper 
house. Haxthausen died at Hanover on the 31st of December 

In addition to the works already mentioned he wrote Die land- 
liche Verfassung Russlands (Leipzig, 1866). His Studien has been 
SS r ^° h and , ln to English by R. Farie as The Russian 
Empire (1856). Other works of his which have appeared in English 
are: Transcaucasia^ Sketches of the Nations and Races between the 
Black Sea and the Caspian (1854), and The Tribes of the Caucasus 
U°55)- Haxthausen edited Das konstitutionelle Prinzip (Leipzig 
1 864), a collection of political writings by various authors, which has 
been translated into French (1865). 

HAY, GEORGE (1729-1811), Scottish Roman Catholic divine 
was born at Edinburgh on the 24th of August 1729. He was 
accused of sympathizing with the rebellion of 1745 and served 
a term of imprisonment 1 746-1 747. He then entered the 
Roman Catholic Church, studied in the Scots College at Rome, 
and in 1759 accompanied John Geddes (173S-1799). afterwards 
bishop of Morocco, on a Scottish mission. Ten years later- 
he was appointed bishop of Daulis in partibus and coadiutor 
to Bishop James Grant (1706-1778). In 1778 he became vicar 
apostolic of the lowland district. During the Protestant riots 
in Edinburgh in 1779 his furniture and library were destroyed 
by fire. From 1788 to 1793 he was in charge of the Scalan 
seminary; in 1802 he retired to that of Aquhorties near Inverury 
which he had founded in 1799. He died there on the 15th of 
October 181 1. 

His theological works, including The Sincere Christian, The Devout 
Christian, The Pious Christian and The Scripture Doctrine of Miracles, 
were edited by Bishop Strain in 1 87 1 -1873. 



HAY, GILBERT, or "Sir Gilbert the Have" (fl. 1450), 
Scottish poet and translator, was perhaps a kinsman of the house 
of Errol. If he be the student named in the registers of the 
university of St Andrews in 1418-1419, his birth may be fixed 
about 1403. He was in France in 1432, perhaps some years 
earlier, for a " Gilbert de la Haye " is mentioned as present at 
Reims, in July 1430, at the coronation of Charles VII. He has 
left it on record, in the Prologue to his Buke of the Law of Armys, 
that he was '"' chaumerlayn Umquhyle to the maist worthy 
King Charles of France." In 1456 he was back in Scotland, 
in the service of the chancellor, William, earl of Orkney and 
Caithness, " in his castell of Rosselyn," south of Edinburgh. 
The date of his death is unknown. 

Hay is named by Dunbar (q.v.) in his Lament for the Makaris, 
and by Sir David Lyndsay (q.v.) in his Testament and Complaynt 
of the Papyngo. His only political work is The Bulk of Alexander 
the Conquerour ,of which a portion, in copy, remains atTaymouth 
Castle. He has left three translations, extant in one volume 
(in old binding) in the collection of Abbotsford: (a) The Buke 
of the Law of Armys or The Buke of Bataillis, a translation of 
Honore Bonet's Arbre des batailles; (b) The Buke of the Order 
of Knichlhood from the Livre de I'ordre de chevalerie; and (c) 
The Buke of the Governaunce of Princes, from a French version 
of the pseudo-Aristotelian Secreta secretorum. The second of 
these precedes Caxton's independent translation by at least 
ten years. 

For the Bulk of Alexander see Albert Herrmann's The Taymouth 
Castle MS. of Sir Gilbert Hay's Bulk, &c. (Berlin, 1898). The com- 
plete Abbotsford MS. has been reprinted by the Scottish Text Society 
(ed. J. H. Stevenson). The first volume, containing The Buke of 
the Laiv of Armys, appeared in 1901. The Order of Knichlhood was 
printed by David Laing for the Abbotsford Club (1847). See also 
S.T.S. edition (u.s.) " Introduction/' and Gregory Smith's Specimens 
of Middle Scots, in which annotared extracts are given from the 
Abbotsford MS., the oldest known exc.mplc of literary Scots prose. 

HAY, JOHN (1838-1905), American statesman and author, 
was born at Salem, Indiana, on the 8th of October 1838. He 
graduated from Brown University in 1858, studied law in the 
office of Abraham Lincoln, was admitted to the bar in Spring- 
field, Illinois, in 1861, and soon afterwards was selected by 
President Lincoln as assistant private secretary, in which 
capacity he served till the president's death, being associated 
with John George Xicolay (1832-1901). Hay was secretary of 
the U.S. legation at Paris 111 1865-1867, at Vienna in 1867-1869 
and at Madrid in 1869-1870. After his return he was for five 
years an editorial writer on the New York Tribune; in 1879- 
1S81 he was first assistant secretary of state to W. M. Evarts; 
and in 1881 was a delegate to the International Sanitary Con- 
ference, which met in Washington, D.C., and of which he was 
chosen president. Upon the inauguration of President McKinley 
in 1897 Hay was appointed ambassador to Great Britain, from 
which post he was transferred in 1898 to that of secretary of 
state, succeeding VV. R. Day, who was sent to Paris as a member 
of the Peace Conference. He remained in this office until his 
death at Xewburg, New Hampshire, on the 1st of July 1905. 
lie directed the peace negotiations with Spain after the war of 
1S9S, and not only secured American interests in the imbroglio 
caused by the Boxers in China, but grasped the opportunity 
to insist on " the administrative entity" of China; influenced 
the powers to declare publicly for the " open door " in China; 
challenged Russia as to her intentions in Manchuria, securing 
a promise to evacuate the country on the 8th of October 1903; 
and in 1004 again urged '' the administrative entity " of China 
and took the initiative in inducing Russia and Japan to " localize 
and limit. " the area of hostilities. It was largely due to his tact 
and good management, in concert with Lord Pauncefote, the 
British ambassador, that negotiations for abrogating theClayton- 
Bulwer Treaty and for making a new treaty with Great Britain 
regarding the Isthmian Canal were successfully concluded at the 
end of i<)oi; subsequently he negotiated treaties with Colombia 
and with Panama, looking towards the construction by the 
United States of a trans-isthmian canal. He also arranged the 
settlement of difficulties with Germany over Samoa in December 

1899, and the settlement, by joint commission, of the question 
concerning the disputed Alaskan boundary in 1903. .John Hay 
was a man of quiet and unassuming disposition, whose training 
in diplomacy gave a cool and judicious character to his states- 
manship. As secretary of state under Presidents McKinley 
and Roosevelt his guidance was invaluable during a rather critical 
period in foreign affairs, and no man of his time did more to 
create confidence in the increased interest taken by the United 
States in international matters. He also represented, in another 
capacity, the best American traditions — namely in literature. 
He published Pike County Ballads (1871) — the most famous 
being " Little Breeches " — a volume worthy to rank with Bret 
Harte, if not with the Lowell of the Biglmv Papers; Castilian 
Days (1871), recording his observations in Spain; and a volume 
of Poems (189c) ; with John G. Nicolay he wrote Abraham Lincoln: 
A History (10 vols., 1890), a monumental work indispensable 
to the student of the Civil War period in America, and published 
an edition of Lincoln's Complete Works (2 vols., 1894). The 
authorship of the brilliant novel The Breadwinners (1883) is now 
certainly attributed to him. Hay was an excellent public speaker ■, 
some of his best addresses are In Praise of Omar; On the 
Unveiling of the Bust of Sir Walter Scott in Westminster 
Abbey, May 21, 1897; and a memorial address in honour of 
President McKinley. 

The best of his previously unpublished speeches appeared in 
Addresses of John Hay (1906). 

HAY, a town of Waradgery county, New South Wales, 
Australia, on the Murrumbidgee river, 454 m. by rail W.S.W. of 
Sydney. Pop. (1901), 3012. It is the cathedral town of the 
Anglican diocese of Riverina, the terminus of the South Western 
railway, and the principal depot for the wool produced at the 
numerous stations on the banks of the Murrumbidgee and 
Lachlan rivers. 

HAY, a market town and urban district of Breconshire, 
south Wales, on the Hereford and Brecon section of the Midland 
railway, 164I m. from London, 20 m. W. of Hereford and 
17 m. N.E. of Brecon by rail. Pop. (1901), 1680. The Golden 
Valley railway to Pontrilas (i8f m.), now a branch of the Great 
Western, also starts from Hay. The town occupies rising ground 
on the south (right) bank of the Wye, which here separates 
the counties of Brecknock and Radnor but immediately below 
enters Herefordshire, from which the town is separated on the 
E. by the river Dulas. 

Leland and Camden ascribe a Roman origin to the town, and 
the former states that quantities of Roman coin (called by the 
country people " Jews' money ") and some pottery had been 
found near by, but of this no other record is known. The 
Wye valley in this district served as the gate between the present 
counties of Brecknock and Hereford, and, though Welsh con- 
tinued for two or three centuries after the Norman Conquest 
to be the spoken language of the adjoining part of Herefordshire 
south of the Wye (known as Archenfield), there must have been 
a " burh " serving as a Mercian outpost at Glasbury, 4 m. W. of 
Hay, which was itself several miles west of Offa's Dyke. But 
the earliest settlement at Hay probably dates from the Norman 
conquest of the district by Bernard Newmarch about 1088 
(in which year he granted Glasbury, probably as the first fruits 
of his invasion, to St Peter's, Gloucester). The manor of Hay, 
which probably corresponded to some existing Welsh division, 
he gave to Sir Philip Walwyn, but it soon reverted to the donor, 
and its subsequent devolution down to its forfeiture to the 
crown as part of the duke of Buckingham's estate in 1521, -was 
identical with that of the lordship of Brecknock (see Brecon- 
shire). The castle, which was probably built in Newmarch's 
time and rebuilt by his great-grandson William de Breos, passed 
on the latter's attainder to the crown, but was again seized by 
de Breos's second son, Giles, bishop of Hereford, in 1215, and re- 
taken by King John in the following year. In 1231 it was 
burnt by Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, and in the Barons' War it was 
taken in 1263 by Prince Edward, but in the following year was 
burnt by Simon Montfort and the last Llewelyn. From the 
1 6th century the castle has been used as a private residence. 



The Welsh name of the town is Y Gelli (" the wood "), or 
formerly in full (Y) Gelli ganddryll (literally " the wood all to 
pieces "), which roughly corresponds to Sepes Inscissa, by which 
name Walter Map (a native of the district) designates it. Its 
Norman name, La Haia (from the Fr. kaie, cf. English 
" hedge "), was probably intended as a translation of Gelli. 
The same word is found in Urishay and Oldhay, both between 
Hay and the Golden Valley. The town is still locally called the 
Hay, as it also is by Leland. 

Even down to Leland's time Hay was surrounded by a " right 
strong wall," which had three gates and a postern, but the town 
within the wall has " wonderfully decayed," its ruin being 
ascribed to Owen Glendower, while to the west of it was a 
flourishing suburb with the church of St Mary on a precipitous 
eminence overlooking the river. This was rebuilt in 1834. The 
old parish church of St John within the walls, used as a school- 
house in the 17th century, has entirely disappeared. The 
Baptists, Calvinistic Methodists, Congregationalists and Primitive 
Methodists have a chapel each. The other public buildings are 
the market house (1833); a masonic hall, formerly the town hall, 
its basement still serving as a cheese market; a clock tower 
(1884); parish hall (1890); and a drill hall. The Wye is here 
crossed by an iron bridge built in 1864. There are also eighteen 
almshouses for poor women, built and endowed by Miss Frances 
Harley in 1832-1836, and Gwyn's almshouses for six aged 
persons, founded in 1702 and rebuilt in 1878 

Scarcely anything but provisions are sold in the weekly market, 
the farmers of the district now resorting to the markets of Brecon 
and Hereford. There are good monthly stock fairs and a hiring 
fair in May. There is rich agricultural land in the district. 

Hay was reputed to be a borough by prescription, but it never 
had any municipal institutions. Its manor, like that of Talgarth, 
consisted of an Englishry and a Welshery, the latter, known as 
Haya Wallensis, comprising the parish of Llanigon with the 
hamlet of Glynfach, and in this Welsh tenures and customs 
prevailed. The manor is specially mentioned in the act of Henry 
VIII. (1335) as one of those which were then taken to constitute 
the new county of Brecknock. (D. Ll. T.) 

HAY (a word common in various forms to Teutonic languages ; 
cf. Ger. Heu, Dutch hooi; the root from which it is derived, 
meaning " to cut," is also seen in " to hew "; cf. " hoe "), grass 
mown and dried in the sun and used as fodder for cattle. It is 
properly applied only to the grass when cut, but is often also used 
of the standing crop. (See Haymaking below). Another word 
" hay," meaning a fence, must be distinguished; the root from 
which it is derived is seen in its doublet " hedge," cf . " haw-thorn," 
i.e. " hedge thorn." In this sense it survives in legal history in 
" hay bote," i.e. hedge-bote, the right of a tenant, copyholder, 
&c. to take wood to repair fences, hedges, &c. (see Estovers), 
and also in " hayward," an official of a manor whose duty was 
to protect the enclosed lands from cattle breaking out of the 
common land. 

Haymaking. — The term " haymaking " signifies the process 
of drying and curing grass or other herbage so as to fit it for 
storage in stacks or sheds for future use. As a regular part of 
farm work it was unknown in ancient times. Before its introduc- 
tion into Great Britain the animals intended for beef and mutton 
were slaughtered in autumn and salted down; the others were 
turned out to fend for themselves, and often lost all the fat in 
winter they had gained the previous summer. The introduction 
of haymaking gave unlimited scope for the production of winter 
food, and improved treatment of live stock became possible. 

Though every country has its own methods of haymaking, 
the principal stages in the process everywhere are: (1) mowing, 
(2) drying or " making," (3) " carrying " and storage in stacks 
or sheds. 

In a wet district such as the west of Ireland the " making " 
is a difficult affair and large quantities of hay are often spoiled, 
while much labour has to be spent in cocking up, turning over, 
ricking, &c, before it is fit to be stacked up. On the other hand, 
in the dry districts of south-eastern England it is often possible 
to cut and carry the hay without any special " making," as the 

sun and wind will dry it quickly enough to fit it for stacking up 
without the expenditure of much labour. This rule also applies 
to dry countries like the United States and several of the British 
colonies, and it is for this reason that most of the modern imple- 
ments used for quickly handling a bulk of hay have been invented 
or improved in those countries. Forage of all kinds intended for 
hay should be cut at or before the flowering stage if possible. 
The full growth and food value of the plant are reached then, and 
further change consists in the formation and ripening of the seed 
at the expense of the leaves and stems, leaving these hard and 
woody and of less feeding value. 

Grass or other forage, when growing, contains a large pro- 
portion of water, and after cutting must be left to dry in the sun 
and wind, a process which may at times be assisted by turning 
over or shaking up. In fine weather in the south of England 
grass is sufficiently dried in from two to four days to be stacked 
straight away. In Scotland or other districts where the rainfall 
is heavy and the air moist, it is first put into small field- 
ricks or " pykes " of from 10 to 20 cwt. each. In the drying 
process the 75% of water usually present in grass should be 
reduced to approximately 15% in the hay, and in wet or broken 
weather it is exceedingly difficult to secure this reduction. With 
a heavy crop or in damp weather grass may need turning in the 
swathe, raking up into " windrows," and then making up into 
cocks or " quiles," i.e. round beehive-like heaps, before it can 
be " carried." A properly made cock will stand bad weather 
for a week, as only the outside straws are weathered, and there- 
fore the hay is kept fresh and green. Indeed, it is a good rule 
always to cock hay, for even in sunny weather undue exposure 
ends in bleaching, which is almost as detrimental to its quality 
as wet-weathering. 

In the last quarter of the 19th century the methods of hay- 
making were completely changed, and even some of the principles 
underlying its practice were revised. Generally speaking, before 
that time the only implements used were the scythe, the rake 
and the pitchfork; nowadays — with the exception of the 
pitchfork — these implements are seldom used, except where 
the work is carried on in a small way. Instead of the scythe, for 
instance, the mowing machine is employed for cutting the crop, 
and with a modern improved machine taking a swathe as wide 
as 5 or 6 ft. some 10 acres per day can easily be mown by one 
man and a pair of horses (figs. 1 and 2). 

It will be seen from the figures that a mower consists of three 
principal parts: (1) a truck or carriage on two high wheels carrying 
the driving gear; (2) the cutting mechanism, comprising a reciprocat- 
ing knife or sickle operating through slots in the guards or " fingers " 

Fig. i. — Mower (viewed from above) with enlarged detail of Blade. 
(Harrison, M'Gregor & Co.) 

fastened to the cutting bar which projects to either the right or 
left of the truck; and (3) the pole with whippletrees, by which the 
horses are attached to give the motive power. The reciprocating 
knife has a separate blade to correspond to each finger, and is driven 
by a connecting rod and crank on the fore part of the truck. In 
work the pointed " fingers " pass in between the stalks of grass 
and the knives shear them off, acting against the fingers as the crank 
drives them backwards and forwards. In the swathe of grass left 



behind by the machine, the stalks are, in a manner, thatched over 
one another, so that it is in the best position for drying in the sun, 
or, per contra, for shedding off the rain if the weather is wet. This 
is a great point in favour of the use of the machine, because the 
swathe left by the scythe required to be " tedded " out, i.e. the grass 
had to be shaken out or spread to allow it to be more easily dried. 

After the grass has lain in the swathe a day or two till it is 
partly dried, it is necessary to turn it over to dry the other side. 
This used to be done with the hand rake, and a band of men or 
women would advance in echelon across a field, each turning the 

Fig. 2. — Mower (side view). 

swathe of hay by regular strokes of the rake at each step: 
" driving the dusky wave along the mead " as described in 
Thomson's Seasons. This part of the work was the act of 
" haymaking " proper, and the subject of much sentiment in 
both prose and poetry. The swathes as laid by the mowing 
machine lent themselves to this treatment in the old days when 
the swathe was only some 3 to 4 ft. wide, but with the wide cut 
of the present day it becomes impracticable. If the hay is 
turned and " made " at all, the operation is now generally 
performed by a machine made for the purpose. There is a wide 
selection of " tedders " or " kickers," and " swathe-turners " 
on the market. The one illustrated in fig. 3 is the first prize 
winner at the Royal Agricultural Society's trials (1907). It 

Fig. 3. — Swathe-turner. (Blackstone & Co., Ltd.). 

takes two swathes at a time, and it will be seen that the working 
part consists of a wheel or circle of prongs or tines, which revolves 
across the line of the swathe. Each prong in turn catches the 
edge of the swathe of grass and kicks it up and over, thus turning 
it and leaving it loose for the wind to blow through. 

The " kicker " is mounted on two wheels, and cairies in 
bearings at the rear of the frame a multiple-cranked shaft, 
provided with a series of forks sleeved on the cranks and having 
their upper ends connected by links to the frame. As the crank- 
shaft is driven from the wheels by proper gearing the forks move 

upward and forward, then downward and rearward, in an 
elliptical path, and kick the hay sharply to the rear, thus scatter- 
ing and turning it. 

It is a moot point, however, whether grass should be turned 
at all, or left to " make " as it falls from the mowing machine. In 
a dry sunny season and with a moderate crop it is only a waste 
of time and labour to turn it, for it will be cured quite well as it 
lies, especially if raked up into loose " windrows " a little before 
carrying to the stack. On the other hand, where the crop is heavy 
(say over 2 tons per acre) or the climate is wet, turning will be 

With heavy crops of clover, lucerne and similar forage crops, 
turning may be an absolute necessity, because a thick swathe of 
a succulent crop will be difficult to dry or " make " excepting in 
hot sunny weather, but with ordinary meadow grass or with a 
mixture of " artificial " grasses it may often be dispensed with. 
It must be remembered, however, that the process of turning 
breaks the stalks (thus letting out the albuminoid and saccharine 
juices), and should be avoided as far as possible in order to save 
both labour and the quality of the hay. 

One of the earlier mechanical inventions in connexion with hay- 
making was that of the horse rake (fig. 4). Before its introduction 
the hay, after making, had to be gathered up by the hand rake — 
a tedious and laborious process — but the introduction of this imple- 
ment, whereby one horse and one man can do work before requiring 
six or eight men, marked a great advance. The horse rake is a 
framework on two wheels carrying hinged steel teeth placed 3 in. 
apart, so that their points slide along the ground below the hay. 
In work it gathers up the loose hay, and when full a tipping mechan- 
ism permits the emptying of the load. 

The tipping is effected by pulling down a handle which sets a 
leverage device in motion, whereby the teeth are lifted up and the 
load of hay dropped below and left behind. On some rakes a 

Fig. 4. — Self-acting Horse Rake. (Ransomes, Sims 
& Jefferies, Ltd.). 

clutch is worked by the driver's foot, and this put in action causes 
the ordinary forward revolving motion of the driving wheels to do 
the tipping. 

The loads are tipped end to end as the rake passes and repasses 
at the work, and thus the hay is left loose in long parallel rows on 
the field. Each row is termed a " windrow," the passage of the wind 
through the hay greatly aiding the drying and " making " thereof. 
When hay is in this form it may either be carried direct to the stack 
if sufficiently " made," or else put into cocks to season a little longer. 
The original width of horse rakes was about 8 ft., but nowadays 
they range up to 16 and 18 ft. The width should be suited to that 
of the swathes as left by the mower, and as the latter is now made 
to cut 5 and 6 ft. wide, it is necessary to have a rake to cover two 
widths. The very wide rakes are only suitable for even, level land ; 
those of less width must be used where the land has been laid down 
in ridge and furrow. As the swathes lie in long parallel rows, it is a 
great convenience in working for two to be taken in width at a time, 
so that the horse can walk in the space between. 

The side-delivery rake, a development of the ordinary horse rake, 
is a useful implement, adapted for gathering and laying a quantity 
of hay in one continuous windrow. It is customary with this to 
go up the field throwing two swathes to one side, and then back 
down on the adjacent swathes, so that thus four are thrown into one 
central windrow. The implement consists of a frame carried on two 
wheels with shafts for a horse ; across the frame are fixed travelling 
or revolving prongs of different varieties which pick up the hay off 
the ground and pass it along sideways across the line of travel, 
leaving it in one continuous line. Some makes of swathe-turners 
are designed to do this work as well as the turning of the hay. 

Perhaps the greatest improvement of modern times is the method 




of carrying the hay from the field to the stack. An American in- 
vention known as the sweep rake was introduced by the writer into 
England in 1894, and now in many modified forms is in very general 
use in the Midlands and south of England, where the hay is carried 
from the cock, windrow or swathe straight to the stack. This 
implement consists of a wheeled framework fitted with long wooden 
iron-pointed teeth which slide along the ground; two horses are 
yoked to it — one at each side — the driver directing from a central 
seat behind the framework. When in use it is taken to the farther 
end of a row of cocks, a windrow, or even to a row of untouched 
swathes on the ground, and walked forward. As it advances it 
scoops up a load, and when full is drawn to where the stack is being 
erected (fig. 5). In ordinary circumstances the sweep rake will 

Fig. 5. — Sweep Rake. 

pick up at a load two-thirds of an ordinary cart-load, but, where 
the hay is in good order and it is swept down hill, a whole one-horse 
cart-load can be carried each time. The drier the hay the better 
will the sweep rake work, and if it is not working sweetly but has a 
tendency to clog or make rolls of hay, it may be inferred that the 
latter is not in a condition fit for stacking. Where the loads must 
be taken through a gateway or a long distance to the stack, it is 
necessary to use carts or wagons, and the loading of these in the field 
out of the windrow is largely expedited by the use of the " loader," 
also an American invention of which many varieties are in the market. 
Generally speaking, it consists of a frame carrying a revolving web 
with tines or prongs. The implement is hitched on behind a cart 
or wagon, and as it moves forward the web picks the loose hay off 
the ground and delivers it on the top, where a man levels it with a 
pitchfork and builds it into a load ready to move to the stack. 
At the stack the most convenient method of transferring the hay 
from a cart, wagon or sweep rake is the elevator, a tall structure 
with a revolving web carrying teeth or spikes (fig. 6). The hay is 
thrown in forkfuls on at the bottom, a pony-gear causes the web to 
revolve, and the hay is carried in an almost continuous stream up the 
elevator and dropped over the top on to the stack. The whole imple- 
ment is made to fold down, and is provided with wheels so that it 
can be moved from stack to stack. In the older forms there is a 
" hopper " or box at the bottom into which the hay is thrown to 
enable the teeth of the web to catch it, but in the modern forms 
there is no hopper, the web reaching down to the ground so that hay 
can be picked up from the ground level. Where the hay is brought 
to the stack on carts or wagons it can be unloaded by means of the 
horse fork. This is an adaptation of the principle of the ordinary 
crane; a central pole and jib are supported by guy ropes, and from 
the end of the jib a rope runs over a pulley. At the end of this 
rope is a " fork " formed of two sets of prongs which open and shut. 
This is lowered on to the load of hay, the prongs are forced into it, 
a horse pulls at the other end of the rope, and the prongs close and 
" grab " several cwt. of hay which are swung up and dropped on the 
stack. In this way a large cart or wagon load is hoisted on to the 
stack in three or four " forkfuls." The horse fork is not suited 
for use with the sweep rake, however, because the hay is brought 
up to the stack in a loose flat heap without sufficient body for the 
fork to get hold of. 

In northern and wet districts of England it is customary to 
" make " the hay as in the south, but it is then built up into 
little stacks in the field where it grew (ricks, pykes or tramp- 
cocks are names used for these in different districts), each con- 
taining about 10 to 15 cwt. These are made in the same 
way as the ordinary stack— one person on top building, another 
on the grouud pitching up the hay— and are carefully roped and 
raked down. In these the hay gets a preliminary sweating or 
tempering while at the same time it is rendered safe from the 
weather, and, thus stored, it may remain for weeks before being 

carried to the big stacks at the homestead. The practice of 
putting up the hay into little ricks in the field has brought about 
the introduction of another set of implements for carrying these 
to the stackyard. 

Various forms of rick-lifters are in use, the characteristic feature 
of which is a tipping platform on wheels to which a horse is attached 
between shafts. The vehicle is backed against a rick, and a chain 
passed round the bottom of the latter, which is then pulled up the 
slant of the tipped platform by means of a small windlass. When 
the centre of the balance is passed, the platform carrying the rick 
tips back to the level, and the whole is thus loaded ready to move 
Another variety of loader is formed of three shear-legs with block 
and tackle. These are placed over a rick, under which the grab- 
irons are passed, and the whole hauled up by a horse. When high 
enough a cart is backed in below, the rick lowered, and the load is 
ready to carry away. 

When put into a stack the next stage in curing the hay begins— 
the heating or sweating. In the growing plants the tissues are 
composed of living cells containing protoplasm. This continues 
its life action as long as it gets sufficient moisture and air. As 
life action involves the development of heat, the temperature in 
a confined space like a stack where the heat is not dissipated may 
rise to such a point that spontaneous combustion occurs. The 
chemical or physical reasons for this are not very well under- 
stood. The starch and sugar contents of the tissues are changed 
in part into alcohol. In the analogous process of making silage 
(i.e. stacking wet green grass in a closed building) the alcohol 
develops into acetic acid, thus making " sour " silage. In a hay- 
stack the intermediate body, acetaldehyde, which is both inflam- 
mable and suffocating, is produced— men having been suffocated 
when sleeping on the top of a heating stack. The production of 
this gas leads to slow combustion and ignition. One explanation 
of the process is that the protoplasm of the cells acts as a ferment- 
ing agent (like yeast) until a temperature sufficient to kill germ 
life, say 150° F., is reached, beyond which the action which leads 
up to the temperature of ignition must be purely chemical. If 
the stack contains no air at all it does not heat, or if it has excess 

Fig. 6.— Hay Elevator. (Maldon Iron Works Co.). 

of air it is safe. The danger-point in a stack is the centre at 
about 6 ft. from the ground; below this the weight of the hay 
itself squeezes out the air, ana at the sides and top the heat is 
dissipated outwaids. If a stack shows signs of overheating 
(a process that may take weeks or even months to develop) it 
can be saved by cutting a gap in the side of it with the hay knife, 
thus letting out the heat and fumes, and admitting fresh air to 
the centre. The essential point in haymaking is that the hay 
should be dried sufficiently to ensure the sweating process in the 
stack reaching no further than the stage of the formation of 



sugar. Good hay should come out green and with the odour of 
coumarin — to which is due the scent of new-mown hay. Only 
part of a stack can ever attain to a perfect state: the tops, 
bottom and outsides are generally wasted by the weather after 
stacking, while there may be three or four intermediate qualities 
present. In some markets hay that has been sweated till it is 
brown in colour is desired, but for general purposes green hay is 
the best. 

Hay often becomes musty when the weather during " making " 
has been too wet to allow of its getting sufficiently dry for stack- 
ing. Mustiness is caused by the growth of various moulds 
(Penicillium, Aspergillus, &c.) on the damp stems, with the 
result that the hay when cut out for use is dusty and shows 
white streaks and spots. Such hay is inferior to that which 
has been overheated, and in practice it is found that a strong 
heating will prevent mouldiness by killing the fungi. 

Heavy lush crops — especially those containing a large propor- 
tion of clover or other leguminous plants — are proportionately 
more difficult to " make " than light grassy ones. Thus, if one 
ton is taken as a fair yield off one acre, a two-ton crop will 
probably require four times as much work in curing as the 
smaller crop. In the treacherous climate of Great Britain hay 
is frequently spoiled because the weather does not hold good long 
enough to permit of its being properly " made." Consequently 
many experienced haymakers regard a moderate crop as the 
more profitable because it can be stacked in first-class condition, 
whereas a heavy crop forced by " high farming " is grown at a 
loss, owing to the weather waste and the heavier expenses in- 
volved in securing it. 

In handling or marketing out of the stack hay may be transported 
loose on a cart or wagon, but it is more usual to truss or bale it. 
A truss is a rectangular block cut out of the solid stack, usually 
about 3 ft. long and 2 ft. wide, and of a thickness sufficient to give a 
weight of 56 lb : thirty-six of these constitute a " load " of 18 cwt. — 
the unit of sale in many markets. A truss is generally bound with 
two bands of twisted straw, but if it has to undergo much handling 
it is compressed in a hay-press and tied with two string bands. 
In some districts a baler is used : a square box with a compressible 
lid. The hay is tumbled in loose, the lid forced down by a leverage 
arrangement and the bale tied by three .strings. It is usually made 
to weigh from 1 to 1 \ cwt. The customs of different markets vary 
very much in their methods of handling hay, and in the overseas 
hay trade the size and style of the trusses or bales are adapted for 
packing on ship-board. 

HAYASHI, TADASU, Count (1850- ), Japanese states- 
man, was born in Tokyo (then Yedo), and was one of the first 
batch of students sent by the Tokugawa government to study 
in England. He returned on the eve of the abolition of the 
Shogunale, and followed Enomoto (q.v.) when the latter, sailing 
with the Tokugawa fleet to Yezo, attempted to establish a 
republic there in defiance of the newly organized government of 
the emperor. Thrown into prison on account of this affair, 
Hayashi did not obtain office until 187 1. Thereafter he rose 
rapidly, until, after a long period of service as vice-minister of 
foreign affairs, he was appointed to represent his country first 
in Peking, then in St Petersburg and finally in London, where 
he acted an important part in negotiating the first Anglo- 
Japanese Alliance, for which service he received the title of 
viscount. He remained in London throughout the Russo- 
Japanese War, and was the first Japanese ambassador at the 
court of St James after the war. Returning to Tokyo in 1906 
to take the portfolio of foreign affairs, he remained in office 
until the resignation of the Saionji cabinet in 1908. He was raised 
to the rank of count for eminent services performed during the 
war between his country and Russia, and in connexion with 
the second Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1905. 

geologist, was born at Westfield, Massachusetts, on the 7th of 
September 1829. He graduated from Oberlin College in 1850 and 
from the Albany Medical College in 1853, where he attracted 
the notice of Professor James Hall, state geologist of New York, 
through whose influence he was induced to join in an exploration 
of Nebraska. In 1856 he was engaged under the United States 
government, and commenced a series of investig